Displaying all 15 publications

  1. Sulaiman S, Mokhtar MN, Naim MN, Baharuddin AS, Sulaiman A
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2015 Feb;175(4):1817-42.
    PMID: 25427594 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-014-1417-x
    Nanobiocatalysis is a new frontier of emerging nanosized material support in enzyme immobilization application. This paper is about a comprehensive review on cellulose nanofibers (CNF), including their structure, surface modification, chemical coupling for enzyme immobilization, and potential applications. The CNF surface consists of mainly -OH functional group that can be directly interacted weakly with enzyme, and its binding can be improved by surface modification and interaction of chemical coupling that forms a strong and stable covalent immobilization of enzyme. The knowledge of covalent interaction for enzyme immobilization is important to provide more efficient interaction between CNF support and enzyme molecule. Enzyme immobilization onto CNF is having potential for improving enzymatic performance and production yield, as well as contributing toward green technology and sustainable sources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanofibers/ultrastructure
  2. Ngadiman NH, Mohd Yusof N, Idris A, Kurniawan D
    Proc Inst Mech Eng H, 2016 Aug;230(8):739-49.
    PMID: 27194535 DOI: 10.1177/0954411916649632
    Electrospinning is a simple and efficient process in producing nanofibers. To fabricate nanofibers made of a blend of two constituent materials, co-axial electrospinning method is an option. In this method, the constituent materials contained in separate barrels are simultaneously injected using two syringe nozzles arranged co-axially and the materials mix during the spraying process forming core and shell of the nanofibers. In this study, co-axial electrospinning method is used to fabricate nanofibers made of polyvinyl alcohol and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3). The concentration of polyvinyl alcohol and amount of maghemite nanoparticle loading were varied, at 5 and 10 w/v% and at 1-10 v/v%, respectively. The mechanical properties (strength and Young's modulus), porosity, and biocompatibility properties (contact angle and cell viability) of the electrospun mats were evaluated, with the same mats fabricated by regular single-nozzle electrospinning method as the control. The co-axial electrospinning method is able to fabricate the expected polyvinyl alcohol/maghemite nanofiber mats. It was noticed that the polyvinyl alcohol/maghemite electrospun mats have lower mechanical properties (i.e. strength and stiffness) and porosity, more hydrophilicity (i.e. lower contact angle), and similar cell viability compared to the mats fabricated by single-nozzle electrospinning method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanofibers/ultrastructure
  3. Nordin NA, Abdul Rahman N, Abdullah AH
    Molecules, 2020 Jul 06;25(13).
    PMID: 32640766 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25133081
    Heavy metal pollution, such as lead, can cause contamination of water resources and harm human life. Many techniques have been explored and utilized to overcome this problem, with adsorption technology being the most common strategies for water treatment. In this study, carbon nanofibers, polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/sago lignin (SL) carbon nanofibers (PAN/SL CNF) and PAN/SL activated carbon nanofibers (PAN/SL ACNF), with a diameter approximately 300 nm, were produced by electrospinning blends of polyacrylonitrile and sago lignin followed by thermal and acid treatments and used as adsorbents for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The incorporation of biodegradable and renewable SL in PAN/SL blends fibers produces the CNF with a smaller diameter than PAN only but preserves the structure of CNF. The adsorption of Pb(II) ions on PAN/SL ACNF was three times higher than that of PAN/SL CNF. The enhanced removal was due to the nitric acid treatment that resulted in the formation of surface oxygenated functional groups that promoted the Pb(II) ions adsorption. The best-suited adsorption conditions that gave the highest percentage removal of 67%, with an adsorption capacity of 524 mg/g, were 40 mg of adsorbent dosage, 125 ppm of Pb(II) solution, pH 5, and a contact time of 240 min. The adsorption data fitted the Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetic models, indicating that the adsorption is a monolayer, and is governed by the availability of the adsorption sites. With the adsorption capacity of 588 mg/g, determined via the Langmuir isotherm model, the study demonstrated the potential of PAN/SL ACNFs as the adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanofibers/ultrastructure
  4. Sharip NS, Ariffin H, Andou Y, Shirosaki Y, Bahrin EK, Jawaid M, et al.
    Molecules, 2020 Sep 30;25(19).
    PMID: 33008017 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25194498
    Incorporation of nanocellulose could improve wear resistance of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) for an artificial joint application. Yet, the extremely high melt viscosity of the polymer may constrict the mixing, leading to fillers agglomeration and poor mechanical properties. This study optimized the processing condition of UHMWPE/cellulose nanofiber (CNF) bionanocomposite fabrication in triple screw kneading extruder by using response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of the process parameters-temperature (150-190 °C), rotational speed (30-60 rpm), and mixing time (30-45 min)-on mechanical properties of the bionanocomposites was investigated. Homogenous filler distribution, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analysis, was obtained through the optimal processing condition of 150 °C, 60 rpm, and 45 min. The UHMWPE/CNF bionanocomposites exhibited improved mechanical properties in terms of Young's and flexural modulus by 11% and 19%, respectively, as compared to neat UHMWPE. An insignificant effect was observed when maleic anhydride-grafted-polyethylene (MAPE) was added as compatibilizer. The obtained results proved that homogenous compounding of high melt viscosity UHMWPE with CNF was feasible by optimizing the melt blending processing condition in triple screw kneading extruder, which resulted in improved stiffness, a contributing factor for wear resistance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanofibers/ultrastructure
  5. Huong DTM, Chai WS, Show PL, Lin YL, Chiu CY, Tsai SL, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Dec 01;164:3873-3884.
    PMID: 32896561 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.09.020
    Water pollution caused by dyes has been a serious problem affecting human health and environment. The surface of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber membranes was modified by mild hydrolysis and coupled with bovine serum albumin (BSA) obtained from the laboratory wastes, resulting in the synthesis of P-COOH and P-COOH-BSA nanofibers. The nanofibers with specific functional groups may enhance their potential applications toward the removal of ionic dyes in wastewater. Toluidine blue O (TBO) was applied as an example of cationic dye to evaluate the removal efficiency of P-COOH-BSA nanofiber. Results showed that the equilibrium dissociation constant and maximum removal capacity were 0.48 mg/mL and 434.78 mg/g, respectively, at pH 12, where the TBO removal can be explained based on Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order model. Desorption studies have shown that TBO adsorbed on P-COOH-BSA protein membrane can be completely eluted with either 1 M NaCl or 50% glycerol. The results of repeated studies indicated that after five consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles, the removal efficiency of TBO can be maintained at ~97%. P-COOH-BSA has shown to be promising adsorbent in TBO dye removal from dye wastewater.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanofibers/ultrastructure
  6. Rizal S, Saharudin NI, Olaiya NG, Khalil HPSA, Haafiz MKM, Ikramullah I, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Apr 01;26(7).
    PMID: 33916094 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26072008
    The degradation and mechanical properties of potential polymeric materials used for green manufacturing are significant determinants. In this study, cellulose nanofibre was prepared from Schizostachyum brachycladum bamboo and used as reinforcement in the PLA/chitosan matrix using melt extrusion and compression moulding method. The cellulose nanofibre(CNF) was isolated using supercritical carbon dioxide and high-pressure homogenisation. The isolated CNF was characterised with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, zeta potential and particle size analysis. The mechanical, physical, and degradation properties of the resulting biocomposite were studied with moisture content, density, thickness swelling, tensile, flexural, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, and biodegradability analysis. The TEM, FT-IR, and particle size results showed successful isolation of cellulose nanofibre using this method. The result showed that the physical, mechanical, and degradation properties of PLA/chitosan/CNF biocomposite were significantly enhanced with cellulose nanofibre. The density, thickness swelling, and moisture content increased with the addition of CNF. Also, tensile strength and modulus; flexural strength and modulus increased; while the elongation reduced. The carbon residue from the thermal degradation and the glass transition temperature of the PLA/chitosan/CNF biocomposite was observed to increase with the addition of CNF. The result showed that the biocomposite has potential for green and sustainable industrial application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanofibers/ultrastructure
  7. Habiba U, Lee JJL, Joo TC, Ang BC, Afifi AM
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Jun 15;131:821-827.
    PMID: 30904531 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.03.132
    In this study, chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol/TiO2 nanofiber was fabricated via electrospinning at a pump rate of 1.5 mL/h and voltage 6 kV. Field-emission scanning electron microscopic images showed bead free finer nanofiber. Fourier transform infrared spectra proved the formation of strong bond among chitosan, polyvinyl alcohol and TiO2. X-ray powder diffraction showed that TiO2 became amorphous in the composite nanofiber. Toughness and thermal stability of the chitosan/PVA nanofibrous membrane was increased with addition TiO2. The chitosan/PVA/TiO2 nanofibrous membrane was stable at basic medium. But degraded in acidic and water medium after 93 and 162 h, respectively. The adsorption mechanism of congo red obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model. On the other hand, adsorption characteristic of methyl orange fitted well with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity of the resulting membrane for congo red and methyl orange is 131 and 314 mg/g, respectively. However, a high dose of adsorbent was required for congo red.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanofibers/ultrastructure
  8. Zulkifli FH, Jahir Hussain FS, Abdull Rasad MS, Mohd Yusoff M
    J Biomater Appl, 2015 Feb;29(7):1014-27.
    PMID: 25186524 DOI: 10.1177/0885328214549818
    The aim of this research is to develop biocompatible nanofibrous mats using hydroxyethyl cellulose with improved cellular adhesion profiles and stability and use these fibrous mats as potential scaffold for skin tissue engineering. Glutaraldehyde was used to treat the scaffolds water insoluble as well as improve their biostability for possible use in biomedical applications. Electrospinning of hydroxyethyl cellulose (5 wt%) with poly(vinyl alcohol) (15 wt%) incorporated with and without collagen was blended at (1:1:1) and (1:1) ratios, respectively, and was evaluated for optimal criteria as tissue engineering scaffolds. The nanofibrous mats were crosslinked and characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. Scanning electron microscope images showed that the mean diameters of blend nanofibers were gradually increased after chemically crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was carried out to understand chemical interactions in the presence of aldehyde groups. Thermal characterization results showed that the stability of hydroxyethyl cellulose/poly(vinyl alcohol) and hydroxyethyl cellulose/poly(vinyl alcohol)/collagen nanofibers was increased with glutaraldehyde treatment. Studies on cell-scaffolds interaction were carried out by culturing human fibroblast (hFOB) cells on the nanofibers by assessing the growth, proliferation, and morphologies of cells. The scanning electron microscope results show that better cell proliferation and attachment appeared on hydroxyethyl cellulose/poly(vinyl alcohol)/collagen substrates after 7 days of culturing, thus, promoting the potential of electrospun scaffolds as a promising candidate for tissue engineering applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanofibers/ultrastructure
  9. Wsoo MA, Razak SIA, Bohari SPM, Shahir S, Salihu R, Kadir MRA, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2021 Jun 30;181:82-98.
    PMID: 33771547 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.03.108
    Vitamin D deficiency is now a global health problem; despite several drug delivery systems for carrying vitamin D due to low bioavailability and loss bioactivity. Developing a new drug delivery system to deliver vitamin D3 is a strong incentive in the current study. Hence, an implantable drug delivery system (IDDS) was developed from the electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) and ε-polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous membrane, in which the core of implants consists of vitamin D3-loaded CA nanofiber (CAVD) and enclosed in a thin layer of the PCL membrane (CAVD/PCL). CA nanofibrous mat loaded with vitamin D3 at the concentrations of 6, 12, and 20% (w/w) of vitamin D3 were produced using electrospinning. The smooth and bead-free fibers with diameters ranged from 324 to 428 nm were obtained. The fiber diameters increased with an increase in vitamin D3 content. The controlled drug release profile was observed over 30-days, which fit with the zero-order model (R2 > 0.96) in the first stage. The mechanical properties of IDDS were improved. Young's modulus and tensile strength of CAVD/PCL (dry) were161 ± 14 and 13.07 ± 2.5 MPa, respectively. CA and PCL nanofibers are non-cytotoxic based on the results of the in-vitro cytotoxicity studies. This study can further broaden in-vivo study and provide a reference for developing a new IDDS to carry vitamin D3 in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanofibers/ultrastructure
  10. Ngadiman NH, Yusof NM, Idris A, Misran E, Kurniawan D
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 Jan 01;70(Pt 1):520-534.
    PMID: 27770924 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.09.002
    The use of electrospinning process in fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds has received great attention in recent years due to its simplicity. The nanofibers produced via electrospinning possessed morphological characteristics similar to extracellular matrix of most tissue components. Porosity plays a vital role in developing tissue engineering scaffolds because it influences the biocompatibility performance of the scaffolds. In this study, maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) was mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and subsequently electrospun to produce nanofibers. Five factors; nanoparticles content, voltage, flow rate, spinning distance, and rotating speed were varied to produce the electrospun nanofibrous mats with high porosity value. Empirical model was developed using response surface methodology to analyze the effect of these factors to the porosity. The results revealed that the optimum porosity (90.85%) was obtained using 5% w/v nanoparticle content, 35kV of voltage, 1.1ml/h volume flow rate of solution, 8cm spinning distance and 2455rpm of rotating speed. The empirical model was verified successfully by performing confirmation experiments. The properties of optimum PVA/γ-Fe2O3 nanofiber mats such as fiber diameter, mechanical properties, and contact angle were investigated. In addition, cytocompatibility test, in vitro degradation rate, and MTT assay were also performed. Results revealed that high porosity biodegradable γ-Fe2O3/polyvinyl alcohol nanofiber mats have low mechanical properties but good degradation rates and cytocompatibility properties. Thus, they are suitable for low load bearing biomedical application or soft tissue engineering scaffold.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanofibers/ultrastructure
  11. Kouhi M, Jayarama Reddy V, Ramakrishna S
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2019 Jun;188(2):357-368.
    PMID: 30456599 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-018-2922-0
    Bioceramic nanoparticles with high specific surface area often tend to agglomerate in the polymer matrix, which results in undesirable mechanical properties of the composites and poor cell spreading and attachment. In the present work, bredigite (BR) nanoparticles were modified with an organosilane coupling agent, 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS), to enhance its dispersibility in the polymer matrix. The polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvaletare (PHBV) nanofibrous scaffolds containing either bredigite or GPTMS-modified bredigite (G-BR) nanoparticles were fabricated using electrospinning technique and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and tensile strength. Results demonstrated that modification of bredigite was effective in enhancing nanoparticle dispersion in the PHBV matrix. PHBV/G-BR scaffold showed improved mechanical properties compared to PHBV and PHBV/BR, especially at the higher concentration of nanoparticles. In vitro bioactivity assay performed in the simulated body fluid (SBF) indicated that composite PHBV scaffolds were able to induce the formation of apatite deposits after incubation in SBF. From the results of in vitro biological assay, it is concluded that the synergetic effect of BR and GPTMS provided an enhanced hFob cells attachment and proliferation. The developed PHBV/G-BR nanofibrous scaffolds may be considered for application in bone tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanofibers/ultrastructure
  12. Hosseini S, Azari P, Farahmand E, Gan SN, Rothan HA, Yusof R, et al.
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2015 Jul 15;69:257-64.
    PMID: 25765434 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2015.02.034
    Electrospun polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) fibers were dip-coated by polymethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid, poly(MMA-co-MAA), which was synthesized in different molar ratios of the monomers via free-radical polymerization. Fabricated platfrom was employed for immobilization of the dengue antibody and subsequent detection of dengue enveloped virus in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There is a major advantage for combination of electrospun fibers and copolymers. Fiber structre of electrospun PHB provides large specific surface area available for biomolecular interaction. In addition, polymer coated parts of the platform inherited the premanent presence of surface carboxyl (-COOH) groups from MAA segments of the copolymer which can be effectively used for covalent and physical protein immobilization. By tuning the concentration of MAA monomers in polymerization reaction the concentration of surface -COOH groups can be carefully controlled. Therefore two different techniques have been used for immobilization of the dengue antibody aimed for dengue detection: physical attachment of dengue antibodies to the surface and covalent immobilization of antibodies through carbodiimide chemistry. In that perspective, several different characterization techniques were employed to investigate the new polymeric fiber platform such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), water contact angle (WCA) measurement and UV-vis titration. Regardless of the immobilization techniques, substantially higher signal intensity was recorded from developed platform in comparison to the conventional ELISA assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanofibers/ultrastructure
  13. Supramaniam J, Low DYS, Wong SK, Tan LTH, Leo BF, Goh BH, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 May 28;22(11).
    PMID: 34071337 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22115781
    Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) isolated from plant biomass have attracted considerable interests in polymer engineering. The limitations associated with CNF-based nanocomposites are often linked to the time-consuming preparation methods and lack of desired surface functionalities. Herein, we demonstrate the feasibility of preparing a multifunctional CNF-zinc oxide (CNF-ZnO) nanocomposite with dual antibacterial and reinforcing properties via a facile and efficient ultrasound route. We characterized and examined the antibacterial and mechanical reinforcement performances of our ultrasonically induced nanocomposite. Based on our electron microscopy analyses, the ZnO deposited onto the nanofibrous network had a flake-like morphology with particle sizes ranging between 21 to 34 nm. pH levels between 8-10 led to the formation of ultrafine ZnO particles with a uniform size distribution. The resultant CNF-ZnO composite showed improved thermal stability compared to pure CNF. The composite showed potent inhibitory activities against Gram-positive (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) and Gram-negative Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) bacteria. A CNF-ZnO-reinforced natural rubber (NR/CNF-ZnO) composite film, which was produced via latex mixing and casting methods, exhibited up to 42% improvement in tensile strength compared with the neat NR. The findings of this study suggest that ultrasonically-synthesized palm CNF-ZnO nanocomposites could find potential applications in the biomedical field and in the development of high strength rubber composites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanofibers/ultrastructure
  14. Asiri A, Saidin S, Sani MH, Al-Ashwal RH
    Sci Rep, 2021 Mar 11;11(1):5634.
    PMID: 33707606 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-85149-x
    In this study, single, mix, multilayer Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) electrospun nanofibers with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) were fabricated and characterized as a biological wound dressing scaffolds. The biological activities of the synthesized scaffolds have been verified by in vitro and in vivo studies. The chemical composition finding showed that the identified functional units within the produced nanofibers (O-H and N-H bonds) are attributed to both growth factors (GFs) in the PVA nanofiber membranes. Electrospun nanofibers' morphological features showed long protrusion and smooth morphology without beads and sprayed with an average range of 198-286 nm fiber diameter. The fiber diameters decrement and the improvement in wettability and surface roughness were recorded after GFs incorporated within the PVA Nanofibers, which indicated potential good adoption as biological dressing scaffolds due to the identified mechanical properties (Young's modulus) in between 18 and 20 MPa. The MTT assay indicated that the growth factor release from the PVA nanofibers has stimulated cell proliferation and promoted cell viability. In the cell attachment study, the GFs incorporated PVA nanofibers stimulated cell proliferation and adhered better than the PVA control sample and presented no cytotoxic effect. The in vivo studies showed that compared to the control and single PVA-GFs nanofiber, the mix and multilayer scaffolds gave a much more wound reduction at day 7 with better wound repair at day 14-21, which indicated to enhancing tissue regeneration, thus, could be a projected as a suitable burn wound dressing scaffold.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanofibers/ultrastructure
  15. Dhand C, Balakrishnan Y, Ong ST, Dwivedi N, Venugopal JR, Harini S, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2018;13:4473-4492.
    PMID: 30122921 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S159770
    Introduction: In search for cross-linkers with multifunctional characteristics, the present work investigated the utility of quaternary ammonium organosilane (QOS) as a potential cross-linker for electrospun collagen nanofibers. We hypothesized that the quaternary ammonium ions improve the electrospinnability by reducing the surface tension and confer antimicrobial properties, while the formation of siloxane after alkaline hydrolysis could cross-link collagen and stimulate cell proliferation.

    Materials and methods: QOS collagen nanofibers were electrospun by incorporating various concentrations of QOS (0.1%-10% w/w) and were cross-linked in situ after exposure to ammonium carbonate. The QOS cross-linked scaffolds were characterized and their biological properties were evaluated in terms of their biocompatibility, cellular adhesion and metabolic activity for primary human dermal fibroblasts and human fetal osteoblasts.

    Results and discussion: The study revealed that 1) QOS cross-linking increased the flexibility of otherwise rigid collagen nanofibers and improved the thermal stability; 2) QOS cross-linked mats displayed potent antibacterial activity and 3) the biocompatibility of the composite mats depended on the amount of QOS present in dope solution - at low QOS concentrations (0.1% w/w), the mats promoted mammalian cell proliferation and growth, whereas at higher QOS concentrations, cytotoxic effect was observed.

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates that QOS cross-linked mats possess anti-infective properties and confer niches for cellular growth and proliferation, thus offering a useful approach, which is important for hard and soft tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nanofibers/ultrastructure
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