Tissue-engineered substitutes have shown great promise as a potential replacement for current tissue grafts to treat tendon/ligament injury. Herein, we have fabricated aligned polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin (GT) nanofibers and further evaluated their physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. PCL and GT were mixed at a ratio of 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, 0:100, and electrospun to generate aligned nanofibers. The PCL/GT nanofibers were assessed to determine the diameter, alignment, water contact angle, degradation, and surface chemical analysis. The effects on cells were evaluated through Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cell (WJ-MSC) viability, alignment and tenogenic differentiation. The PCL/GT nanofibers were aligned and had a mean fiber diameter within 200-800 nm. Increasing the GT concentration reduced the water contact angle of the nanofibers. GT nanofibers alone degraded fastest, observed only within 2 days. Chemical composition analysis confirmed the presence of PCL and GT in the nanofibers. The WJ-MSCs were aligned and remained viable after 7 days with the PCL/GT nanofibers. Additionally, the PCL/GT nanofibers supported tenogenic differentiation of WJ-MSCs. The fabricated PCL/GT nanofibers have a diameter that closely resembles the native tissue's collagen fibrils and have good biocompatibility. Thus, our study demonstrated the suitability of PCL/GT nanofibers for tendon/ligament tissue engineering applications.
The growths of oil and gas exploration and production activities have increased environmental problems, such as oil spillage and the resulting pollution. The study of the methods for cleaning up oil spills is a critical issue to protect the environment. Various techniques are available to contain oil spills, but they are typically time consuming, energy inefficient and create secondary pollution. The use of a sorbent, such as a nanofibre sorbent, is a technique for controlling oil spills because of its good physical and oil sorption properties. This review discusses about the application of nanofibre sorbent for oil removal from water and its current developments. With their unique physical and mechanical properties coupled with their very high surface area and small pore sizes, nanofibre sorbents are alternative materials for cleaning up oil spills.
This article describes chemically modified polyaniline and graphene (PANI/GP) composite nanofibers prepared by self-assembly process using oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer and graphene in the presence of a solution containing poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid) (PMVEA). Characterization of the composite nanofibers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images revealed the size of the PANI nanofibers ranged from 90 to 360 nm in diameter and was greatly influenced by the proportion of PMVEA and graphene. The composite nanofibers with an immobilized DNA probe were used for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by using an electrochemical technique. A photochemical indicator, methylene blue (MB) was used to monitor the hybridization of target DNA by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method. The detection range of DNA biosensor was obtained from of 10-6-10-9 M with the detection limit of 7.853 × 10-7 M under optimum conditions. The results show that the composite nanofibers have a great potential in a range of applications for DNA sensors.
Residual palm oil that goes into the river untreated can become detrimental to the environment. Residual oil discharge during milling process into palm oil mill effluent (POME) is unavoidable. About 1 wt% of residual oil in POME causes major problems to the mills, in terms of environment, wastewater treatment and economy losses. This paper reports the recovery of residual oil from POME by adsorption on polypropylene micro/nanofiber (PP-MNF) and desorption of oil by hands pressing, and oil extraction from the PP-MNF using solvent and supercritical-CO2 extraction techniques. The characterization of the PP-MNF and the quality of oil extracted were analyzed using analytical instruments. The reusability of the PP-MNF was also investigated. The experimental results showed the adsorption capacity of the PP-MNF was 28.65 g of oil/g of PP-MNF on average using refined palm oil, whilst recovery of oil from POME was 10.93 g of oil/g of PP-MNF. The extraction yield of oil from PP-MNF using hand pressing was 89.62%. The extraction of residual oil from the pressed PP-MNF showed comparable yield between solvent and supercritical CO2 techniques. The quality of recovered oil was similar with the quality of the crude oil, and no trace of polypropylene contamination was detected in the oil recovered. The PP-MNF showed no significant physical change after the extraction process. In conclusion, the PP-MNF has great potential to be used commercially in residual oil recovery from POME.
Immobilisation of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) on nanofibres was demonstrated. CGTase solution (1% v/v) and PVA (8 wt%) solution were mixed followed by electrospinning (-9 kV, 3 h). CGTase/PVA nanofibres with an average diameter of 176 ± 46 nm were successfully produced. The nanofibres that consist of immobilised CGTase were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde vapour. A CGTase/PVA film made up from the same mixture and treated the same way was used as a control experiment. The immobilised CGTase on nanofibres showed superior performance with nearly a 2.5 fold higher enzyme loading and 31% higher enzyme activity in comparison with the film.
Nanobiocatalysis is a new frontier of emerging nanosized material support in enzyme immobilization application. This paper is about a comprehensive review on cellulose nanofibers (CNF), including their structure, surface modification, chemical coupling for enzyme immobilization, and potential applications. The CNF surface consists of mainly -OH functional group that can be directly interacted weakly with enzyme, and its binding can be improved by surface modification and interaction of chemical coupling that forms a strong and stable covalent immobilization of enzyme. The knowledge of covalent interaction for enzyme immobilization is important to provide more efficient interaction between CNF support and enzyme molecule. Enzyme immobilization onto CNF is having potential for improving enzymatic performance and production yield, as well as contributing toward green technology and sustainable sources.
Chitin is one of the most abundant natural polymers in world and it is used for the production of chitosan by deacetylation. Chitosan is antibacterial in nature, non-toxic, and biodegradable thus it can be used for the production of biodegradable film which is a green alternative to commercially available synthetic counterparts. However, their poor mechanical and thermal properties restricted its wide spread applications. Chitosan is highly compatible with other biopolymers thus its blending with cellulose and/or incorporation of nanofiber isolated from cellulose namely cellulose nanofiber and cellulose nanowhiskers are generally useful. Cellulosic fibers in nano scale are attractive reinforcement in chitosan to produce environmental friendly composite films with improved physical properties. Thus chitosan based composites have wide applicability and potential in the field of biomedical, packaging and water treatment. This review summarises properties and preparation procedure of chitosan-cellulose blends and nano size cellulose reinforcement in chitosan bionanocomposites for different applications.
The current study presents about the effect of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) filler on the thermal and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of epoxy composites as a function of temperature. In this study hand lay-up method was used to fabricate CNF reinforced Epoxy nanocomposites with CNF loading of 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1% into epoxy resin. The obtained thermal and DMA results illustrates that thermal stability, char content, storage modulus (E'), loss modulus (E") and glass transition temperature (Tg) increases for all CNF/epoxy nanocomposites compared to the pure epoxy. Thermal results revealed that 0.75% offers superior resistance or stability towards heat compared to its counterparts. In addition, 0.75% CNF/epoxy nanocomposites confers highest value of storage modulus as compared to 0.5% and 1% filler loading. Hence, it is concluded that 0.75% CNFs loading is the minimal to enhance both thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of the epoxy composites and can be utilized for advance material applications where thermal stability along with renewability are prime requirements.
Tissue engineering (TE) is an advanced principle to develop a neotissue that can resemble the original tissue characteristics with the capacity to grow, to repair and to remodel in vivo. This research proposed the optimization and development of nanofiber based scaffold using the new mixture of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) filled poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA)/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) for tissue engineering heart valve (TEHV). The chemical, structural, biological and mechanical properties of nanofiber based scaffold were characterized in terms of morphology, porosity, biocompatibility and mechanical behaviour. Two-level Taguchi experimental design (L8) was performed to optimize the electrospun mats in terms of elastic modulus using uniaxial tensile test where the studied parameters were flow rate, voltage, percentage of maghemite nanoparticles in the content, solution concentration and collector rotating speed. Each run was extended with an outer array to consider the noise factors. The signal-to-noise ratio analysis indicated the contribution percent as follow; Solution concentration>voltage>maghemite %>rotating speed>flow rate. The optimum elastic modulus founded to be 28.13±0.37MPa in such a way that the tensile strain was 31.72% which provided desirability for TEHV. An empirical model was extracted and verified using confirmation test. Furthermore, an ultrafine quality of electrospun nanofibers with 80.32% porosity was fabricated. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and cell attachment using human aortic smooth muscle cells exhibited desirable migration and proliferation over the electrospun mats. The interaction between blood content and the electrospun mats indicated a mutual adaption in terms of clotting time and hemolysis percent. Overall, the fabricated scaffold has the potential to provide the required properties of aortic heart valve.
Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991, a fundamental question still remained on how to control morphologically the synthesis of CNTs. This task has always been a challenge. In this paper, we report the results that we have published previously with the aim of sharing the possible controlled synthesis approach via this novel production method. Findings demonstrated that various CNTs could be synthesized by using specially developed supported catalysts from the catalytic decomposition of methane. These synthesized CNTs include carbon nanofibres, single-walled and multi-walled CNTs, Y-junction CNTs and CNTs with special morphologies. It was also revealed that catalyst composition and reaction parameters played an important role in controlling the morphology and type of CNTs formed. The synthesis of CNTs with various morphologies is important because this can enrich the nanostructures of the carbon family. This finding also provides useful data for better understanding of the parameters that govern the growth mechanism of CNTs which may be required in the near future for enhanced controlled synthesis of CNTs.
In this data article, we provide energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) spectra of the electrospun composite (SnO2-TiO2) nanowires with the elemental values measured in atomic and weight%. The linear sweep voltammetry data of composite and its component nanofibers are provided. The data collected in this article is directly related to our research article "Synergistic combination of electronic and electrical properties of SnO2 and TiO2 in a single SnO2-TiO2 composite nanowire for dye-sensitized solar cells" .
Ceramic nanofibers (NFs) have recently been developed for advanced applications due to their unique properties. In this article, we review developments in electrospun ceramic NFs with regard to their fabrication process, properties, and applications. We find that surface activity of electrospun ceramic NFs is improved by post pyrolysis, hydrothermal, and carbothermal processes. Also, when combined with another surface modification methods, electrospun ceramic NFs result in the advancement of properties and widening of the application domains. With the decrease in diameter and length of a fiber, many properties of fibrous materials are modified; characteristics of such ceramic NFs are different from their wide and long (bulk) counterparts. In this article, electrospun ceramic NFs are reviewed with an emphasis on their applications as catalysts, membranes, sensors, biomaterials, fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, energy harvesting systems, electric and magnetic parts, conductive wires, and wearable electronic textiles. Furthermore, properties of ceramic nanofibers, which enable the above applications, and techniques to characterize them are briefly outlined.
The rapid spread of COVID-19 has led to nationwide lockdowns in many countries. The COVID-19 pandemic has played serious havoc on economic activities throughout the world. Researchers are immensely curious about how to give the best protection to people before a vaccine becomes available. The coronavirus spreads principally through saliva droplets. Thus, it would be a great opportunity if the virus spread could be controlled at an early stage. The face mask can limit virus spread from both inside and outside the mask. This is the first study that has endeavoured to explore the design and fabrication of an antiviral face mask using licorice root extract, which has antimicrobial properties due to glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) and glycyrrhizin (GL). An electrospinning process was utilized to fabricate nanofibrous membrane and virus deactivation mechanisms discussed. The nanofiber mask material was characterized by SEM and airflow rate testing. SEM results indicated that the nanofibers from electrospinning are about 15-30 μm in diameter with random porosity and orientation which have the potential to capture and kill the virus. Theoretical estimation signifies that an 85 L/min rate of airflow through the face mask is possible which ensures good breathability over an extensive range of pressure drops and pore sizes. Finally, it can be concluded that licorice root membrane may be used to produce a biobased face mask to control COVID-19 spread.
In the present work, polyvinyl-alcohol/titanium dioxide (PVA/TiO2) nanofibers are utilized as a light scattering layer (LSL) on top of the TiO2 nanoparticles photoanode. The TiO2 nanoparticles decorated PVA/TiO2 nanofibers display a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.06%, which is 33% higher than TiO2 nanoparticles without LSL, demonstrating the incorporation of PVA/TiO2 nanofibers as LSL reduces the radiation loss and increases the excitation of the electron that leads to high PCE. The incorporation of PVA/TiO2 nanofibers as LSL also increases the electron life time and charge collection efficiency in comparison to the TiO2 nanoparticles without LSL.
Increasing incidences of chronic wounds urge the development of effective therapeutic wound treatment. As the conventional wound dressings are found not to comply with all the requirements of an ideal wound dressing, the development of alternative and effective dressings is demanded. Over the past few years, electrospun nanofiber has been recognized as a better system for wound dressing and hence has been studied extensively. Most of the electrospun nanofiber dressings were fabricated as single-layer structure mats. However, this design is less favorable for the effective healing of wounds mainly due to its burst release effect. To address this problem and to simulate the organized skin layer's structure and function, a multilayer structure of wound dressing had been proposed. This design enables a sustained release of the therapeutic agent(s), and more resembles the natural skin extracellular matrix. Multilayer structure is also referred to layer-by-layer (LbL), which has been established as an innovative method of drug incorporation and delivery, combines a high surface area of electrospun nanofibers with the multilayer structure mat. This review focuses on LbL multilayer electrospun nanofiber as a superior strategy in designing an optimal wound dressing.
Two different liquid assisted processing methods: internal melt-blending (IMB) and twin-screw extrusion (TWS) were performed to fabricate polyethylene (PE)/cellulose nanofiber (CNF) nanocomposites. The nanocomposites consisted maleic anhydride-grafted PE (PEgMA) as a compatibilizer, with PE/PEgMA/CNF ratio of 97/3/0.5-5 (wt./wt./wt.), respectively. Morphological analysis exhibited that CNF was well-dispersed in nanocomposites prepared by liquid-assisted TWS. Meanwhile, a randomly oriented and agglomerated CNF was observed in the nanocomposites prepared by liquid-assisted IMB. The nanocomposites obtained from liquid-assisted TWS exhibited the best mechanical properties at 3 wt.% CNF addition with an increment in flexural strength by almost 139%, higher than that of liquid-assisted IMB. Results from this study indicated that liquid feeding of CNF assisted the homogenous dispersion of CNF in PE matrix, and the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were affected by compounding method due to the CNF dispersion and alignment.
Cellulosic nanofibers (NFs) from kenaf bast were used to reinforce glycerol plasticized thermoplastic starch (TPS) matrices with varying contents (0-10wt%). The composites were prepared by casting/evaporation method. Raw fibers (RFs) reinforced TPS films were prepared with the same contents and conditions. The aim of study was to investigate the effects of filler dimension and loading on linear and non-linear mechanical performance of fabricated materials. Obtained results clearly demonstrated that the NF-reinforced composites had significantly greater mechanical performance than the RF-reinforced counterparts. This was attributed to the high aspect ratio and nano dimension of the reinforcing agents, as well as their compatibility with the TPS matrix, resulting in strong fiber/matrix interaction. Tensile strength and Young's modulus increased by 313% and 343%, respectively, with increasing NF content from 0 to 10wt%. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) revealed an elevational trend in the glass transition temperature of amylopectin-rich domains in composites. The most eminent record was +18.5°C shift in temperature position of the film reinforced with 8% NF. This finding implied efficient dispersion of nanofibers in the matrix and their ability to form a network and restrict mobility of the system.
Novel bio-based polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites composed of cellulose nanofiller extracted from the rachis of date palm tree and polycaprolactone (PCL) diol based PU were prepared by casting/evaporation. Two types of nanofiber were used: cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). The mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposite films were studied by DMA, DSC, and tensile tests and the morphology was investigated by SEM. Bionanocomposites presented good mechanical properties in comparison to neat PU. While comparing both nanofillers, the improvement in mechanical and thermal properties was more pronounced for the nanocomposites based on CNF which could be explained, not only by the higher aspect ratio of CNF, but also by their better dispersion in the PU matrix. Calculation of the solubility parameters of the nanofiller surface polymers and of the PU segments portend a better interfacial adhesion for CNF based nanocomposites compared to CNC.
Microalgae technology, if managed properly, has promising roles in solving food-water-energy nexus. The Achilles' heel is, however, to lower the costs associated with cultivation and harvesting. As a favorable technique, application of membrane process is strongly limited by membrane fouling. This study evaluates performance of nylon 6,6 nanofiber membrane (NFM) to a conventional polyvinylidene fluoride phase inverted membrane (PVDF PIM) for filtration of Chlorella vulgaris. Results show that nylon 6,6 NFM is superhydrophilic, has higher size of pore opening (0.22 vs 0.18 μm) and higher surface pore density (23 vs 18 pores/μm2) leading to higher permeance (1018 vs 493 L/m2hbar) and better fouling resistant. Such advantages help to outperform the filterability of PVDF PIM by showing much higher steady-state permeance (286 vs 120 L/m2hbar), with comparable biomass retention. In addition, unlike for PVDF PIM, imposing longer relaxation cycles further enhances the performance of the NFM (i.e., 178 L/m2hbar for 0.5 min and 236 L/m2hbar for 5 min). Overall findings confirm the advantages of nylon 6,6 NFM over the PVDF PIM. Such advantages can help to reduce required membrane area and specific aeration demand by enabling higher flux and lowering aeration rate. Nevertheless, developments of nylon 6,6 NFM material with respect to its intrinsic properties, mechanical strength and operational conditions of the panel can still be explored to enhance its competitiveness as a promising fouling resistant membrane material for microalgae filtration.
Present study, deals about isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) from the Northern Bleached Softwood Kraft (NBSK) pulp, fabrication by hand lay-up technique and characterization of fabricated epoxy nanocomposites at different filler loadings (0.5%, 0.75%, 1% by wt.). The effect of CNFs loading on mechanical (tensile, impact and flexural), morphological (scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope) and structural (XRD and FTIR) properties of epoxy composites were investigated. FTIR analysis confirms the introduction of CNFs into the epoxy matrix while no considerable change in the crystallinity and diffraction peaks of epoxy composites were observed by the XRD patterns. Additions of CNFs considerably enhance the mechanical properties of epoxy composites but a remarkable improvement is observed for 0.75% CNFs as compared to the rest epoxy nanocomposites. In addition, the electron micrographs revealed the perfect distribution and dispersion of CNFs in the epoxy matrix for the 0.75% CNFs/epoxy nanocomposites, while the existence of voids and agglomerations were observed beyond 0.75% CNFs filler loadings. Overall results analysis clearly revealed that the 0.75% CNFs filler loading is best and effective with respect to rest to enhance the mechanical and structural properties of the epoxy composites.