Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 84 in total

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  1. Rathore C, Rathbone MJ, Chellappan DK, Tambuwala MM, Pinto TJA, Dureja H, et al.
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv, 2020 04;17(4):479-494.
    PMID: 32077770 DOI: 10.1080/17425247.2020.1730808
    Introduction: Thymoquinone (TQ), 2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzo-1, 4-quinone, the main active constituent of Nigella sativa (NS) plant, has been proven to be of great therapeutic aid in various in vitro and in vivo conditions. Despite the promising therapeutic activities of TQ, this molecule is not yet in the clinical trials, restricted by its poor biopharmaceutical properties including photo-instability.Area covered: This review compiles the different types of polymeric and lipidic nanocarriers (NCs), encapsulating TQ for their improved oral bioavailability, and augmented in vitro and in vivo efficacy, evidenced on various pathologies. Furthermore, we provide a comprehensive overview of TQ in relation to its encapsulation approaches advancing the delivery and improving the efficacy of TQ.Expert opinion: TQ was first identified in the essential oil of Nigella sativa L. black seed. TQ has not been used in formulations because it is a highly hydrophobic drug having poor aqueous solubility. To deal with the poor physicochemical problems associated with TQ, various NCs encapsulating TQ have been tried in the past. Nevertheless, these NCs could be impending in bringing forth this potential molecule to clinical reality. This will also be beneficial for a large research community including pharmaceutical & biological sciences and translational researchers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/administration & dosage*
  2. Alyautdin R, Khalin I, Nafeeza MI, Haron MH, Kuznetsov D
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2014;9:795-811.
    PMID: 24550672 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S52236
    The protective properties of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are conferred by the intricate architecture of its endothelium coupled with multiple specific transport systems expressed on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs) in the brain's vasculature. When the stringent control of the BBB is disrupted, such as following EC damage, substances that are safe for peripheral tissues but toxic to neurons have easier access to the central nervous system (CNS). As a consequence, CNS disorders, including degenerative diseases, can occur independently of an individual's age. Although the BBB is crucial in regulating the biochemical environment that is essential for maintaining neuronal integrity, it limits drug delivery to the CNS. This makes it difficult to deliver beneficial drugs across the BBB while preventing the passage of potential neurotoxins. Available options include transport of drugs across the ECs through traversing occludins and claudins in the tight junctions or by attaching drugs to one of the existing transport systems. Either way, access must specifically allow only the passage of a particular drug. In general, the BBB allows small molecules to enter the CNS; however, most drugs with the potential to treat neurological disorders other than infections have large structures. Several mechanisms, such as modifications of the built-in pumping-out system of drugs and utilization of nanocarriers and liposomes, are among the drug-delivery systems that have been tested; however, each has its limitations and constraints. This review comprehensively discusses the functional morphology of the BBB and the challenges that must be overcome by drug-delivery systems and elaborates on the potential targets, mechanisms, and formulations to improve drug delivery to the CNS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/administration & dosage*
  3. Rasouli E, Basirun WJ, Rezayi M, Shameli K, Nourmohammadi E, Khandanlou R, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2018;13:6903-6911.
    PMID: 30498350 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S158083
    Introduction: In the present research, we report a quick and green synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) in aqueous solution using ferric and ferrous chloride, with different percentages of natural honey (0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0% w/v) as the precursors, stabilizer, reducing and capping agent, respectively. The effect of the stabilizer on the magnetic properties and size of Fe3O4-NPs was also studied.

    Methods: The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Results: The XRD analysis indicated the presence of pure Fe3O4-NPs while the TEM images indicated that the Fe3O4-NPs are spherical with a diameter range between 3.21 and 2.22 nm. The VSM study demonstrated that the magnetic properties were enhanced with the decrease in the percentage of honey. In vitro viability evaluation of Fe3O4-NPs performed by using the MTT assay on the WEHI164 cells demonstrated no significant toxicity in higher concentration up to 140.0 ppm, which allows them to be used in some biological applications such as drug delivery.

    Conclusion: The presented synthesis method can be used for the controlled synthesis of Fe3O4-NPs, which could be found to be important in applications in biotechnology, biosensor and biomedicine, magnetic resonance imaging and catalysis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Magnetite Nanoparticles/administration & dosage*
  4. Shadab M, Haque S, Sheshala R, Meng LW, Meka VS, Ali J
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(3):440-453.
    PMID: 27784250 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666161026163201
    BACKGROUND: The drug delivery of macromolecules such as proteins and peptides has become an important area of research and represents the fastest expanding share of the market for human medicines. The most common method for delivering macromolecules is parenterally. However parenteral administration of some therapeutic macromolecules has not been effective because of their rapid clearance from the body. As a result, most macromolecules are only therapeutically useful after multiple injections, which causes poor compliance and systemic side effects.

    METHOD: Therefore, there is a need to improve delivery of therapeutic macromolecules to enable non-invasive delivery routes, less frequent dosing through controlled-release drug delivery, and improved drug targeting to increase efficacy and reduce side effects.

    RESULT: Non-invasive administration routes such as intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal, ocular and oral delivery have been attempted intensively by formulating macromolecules into nanoparticulate carriers system such as polymeric and lipidic nanoparticles.

    CONCLUSION: This review discusses barriers to drug delivery and current formulation technologies to overcome the unfavorable properties of macromolecules via non-invasive delivery (mainly intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal oral and ocular) with a focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems. This review also provided a summary and discussion of recent data on non-invasive delivery of macromolecules using nanoparticulate formulations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/administration & dosage
  5. Chatterjee B, Gorain B, Mohananaidu K, Sengupta P, Mandal UK, Choudhury H
    Int J Pharm, 2019 Jun 30;565:258-268.
    PMID: 31095983 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.05.032
    Intranasal delivery has shown to circumvent blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and deliver the drugs into the CNS at a higher rate and extent than other conventional routes. The mechanism of drug transport from nose-to-brain is not fully understood yet, but several neuronal pathways are considered to be involved. Intranasal nanoemulsion for brain targeting is investigated extensively. Higher brain distribution of drug after administering intranasal nanoemulsion was established by many researchers. Issues with nasomucosal clearance are solved by formulating modified nanoemulsion; for instance, mucoadhesive nanoemulsion or in situ nanoemulgel. However, no intranasal nanoemulsion for brain targeted drug delivery has been able to cross the way from 'benches to bed-side' of patients. Possibilities of toxicity by repeated administration, irregular nasal absorption during the diseased condition, use of a high amount of surfactants are few of the persisting challenges that need to overcome in coming days. Understanding the ways how current developments has solved some challenges is necessary. At the same time, the future direction of the research on intranasal nanoemulsion should be figured out based on existing challenges. This review is focused on the current developments of intranasal nanoemulsion with special emphasis on the existing challenges that would help to set future research direction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/administration & dosage*
  6. Choudhury H, Gorain B, Pandey M, Khurana RK, Kesharwani P
    Int J Pharm, 2019 Jun 30;565:509-522.
    PMID: 31102804 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.05.042
    The biological barriers in the body have been fabricated by nature to protect the body from foreign molecules. The successful delivery of drugs is limited and being challenged by these biological barriers including the gastrointestinal tract, brain, skin, lungs, nose, mouth mucosa, and immune system. In this review article, we envisage to understand the functionalities of these barriers and revealing various drug-loaded biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles to overcome these barriers and deliver the entrapped drugs to cancer targeted site. Apart from it, tissue-specific multifunctional ligands, linkers and transporters when employed imparts an effective active delivery strategy by receptor-mediated transcytosis. Together, these strategies enable to deliver various drugs across the biological membranes for the treatment of solid tumors and malignant cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/administration & dosage*
  7. Tan KX, Pan S, Jeevanandam J, Danquah MK
    Int J Pharm, 2019 Mar 10;558:413-425.
    PMID: 30660748 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.01.023
    Cardiovascular ailments are the foremost trigger of death in the world today, including myocardial infarction and ischemic heart diseases. To date, extraordinary measures have been prescribed, from the perspectives of both conventional medical therapies and surgeries, to enforce cardiac cell regeneration post cardiac traumas, albeit with limited long-term success. The prospects of successful heart transplants are also grim, considering exorbitant costs and unavailability of suitable donors in most cases. From the perspective of cardiac revascularization, use of nanoparticles and nanoparticle mediated targeted drug delivery have garnered substantial attention, attributing to both active and passive heart targeting, with enhanced target specificity and sensitivity. This review focuses on this aspect, while outlining the progress in targeted delivery of nanomedicines in the prognosis and subsequent therapy of cardiovascular disorders, and recapitulating the benefits and intrinsic challenges associated with the incorporation of nanoparticles. This article categorically provides an overview of nanoparticle-mediated targeted delivery systems and their implications in handling cardiovascular diseases, including their intrinsic benefits and encountered procedural trials and challenges. Additionally, the solicitations of aptamers in targeted drug delivery with identical objectives, are presented. This includes a detailed appraisal on various aptamer-navigated nanoparticle targeted delivery platforms in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular maladies. Despite a few impending challenges, subject to additional investigations, both nanoparticles as well as aptamers show a high degree of promise, and pose as the next generation of drug delivery vehicles, in targeted cardiovascular therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/administration & dosage*
  8. Mahdavi M, Ahmad MB, Haron MJ, Namvar F, Nadi B, Rahman MZ, et al.
    Molecules, 2013 Jun 27;18(7):7533-48.
    PMID: 23807578 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18077533
    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) with appropriate surface chemistry exhibit many interesting properties that can be exploited in a variety of biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement, tissue repair, hyperthermia, drug delivery and in cell separation. These applications required that the MNPs such as iron oxide Fe₃O₄ magnetic nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄ MNPs) having high magnetization values and particle size smaller than 100 nm. This paper reports the experimental detail for preparation of monodisperse oleic acid (OA)-coated Fe₃O₄ MNPs by chemical co-precipitation method to determine the optimum pH, initial temperature and stirring speed in order to obtain the MNPs with small particle size and size distribution that is needed for biomedical applications. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results show that the particle size as well as the magnetization of the MNPs was very much dependent on pH, initial temperature of Fe²⁺ and Fe³⁺ solutions and steering speed. The monodisperse Fe₃O₄ MNPs coated with oleic acid with size of 7.8 ± 1.9 nm were successfully prepared at optimum pH 11, initial temperature of 45°C and at stirring rate of 800 rpm. FTIR and XRD data reveal that the oleic acid molecules were adsorbed on the magnetic nanoparticles by chemisorption. Analyses of TEM show the oleic acid provided the Fe₃O₄ particles with better dispersibility. The synthesized Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic behavior and the saturation magnetization of the Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles increased with the particle size.
    Matched MeSH terms: Magnetite Nanoparticles/administration & dosage
  9. Sohail M, Mudassir, Minhas MU, Khan S, Hussain Z, de Matas M, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):595-614.
    PMID: 29611113 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0512-x
    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory disease of the colon that severely affects the quality of life of patients and usually responds well to anti-inflammatory agents for symptomatic relief; however, many patients need colectomy, a surgical procedure to remove whole or part of the colon. Though various types of pharmacological agents have been employed for the management of UC, the lack of effectiveness is usually predisposed to various reasons including lack of target-specific delivery of drugs and insufficient drug accumulation at the target site. To overcome these glitches, many researchers have designed and characterized various types of versatile polymeric biomaterials to achieve target-specific delivery of drugs via oral route to optimize their targeting efficiency to the colon, to improve drug accumulation at the target site, as well as to ameliorate off-target effects of chemotherapy. Therefore, the aim of this review was to summarize and critically discuss the pharmaceutical significance and therapeutic feasibility of a wide range of natural and synthetic biomaterials for efficient drug targeting to colon and rationalized treatment of UC. Among various types of biomaterials, natural and synthetic polymer-based hydrogels have shown promising targeting potential due to their innate pH responsiveness, sustained and controlled release characteristics, and microbial degradation in the colon to release the encapsulated drug moieties. These characteristic features make natural and synthetic polymer-based hydrogels superior to conventional pharmacological strategies for the management of UC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/administration & dosage
  10. Gorain B, Tekade M, Kesharwani P, Iyer AK, Kalia K, Tekade RK
    Drug Discov Today, 2017 04;22(4):652-664.
    PMID: 28219742 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2016.12.007
    To avoid tissue rejection during organ transplantation, research has focused on the use of tissue engineering to regenerate required tissues or organs for patients. The biomedical applications of hyperbranched, multivalent, structurally uniform, biocompatible dendrimers in tissue engineering include the mimicking of natural extracellular matrices (ECMs) in the 3D microenvironment. Dendrimers are unimolecular architects that can incorporate a variety of biological and/or chemical substances in a 3D architecture to actively support the scaffold microenvironment during cell growth. Here, we review the use of dendritic delivery systems in tissue engineering. We discuss the available literature, highlighting the 3D architecture and preparation of these nanoscaffolds, and also review challenges to, and advances in, the use dendrimers in tissue engineering. Advances in the manufacturing of dendritic nanoparticles and scaffold architectures have resulted in the successful incorporation of dendritic scaffolds in tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/administration & dosage*
  11. Rasouli E, Basirun WJ, Johan MR, Rezayi M, Darroudi M, Shameli K, et al.
    J. Cell. Biochem., 2019 04;120(4):6624-6631.
    PMID: 30368873 DOI: 10.1002/jcb.27958
    In the present research, we report a greener, faster, and low-cost synthesis of gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3 O4 /Au-NPs) by different ratios (1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 molar ratio) of iron oxide and gold with natural honey (0.5% w/v) under hydrothermal conditions for 20 minutes. Honey was used as the reducing and stabilizing agent, respectively. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The XRD analysis indicated the presence of Fe3 O4 /Au-NPs, while the TEM images showed the formation of Fe3 O4 /Au-NPs with diameter range between 3.49 nm and 4.11 nm. The VSM study demonstrated that the magnetic properties were decreased in the Fe3 O4 /Au-NPs compared with the Fe3 O4 -NPs. The cytotoxicity threshold of Fe3 O4 /Au-NPs in the WEHI164 cells was determined by using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. It was demonstrated no significant toxicity in higher concentration up to 140.0 ppm which can become the main candidates for biological and biomedical applications, such as drug delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metal Nanoparticles/administration & dosage*
  12. Ganesan P, Arulselvan P, Choi DK
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2017;12:1097-1111.
    PMID: 28223801 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S124601
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major chronic disease that is prevalent worldwide, and it is characterized by an increase in blood glucose, disturbances in the metabolism, and alteration in insulin secretion. Nowadays, food-based therapy has become an important treatment mode for type 2 diabetes, and phytobioactive compounds have gained an increasing amount of attention to this end because they have an effect on multiple biological functions, including the sustained secretion of insulin and regeneration of pancreatic islets cells. However, the poor solubility and lower permeability of these phyto products results in a loss of bioactivity during processing and oral delivery, leading to a significant reduction in the bioavailability of phytobioactive compounds to treat T2DM. Recently, nanotechnological systems have been developed for use as various types of carrier systems to improve the delivery of bioactive compounds and thus obtain a greater bioavailability. Furthermore, carrier systems in most nanodelivery systems are highly biocompatible, with nonimmunologic behavior, a high degree of biodegradability, and greater mucoadhesive strength. Therefore, this review focuses on the various types of nanodelivery systems that can be used for phytobioactive compounds in treating T2DM with greater antidiabetic effects. There is also additional focus on improving the effects of various phytobioactive compounds through nanotechnological delivery to ensure a highly efficient treatment of type 2 diabetes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/administration & dosage*
  13. Arbain NH, Salim N, Masoumi HRF, Wong TW, Basri M, Abdul Rahman MB
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):497-507.
    PMID: 29541999 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0509-5
    Bioavailability of quercetin, a flavonoid potentially known to combat cancer, is challenging due to hydrophobic nature. Oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsion system could be used as nanocarrier for quercertin to be delivered to lung via pulmonary delivery. The novelty of this nanoformulation was introduced by using palm oil ester/ricinoleic acid as oil phase which formed spherical shape nanoemulsion as measured by transmission electron microscopy and Zetasizer analyses. High energy emulsification method and D-optimal mixture design were used to optimize the composition towards the volume median diameter. The droplet size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential of the optimized formulation were 131.4 nm, 0.257, and 51.1 mV, respectively. The formulation exhibited high drug entrapment efficiency and good stability against phase separation and storage at temperature 4 °C for 3 months. It was discovered that the system had an acceptable median mass aerodynamic diameter (3.09 ± 0.05 μm) and geometric standard deviation (1.77 ± 0.03) with high fine particle fraction (90.52 ± 0.10%), percent dispersed (83.12 ± 1.29%), and percent inhaled (81.26 ± 1.28%) for deposition in deep lung. The in vitro release study demonstrated that the sustained release pattern of quercetin from naneomulsion formulation up to 48 h of about 26.75% release and it was in adherence to Korsmeyer's Peppas mechanism. The cytotoxicity study demonstrated that the optimized nanoemulsion can potentially induce cyctotoxicity towards A549 lung cancer cells without affecting the normal cells. These results of the study suggest that nanoemulsion is a potential carrier system for pulmonary delivery of molecules with low water solubility like quercetin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/administration & dosage*
  14. Mousavi SM, Zarei M, Hashemi SA, Ramakrishna S, Chiang WH, Lai CW, et al.
    Drug Metab Rev, 2020 05;52(2):299-318.
    PMID: 32150480 DOI: 10.1080/03602532.2020.1734021
    Gold Nanostars (GNS) have attracted tremendous attention toward themselves owing to their multi-branched structure and unique properties. These state of the art metallic nanoparticles possess intrinsic features like remarkable optical properties and exceptional physiochemical activities. These star-shaped gold nanoparticles can predominantly be utilized in biosensing, photothermal therapy, imaging, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and target drug delivery applications due to their low toxicity and extraordinary optical features. In the current review, recent approaches in the matter of GNS in case of diagnosis, bioimaging and biomedical applications were summarized and reported. In this regard, first an overview about the structure and general properties of GNS were reported and thence detailed information regarding the diagnostic, bioimaging, photothermal therapy, and drug delivery applications of such novel nanomaterials were presented in detail. Summarized information clearly highlighting the superior capability of GNS as potential multi-functional materials for biomedical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metal Nanoparticles/administration & dosage*
  15. Haque ST, Chowdhury EH
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2018;15(4):485-496.
    PMID: 29165073 DOI: 10.2174/1567201814666171120114034
    BACKGROUND: Delivery of conventional small molecule drugs and currently evolving nucleic acid-based therapeutics, such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and genes, and contrast agents for high resolution imaging, to the target site of action is highly demanding to increase the therapeutic and imaging efficacy while minimizing the off-target effects of the delivered molecules, as well as develop novel therapeutic and imaging approaches.

    METHODS: We have undertaken a structured search for peer-reviewed research and review articles predominantly indexed in PubMed focusing on the organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles with evidence of their potent roles in intracellular delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents in different animal models.

    RESULTS: Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles offer a number of advantages by combining the unique properties of the organic and inorganic counterparts, thus improving the pharmacokinetic behavior and targetability of drugs and contrast agents, and conferring the exclusive optical and magnetic properties for both therapeutic and imaging purposes. Different polymers, lipids, dendrimers, peptides, cell membranes, and small organic molecules are attached via covalent or non-covalent interactions with diverse inorganic nanoparticles of gold, mesoporous silica, magnetic iron oxide, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots for efficient drug delivery and imaging purposes.

    CONCLUSION: We have thus highlighted here the progress made so far in utilizing different organicinorganic hybrid nanoparticles for in vivo delivery of anti-cancer drugs, siRNA, genes and imaging agents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/administration & dosage*
  16. Patnaik S, Gorain B, Padhi S, Choudhury H, Gabr GA, Md S, et al.
    Eur J Pharm Biopharm, 2021 Apr;161:100-119.
    PMID: 33639254 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2021.02.010
    Potential research outcomes on nanotechnology-based novel drug delivery systems since the past few decades attracted the attention of the researchers to overcome the limitations of conventional deliveries. Apart from possessing enhanced solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs, the targeting potential of the carriers facilitates longer circulation and site-specific delivery of the entrapped therapeutics. The practice of these delivery systems, therefore, helps in maximizing bioavailability, improving pharmacokinetics profile, pharmacodynamics activity and biodistribution of the entrapped drug(s). In addition to focusing on the positive side, evaluation of nanoparticulate systems for toxicity is a crucial parameter for its biomedical applications. Due to the size of nanoparticles, they easily traverse through biological barriers and may be accumulated in the body, where the ingredients incorporated in the formulation development might accumulate and/or produce toxic manifestation, leading to cause severe health hazards. Therefore, the toxic profile of these delivery systems needs to be evaluated at the molecular, cellular, tissue and organ level. This review offers a comprehensive presentation of toxicity aspects of the constituents of nanoparticular based drug delivery systems, which would be beneficial for future researchers to develop nanoparticulate delivery vehicles for the improvement of delivery approaches in a safer way.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/administration & dosage*
  17. Pandey M, Choudhury H, Verma RK, Chawla V, Bhattamisra SK, Gorain B, et al.
    CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets, 2020;19(9):648-662.
    PMID: 32819251 DOI: 10.2174/1871527319999200819095620
    Alzheimer Association Report (2019) stated that the 6th primary cause of death in the USA is Alzheimer's Disease (AD), which leads to behaviour and cognitive impairment. Nearly 5.8 million peoples of all ages in the USA have suffered from this disease, including 5.6 million elderly populations. The statistics of the progression of this disease is similar to the global scenario. Still, the treatment of AD is limited to a few conventional oral drugs, which often fail to deliver an adequate amount of the drug in the brain. The reduction in the therapeutic efficacy of an anti-AD drug is due to poor solubility, existence to the blood-brain barrier and low permeability. In this context, nasal drug delivery emerges as a promising route for the delivery of large and small molecular drugs for the treatment of AD. This promising pathway delivers the drug directly into the brain via an olfactory route, which leads to the low systemic side effect, enhanced bioavailability, and higher therapeutic efficacy. However, few setbacks, such as mucociliary clearance and poor drug mucosal permeation, limit its translation from the laboratory to the clinic. The above stated limitation could be overcome by the adaption of nanoparticle as a drug delivery carrier, which may lead to prolong delivery of drugs with better permeability and high efficacy. This review highlights the latest work on the development of promising Nanoparticles (NPs) via the intranasal route for the treatment of AD. Additionally, the current update in this article will draw the attention of the researcher working on these fields and facing challenges in practical applicability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/administration & dosage*
  18. Gulati N, Chellappan DK, MacLoughlin R, Dua K, Dureja H
    Life Sci, 2021 Nov 15;285:119969.
    PMID: 34547339 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119969
    Inflammatory lung diseases related morbidity and mortality impose a significant financial burden. Inflammation is a hallmark of many diseases of the respiratory system which is directly or indirectly linked to adverse health conditions, air pollution, rapid lifestyle changes, and regular outbreaks of microbial infections. The unique anatomical and physiological features of the lungs make them an ideal target organ in the treatment of inflammatory respiratory disease and with the help of inhaled therapy lungs can be targeted directly. The principal objective of this review is to present the comprehensive role of inhaled nano-based therapeutics such as liposomes, niosomes, nanoparticles, nanoemulsion, nanosuspension, and exosomes in the treatment and management of inflammatory respiratory diseases. Inhaled nanomedicines provide targeted diagnosis and treatment, improved drug solubility and distribution, prevent first-pass hepatic metabolism, improved patient compliance, and reduced drug side effects. They overcome several biological barriers in the human body and provide immediate, and quick-onset of action. Future research should be focused on improving the therapeutic efficiency of inhaled nanocarriers and to carry out in-depth mechanistic studies to translate current scientific knowledge for the efficient management of inflammatory lung diseases with minimal or no toxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/administration & dosage*
  19. Mustafa IF, Hussein MZ, Idris AS, Hilmi NHZ, Fakurazi S
    Molecules, 2021 Sep 26;26(19).
    PMID: 34641379 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26195837
    Reports on fungicide-based agronanochemicals in combating disastrous basal stem rot disease in the oil palm industry are scant. Herein, we describe the potential of fungicide nanodelivery agents based on hexaconazole-micelle systems produced using three different surfactants; sodium dodecylbenze sulfonate (SDBS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and Tween 80 (T80). The resulting nanodelivery systems were characterized and the results supported the encapsulation of the fungicide into the micelles of the surfactants. We have investigated in detail the size-dependent effects of the as-synthesized micelles towards the inhibition growth of Ganoderma Boninense fungi. All the nanodelivery systems indicate that their size decreased as the surfactant concentration was increased, and it directly affects the fungal inhibition. It was also found that Tween 80, a non-ionic surfactant gave the lowest effective concentration, the EC50 value of 2, on the pathogenic fungus Ganoderma boninense compared to the other anionic surfactants; SDBS and SDS. This study opens up a new generation of agronanofungicide of better efficacy for Ganoderma disease treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/administration & dosage*
  20. Jeevanandam J, Danquah MK, Debnath S, Meka VS, Chan YS
    Curr Pharm Biotechnol, 2015;16(10):853-70.
    PMID: 26212563 DOI: 10.2174/1389201016666150727120618
    Diabetes mellitus has been a threat to humans for many years. Amongst the different diabetes types, type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common, and this is due to drastic changes in human lifestyle such as lack of exercise, stressful life and so on. There are a large number of conventional treatment methods available for type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, most of these methods are curative and are only applicable when the patient is highly symptomatic. Effective treatment strategies should be geared towards interfering with cellular and bio molecular mechanisms associated with the development and sustenance of the disease. In recent years, research into the medical potential of nanoparticles has been a major endeavor within the pharmaceutical industries. Nanoparticles display unique and tuneable biophysical characteristics which are determined by their shape and size. Nanoparticles have been used to manifest the properties of drugs, and as carriers for drug and vaccine delivery. Notwithstanding, there are further opportunities for nanoparticles to augment the treatment of a wide range of life threatening diseases that are yet to be explored. This review article seeks to highlight the application of potential nano-formulations in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, the activity of nanomedicine supplements in reversing insulin resistance is also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/administration & dosage
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