Displaying all 15 publications

  1. Wong SK, Supramaniam J, Wong TW, Soottitantawat A, Ruktanonchai UR, Tey BT, et al.
    Carbohydr Res, 2021 Jun;504:108336.
    PMID: 33964507 DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2021.108336
    The development of hybrid polysaccharide-protein complexes as Pickering emulsion stabilizers has attracted increasing research interest in recent years. This work presents an eco-friendly surface modification strategy to functionalize hydrophilic cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) using hydrophobic soy protein isolate (SPI) via mussel adhesive-inspired poly (l-dopa) (PLD) to develop improved nanoconjugates as stabilizers for oil-in-water Pickering emulsion. The physicochemical properties of the CNC-PLD-SPI nanoconjugate were evaluated by solid-state 13C NMR, FT-IR, TGA, XRD, contact angle analysis, and TEM. The modified CNC (conjugation content of 38.22 ± 1.21%) had lowered crystallinity index, higher thermal stability, and more hydrophobic than unmodified CNC, with an average particle size of 309.9 ± 8.0 nm. Use of amphiphilic CNC-PLD-SPI nanoconjugate with greater conformational flexibility as Pickering stabilizer produced oil-in-water emulsions with greater physical stability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoconjugates
  2. Rajendran K, Anwar A, Khan NA, Siddiqui R
    ACS Chem Neurosci, 2017 12 20;8(12):2626-2630.
    PMID: 29206032 DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.7b00430
    The overall aim of this study was to determine whether conjugation with silver nanoparticles enhances effects of available drugs against primary amoebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri. Amphotericin B, Nystatin, and Fluconazole were conjugated with silver nanoparticles, and synthesis was confirmed using UV-visible spectrophotometry. Atomic force microscopy determined their size in range of 20-100 nm. To determine amoebicidal effects, N. fowleri were incubated with drugs-conjugated silver nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles alone, and drugs alone. The findings revealed that silver nanoparticles conjugation significantly enhanced antiamoebic effects of Nystatin and Amphotericin B but not Fluconazole at micromolar concentrations, compared with the drugs alone. For the first time, our findings showed that silver nanoparticle conjugation enhances efficacy of antiamoebic drugs against N. fowleri. Given the rarity of the disease and challenges in developing new drugs, it is hoped that modifying existing drugs to enhance their antiamoebic effects is a useful avenue that holds promise in improving the treatment of brain-eating amoebae infection due to N. fowleri.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoconjugates/administration & dosage*; Nanoconjugates/ultrastructure; Nanoconjugates/chemistry*
  3. Ahmed S, Kreft A, Chowdhury EH, Hossain SM, Galle PR, Neumann H
    PLoS One, 2020;15(10):e0239814.
    PMID: 33002048 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0239814
    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Despite major technical advancements, endoscopic surveillance for detecting premalignant lesions in Barrett's esophagus is challenging because of their flat appearance with only subtle morphological changes. Molecular endoscopic imaging (MEI) using nanoparticles (NPs), coupled with fluorescently labeled antibody permits visualization of disease-specific molecular alterations. The aim of this ex vivo study was to assess the diagnostic applicability of MEI with NPs to detect Barrett's metaplasia.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seven patients undergoing endoscopic surveillance of known Barrett's esophagus were recruited. Freshly resected biopsy specimens were incubated with NPs coupled with FITC labeled Muc-2 antibodies and examined with MEI. Fluorescence intensity from Barrett's mucosa and control specimens were compared, followed by histological confirmation.

    RESULTS: Fluorescence signals, indicating the presence of goblet cells, were noted for traditional MEI using Muc-2 antibodies in Barrett's intestinal metaplasia. Significantly stronger fluorescence signals were achieved with NPs coupled with FITC-conjugated Muc-2 antibodies. The results of MEI with NPs for the prediction of Barrett's metaplasia correlated with the final histopathological examination in all the cases.

    CONCLUSIONS: Highly-specific NPs detected Barrett's metaplasia more efficiently than conventional MEI in this first feasibility study. MEI was as effective as standard histopathology for identifying Muc-2 containing goblet cells for diagnosis of Barrett's metaplasia. (DRKS-ID: DRKS00017747).

    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoconjugates/chemistry*
  4. Kiew LV, Cheah HY, Voon SH, Gallon E, Movellan J, Ng KH, et al.
    Nanomedicine, 2017 05;13(4):1447-1458.
    PMID: 28214608 DOI: 10.1016/j.nano.2017.02.002
    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), the low absorptivity of photosensitizers in an aqueous environment reduces singlet oxygen generation efficiency and thereby decreases photosensitizing efficacy in biological conditions. To circumvent this problem, we designed a phthalocyanine-poly-L-glutamic acid conjugate (1-PG) made from a new phthalocyanine (Pc 1) monofunctionalized to allow adequate conjugation to PGA. The resulting 1-PG conjugate retained high absorptivity in the near-infrared (NIR) region at its λmax675nm in an aqueous environment. The 1-PG conjugate demonstrated good singlet oxygen generation efficiency, increased uptake by 4 T1 breast cancer cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and enhanced photocytotoxic efficacy. The conjugate also displayed a high light-dark toxicity ratio, approximately 1.5-fold greater than zinc phthalocyanine at higher concentration (10 μM), an important feature for the reduction of dark toxicity and unwanted side effects. These results suggest that the 1-PG conjugate could be a useful alternative for deep tissue treatment with enhanced anti-cancer (PDT) efficacy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoconjugates/chemistry*
  5. Kura AU, Ain NM, Hussein MZ, Fakurazi S, Hussein-Al-Ali SH
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(4):5916-27.
    PMID: 24722565 DOI: 10.3390/ijms15045916
    Layered hydroxide nanoparticles are generally biocompatible, and less toxic than most inorganic nanoparticles, making them an acceptable alternative drug delivery system. Due to growing concern over animal welfare and the expense of in vivo experiments both the public and the government are interested to find alternatives to animal testing. The toxicity potential of zinc aluminum layered hydroxide (ZAL) nanocomposite containing anti-Parkinsonian agent may be determined using a PC 12 cell model. ZAL nanocomposite demonstrated a decreased cytotoxic effect when compared to levodopa on PC12 cells with more than 80% cell viability at 100 µg/mL compared to less than 20% cell viability in a direct levodopa exposure. Neither levodopa-loaded nanocomposite nor the un-intercalated nanocomposite disturbed the cytoskeletal structure of the neurogenic cells at their IC50 concentration. Levodopa metabolite (HVA) released from the nanocomposite demonstrated the slow sustained and controlled release character of layered hydroxide nanoparticles unlike the burst uptake and release system shown with pure levodopa treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoconjugates/adverse effects; Nanoconjugates/therapeutic use
  6. Anwar A, Ting ELS, Anwar A, Ain NU, Faizi S, Shah MR, et al.
    AMB Express, 2020 Feb 03;10(1):24.
    PMID: 32016777 DOI: 10.1186/s13568-020-0960-9
    Acanthamoeba spp. are the causative agent of Acanthamoeba keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE). The current options to treat Acanthamoeba infections have limited success. Silver nanoparticles show antimicrobial effects and enhance the efficacy of their payload at the specific biological targets. Natural folk plants have been widely used for treating diseases as the phytochemicals from several plants have been shown to exhibit amoebicidal effects. Herein, we used natural products of plant or commercial sources including quercetin (QT), kolavenic acid (PGEA) isolated from plant extracts of Polyalthia longifolia var pendula and crude plant methanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (CPFLM) as antiacanthamoebic agents. Furthermore, these plant-based materials were conjugated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to determine the effects of the natural compounds and their nanoconjugates against a clinical isolate of A. castellanii from a keratitis patient (ATCC 50492) belonging to the T4 genotype. The compounds were conjugated with AgNPs and characterized by using ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry and atomic force microscopy. Quercetin coated silver nanoparticles (QT-AgNPs) showed characteristic surface plasmon resonance band at 443 nm and the average size distribution was found to be around 45 nm. The natural compounds alone and their nanoconjugates were tested for the viability of amoebae, encystation and excystation activity against A. castellanii. The natural compounds showed significant growth inhibition of A. castellanii while QT-AgNPs specifically exhibited enhanced antiamoebic effects as well as interrupted the encystation and excystation activity of the amoebae. Interestingly, these compounds and nanoconjugates did not exhibit in vitro cytotoxic effects against human cells. Plant-based compounds and extracts could be an interesting strategy in development of alternative therapeutics against Acanthamoeba infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoconjugates
  7. Anwar A, Siddiqui R, Raza Shah M, Khan NA
    J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2019 May 28;29(5):713-720.
    PMID: 31030451 DOI: 10.4014/jmb/1903.03009
    Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype may cause a fatal brain infection known as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, and the vision-threatening eye infection Acanthamoeba keratitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiamoebic effects of three clinically available antidiabetic drugs, Glimepiride, Vildagliptin and Repaglinide, against A. castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. Furthermore, we attempted to conjugate these drugs with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to enhance their antiamoebic effects. Amoebicidal, encystation, excystation, and host cell cytotoxicity assays were performed to unravel any antiacanthamoebic effects. Vildagliptin conjugated silver nanoparticles (Vgt-AgNPs) characterized by spectroscopic techniques and atomic force microscopy were synthesized. All three drugs showed antiamoebic effects against A. castellanii and significantly blocked the encystation. These drugs also showed significant cysticidal effects and reduced host cell cytotoxicity caused by A. castellanii. Moreover, Vildagliptin-coated silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and are shown to enhance its antiacanthamoebic potency at significantly reduced concentration. The repurposed application of the tested antidiabetic drugs and their nanoparticles against free-living amoeba such as Acanthamoeba castellanii described here is a novel outcome that holds tremendous potential for future applications against devastating infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoconjugates/chemistry*
  8. Krishnan P, Rajan M, Kumari S, Sakinah S, Priya SP, Amira F, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 09 08;7(1):10962.
    PMID: 28887536 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-09140-1
    Camptothecin (CPT) is an anti-cancer drug that effectively treats various cancers, including colon cancer. However, poor solubility and other drawbacks have restricted its chemotherapeutic potential. To overcome these restrictions, CPT was encapsulated in CEF (cyclodextrin-EDTA-FE3O4), a composite nanoparticle of magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4), and β-cyclodextrin was cross-linked with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). This formulation improved CPT's solubility and bioavailability for cancer cells. The use of magnetically responsive anti-cancer formulation is highly advantageous in cancer chemotherapy. The chemical characterisation of CPT-CEF was studied here. The ability of this nano-compound to induce apoptosis in HT29 colon cancer cells and A549 lung cancer cells was evaluated. The dose-dependent cytotoxicity of CPT-CEF was shown using MTT. Propidium iodide and Annexin V staining, mitochondrial membrane depolarisation (JC-1 dye), and caspase-3 activity were assayed to detect apoptosis in CPT-CEF-treated cancer cells. Cell cycle analysis also showed G1 phase arrest, which indicated possible synergistic effects of the nano-carrier. These study results show that CPT-CEF causes a dose-dependent cell viability reduction in HT29 and A549 cells and induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via caspase-3 activation. These data strongly suggest that CPT could be used as a major nanocarrier for CPT to effectively treat colon cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoconjugates/chemistry*
  9. Azman AR, Mahat NA, Abdul Wahab R, Abdul Razak FI, Hamzah HH
    Int J Mol Sci, 2018 May 25;19(6).
    PMID: 29799469 DOI: 10.3390/ijms19061576
    Waterways are popular locations for the disposition of criminal evidence because the recovery of latent fingerprints from such evidence is difficult. Currently, small particle reagent is a method often used to visualize latent fingerprints containing carcinogenic and hazardous compounds. This study proposes an eco-friendly, safranin-tinted Candida rugosa lipase (triacylglycerol ester hydrolysis EC with functionalized carbon nanotubes (CRL-MWCNTS/GA/SAF) as an alternative reagent to the small particle reagent. The CRL-MWCNTS/GA/SAF reagent was compared with the small particle reagent to visualize groomed, full fingerprints deposited on stainless steel knives which were immersed in a natural outdoor pond for 30 days. The quality of visualized fingerprints using the new reagent was similar (modified-Centre for Applied Science and Technology grade: 4; p > 0.05) to small particle reagent, even after 15 days of immersion. Despite the slight decrease in quality of visualized fingerprints using the CRL-MWCNTS/GA/SAF on the last three immersion periods, the fingerprints remained forensically identifiable (modified-Centre for Applied Science and Technology grade: 3). The possible chemical interactions that enabled successful visualization is also discussed. Thus, this novel reagent may provide a relatively greener alternative for the visualization of latent fingerprints on immersed non-porous objects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoconjugates/chemistry*
  10. Anwar A, Mungroo MR, Anwar A, Sullivan WJ, Khan NA, Siddiqui R
    ACS Infect Dis, 2019 Dec 13;5(12):2039-2046.
    PMID: 31612700 DOI: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.9b00263
    Brain-eating amoebae cause devastating infections in the central nervous system of humans, resulting in a mortality rate of 95%. There are limited effective therapeutic options available clinically for treating granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and primary amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba castellanii (A. castellanii) and Naegleria fowleri (N. fowleri), respectively. Here, we report for the first time that guanabenz conjugated to gold and silver nanoparticles has significant antiamoebic activity against both A. castellanii and N. fowleri. Gold and silver conjugated guanabenz nanoparticles were synthesized by the one-phase reduction method and were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and atomic force microscopy. Both metals were facilely stabilized by the coating of guanabenz, which was examined by surface plasmon resonance determination. The average size of gold nanoconjugated guanabenz was found to be 60 nm, whereas silver nanoparticles were produced in a larger size distribution with the average diameter of around 100 nm. Guanabenz and its noble metal nanoconjugates exhibited potent antiamoebic effects in the range of 2.5 to 100 μM against both amoebae. Nanoparticle conjugation enhanced the antiamoebic effects of guanabenz, as more potent activity was observed at a lower effective concentration (2.5 and 5 μM) compared to the drug alone. Moreover, encystation and excystation assays revealed that guanabenz inhibits the interconversion between the trophozoite and cyst forms of A. castellanii. Cysticdal effects against N. fowleri were also observed. Notably, pretreatment of A. castellanii with guanabenz and its nanoconjugates exhibited a significant reduction in the host cell cytopathogenicity from 65% to 38% and 2% in case of gold and silver nanoconjugates, respectively. Moreover, the cytotoxic evaluation of guanabenz and its nanoconjugates revealed negligible cytotoxicity against human cells. Guanabenz is already approved for hypertension and crosses the blood-brain barrier; the results of our current study suggest that guanabenz and its conjugated gold and silver nanoparticles can be repurposed as a potential drug for treating brain-eating amoebic infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoconjugates/chemistry
  11. Rajendran K, Anwar A, Khan NA, Aslam Z, Raza Shah M, Siddiqui R
    ACS Chem Neurosci, 2020 08 19;11(16):2431-2437.
    PMID: 31347828 DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00289
    Naegleria fowleri (N. fowleri) causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) which almost always results in death. N. fowleri is also known as "brain-eating amoeba" due to its literal infestation of the brain leading to an inflammatory response in the brain tissues. Currently, there is no single drug that is available to treat PAM, and most treatments are combinations of antifungal, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory drugs. Recently nanotechnology has gained attention in chemotherapeutic research converging on drug delivery, while oleic acid (OA) has shown positive effects on the human immune system and inflammatory processes. In continuation of our recent research in which we reported the effects of oleic acid conjugated with silver nanoparticles (OA-AgNPs) against free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii, in this report, we show their antiamoebic effects against N. fowleri. OA alone and its nanoconjugates were tested against the amoeba by using amoebicidal and host cell cytopathogenicity assays. Trypan blue exclusion assay was used to determine cell viability. The results revealed that OA-AgNPs exhibited significantly enhanced antiamoebic effects (P < 0.05) against N. fowleri as compared to OA alone. Evidently, lactate dehydrogenase release shows reduced N. fowleri-mediated host cell cytotoxicity. Based on our study, we anticipate that further studies on OA-AgNPs could potentially provide an alternative treatment of PAM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoconjugates
  12. Amjad MW, Amin MC, Katas H, Butt AM, Kesharwani P, Iyer AK
    Mol Pharm, 2015 Dec 7;12(12):4247-58.
    PMID: 26567518 DOI: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.5b00827
    Multidrug resistance poses a great challenge to cancer treatment. In order to improve the targeting and codelivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and doxorubicin, and to overcome multidrug resistance, we conjugated a cholic acid-polyethylenimine polymer with folic acid, forming CA-PEI-FA micelles. CA-PEI-FA exhibited a low critical micelle concentration (80 μM), small average particle size (150 nm), and positive zeta potential (+ 12 mV). They showed high entrapment efficiency for doxorubicin (61.2 ± 1.7%, w/w), forming D-CA-PEI-FA, and for siRNA, forming D-CA-PEI-FA-S. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of external FA on D-CA-PEI-FA micelles. About 25% doxorubicin was released within 24 h at pH 7.4, while more than 30% release was observed at pH 5. The presence of FA enhanced micelle antitumor activity. The D-CA-PEI-FA and D-CA-PEI-FA-S micelles inhibited tumor growth in vivo. No significant differences between their in vitro cytotoxic activities or their in vivo antitumor effects were observed, indicating that the siRNA coloading did not significantly increase the antitumor activity. Histological analysis revealed that tumor tissues from mice treated with D-CA-PEI-FA or D-CA-PEI-FA-S showed the lowest cancer cell density and the highest levels of apoptosis and necrosis. Similarly, the livers of these mice exhibited the lowest level of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase among all treated groups. The lowest serum vascular endothelial growth factor level (VEGF) (24.4 pg/mL) was observed in mice treated with D-CA-PEI-FA-S micelles using siRNA targeting VEGF. These findings indicated that the developed CA-PEI-FA nanoconjugate has the potential to achieve targeted codelivery of drugs and siRNA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoconjugates
  13. Cheah HY, Gallon E, Dumoulin F, Hoe SZ, Japundžić-Žigon N, Glumac S, et al.
    Mol Pharm, 2018 07 02;15(7):2594-2605.
    PMID: 29763568 DOI: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.8b00132
    We previously developed a new zinc(II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc) derivative (Pc 1) conjugated to poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA) (1-PG) to address the limitations of ZnPc as part of an antitumor photodynamic therapy approach, which include hydrophobicity, phototoxicity, and nonselectivity in biodistribution and tumor targeting. During this study, we discovered that 1-PG possessed high near-infrared (NIR) light absorptivity (λmax = 675 nm), good singlet oxygen generation efficiency in an aqueous environment, and enhanced photocytotoxic efficacy and cancer cell uptake in vitro. In the current study, we discovered that 1-PG accumulated in 4T1 mouse mammary tumors, with a retention time of up to 48 h. Furthermore, as part of an antitumor PDT, low dose 1-PG (2 mg of Pc 1 equivalent/kg) induced a greater tumor volume reduction (-74 ± 5%) when compared to high dose ZnPc (8 mg/kg, -50 ± 12%). At higher treatment doses (8 mg of Pc 1 equivalent/kg), 1-PG reduced tumor volume maximally (-91 ± 6%) and suppressed tumor size to a minimal level for up to 15 days. The kidney, liver, and lungs of the mice treated with 1-PG (both low and high doses) were free from 4T1 tumor metastasis at the end of the study. Telemetry-spectral-echocardiography studies also revealed that PGA (65 mg/kg) produced insignificant changes to the cardiovascular physiology of Wistar-Kyoto rats when administered in vivo. Results indicate that PGA displays an excellent cardiovascular safety profile, underlining its suitability for application as a nanodrug carrier in vivo. These current findings indicate the potential of 1-PG as a useful photosensitizer candidate for clinical PDT.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoconjugates/chemistry*
  14. Anwar A, Rajendran K, Siddiqui R, Raza Shah M, Khan NA
    ACS Chem Neurosci, 2019 01 16;10(1):658-666.
    PMID: 30346711 DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00484
    Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by free-living amoebae such as Acanthamoeba species and Naegleria fowleri are rare but fatal. A major challenge in the treatment against the infections caused by these amoebae is the discovery of novel compounds that can effectively cross the blood-brain barrier to penetrate the CNS. It is logical to test clinically approved drugs against CNS diseases for their potential antiamoebic effects since they are known for effective blood-brain barrier penetration and affect eukaryotic cell targets. The antiamoebic effects of clinically available drugs for seizures targeting gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptor and ion channels were tested against Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype and N. fowleri. Three such drugs, namely, diazepam (Valium), phenobarbitone (Luminal), phenytoin (Dilantin), and their silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were evaluated against both trophozoites and cysts stage. Drugs alone and drug conjugated silver nanoparticles were tested for amoebicidal, cysticidal, and host-cell cytotoxicity assays. Nanoparticles were synthesized by sodium borohydride reduction of silver nitrate with drugs as capping agents. Drug conjugated nanoconjugates were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In vitro moebicidal assay showed potent amoebicidal effects for diazepam, phenobarbitone, and phenytoin-conjugated AgNPs as compared to drugs alone against A. castellanii and N. fowleri. Furthermore, both drugs and drug conjugated AgNPs showed compelling cysticidal effects. Drugs conjugations with silver nanoparticles enhanced their antiacanthamoebic activity. Interestingly, amoeba-mediated host-cell cytotoxicity was also significantly reduced by drugs alone as well as their nanoconjugates. Since, these drugs are being used to target CNS diseases, their evaluation against brain-eating amoebae seems feasible due to advantages such as permeability of the blood-brain barrier, established pharmacokinetics and dynamics, and United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. Given the limited availability of effective drugs against brain-eating amoebae, the clinically available drugs tested here present potential for further in vivo studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoconjugates
  15. Anwar A, Siddiqui R, Raza Shah M, Ahmed Khan N
    J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2019 Jan 28;29(1):171-177.
    PMID: 30415525 DOI: 10.4014/jmb.1805.05028
    Parasitic infections have remained a significant burden on human and animal health. In part, this is due to lack of clinically-approved, novel antimicrobials and a lack of interest by the pharmaceutical industry. An alternative approach is to modify existing clinically-approved drugs for efficient delivery formulations to ensure minimum inhibitory concentration is achieved at the target site. Nanotechnology offers the potential to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of drugs through modification of nanoparticles with ligands. Amphotericin B, nystatin, and fluconazole are clinically available drugs in the treatment of amoebal and fungal infections. These drugs were conjugated with gold nanoparticles. To characterize these gold-conjugated drug, atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were performed. These drugs and their gold nanoconjugates were examined for antimicrobial activity against the protist pathogen, Acanthamoeba castellanii of the T4 genotype. Moreover, host cell cytotoxicity assays were accomplished. Cytotoxicity of these drugs and drug-conjugated gold nanoparticles was also determined by lactate dehydrogenase assay. Gold nanoparticles conjugation resulted in enhanced bioactivity of all three drugs with amphotericin B producing the most significant effects against Acanthamoeba castellanii (p < 0.05). In contrast, bare gold nanoparticles did not exhibit antimicrobial potency. Furthermore, amoebae treated with drugs-conjugated gold nanoparticles showed reduced cytotoxicity against HeLa cells. In this report, we demonstrated the use of nanotechnology to modify existing clinically-approved drugs and enhance their efficacy against pathogenic amoebae. Given the lack of development of novel drugs, this is a viable approach in the treatment of neglected diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoconjugates
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