AREAS COVERED: Different types of VNPs and their biomedical applications are reviewed comprehensively. Strategies and approaches for cargo loading and targeted delivery of VNPs are examined thoroughly. The latest developments in controlled release of cargoes from VNPs and their mechanisms are highlighted too. The challenges faced by VNPs in biomedical applications are identified, and solutions are provided to overcome them.
EXPERT OPINION: In the development of next-generation VNPs for gene therapy, bioimaging and therapeutic deliveries, focus must be given to reduce their immunogenicity, and increase their stability in the circulatory system. Modular virus-like particles (VLPs) which are produced separately from their cargoes or ligands before all the components are coupled can speed up clinical trials and commercialization. In addition, removal of contaminants from VNPs, cargo delivery across the blood brain barrier (BBB), and targeting of VNPs to organelles intracellularly are challenges that will preoccupy researchers in this decade.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxicity was studied by examining the hFOB cell response by MTT assessment. The cell morphology was evaluated by inverted microscopy and observed under scanning electronic microscopy (SEM).
RESULTS: MTT assay results displayed that the Cu content on the surface of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys did not produce any cytotoxic effect on cell viability. The cell viability rate in all samples ranges from 97% to 126%, indicating that hFOB cells grew at a high proliferation rate. However, no significant differences in cell viability were observed between Ti and Ti Cu and between Ti HA and Ti Cu/HA groups. Microscopic examination demonstrated no difference in the cell morphology of hFOB among all samples. In addition, SEM observation indicated favorable adhesion and spreading of the cells on the coated and uncoated samples.
CONCLUSIONS: The surface modification of Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy with Cu, HA, and Cu/HA exhibits good cell biocompatibility, and the Cu has no influence on the cell proliferation and differentiation of hFOB.