Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 609 in total

  1. Zaimi K, Ishak A, Pop I
    PLoS One, 2014;9(11):e111743.
    PMID: 25365118 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111743
    The steady two-dimensional flow and heat transfer over a stretching/shrinking sheet in a nanofluid is investigated using Buongiorno's nanofluid model. Different from the previously published papers, in the present study we consider the case when the nanofluid particle fraction on the boundary is passively rather than actively controlled, which make the model more physically realistic. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by a similarity transformation, before being solved numerically by a shooting method. The effects of some governing parameters on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are graphically presented and discussed. Dual solutions are found to exist in a certain range of the suction and stretching/shrinking parameters. Results also indicate that both the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number increase with increasing values of the suction parameter.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/chemistry*
  2. Yusof NS, Ashokkumar M
    Chemphyschem, 2015 Mar 16;16(4):775-81.
    PMID: 25598360 DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201402697
    The sonochemical synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with different shapes and size distributions by using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) operating at 463 kHz is reported. GNP formation proceeds through the reduction of Au(3+) to Au(0) by radicals generated by acoustic cavitation. TEM images reveal that GNPs show irregular shapes at 30 W, are primarily icosahedral at 50 W and form a significant amount of nanorods at 70 W. The size of GNPs decreases with increasing acoustic power with a narrower size distribution. Sonochemiluminescence images help in the understanding of the effect of HIFU in controlling the size and shapes of GNPs. The number of radicals that form and the mechanical forces that are generated control the shape and size of the GNPs. UV/Vis spectra and TEM images are used to propose a possible mechanism for the observed effects. The results presented demonstrate, for the first time, that the HIFU system can be used to synthesise size- and shape-controlled metal nanoparticles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry*
  3. Kian LK, Jawaid M, Ariffin H, Karim Z
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Jul 15;114:54-63.
    PMID: 29551511 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.03.065
    Roselle fiber is a renewable and sustainable agricultural waste enriched with cellulose polysaccharides. The isolation of Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from roselle-derived microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is an alternative approach to recover the agricultural roselle plant residue. In the present study, acid hydrolysis with different reaction time was carried out to degrade the roselle-derived MCC to form NCC. The characterizations of isolated NCC were conducted through Fourier Transform Infrared Ray (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). As evaluated from the performed morphological investigations, the needle-like shape NCC nanostructures were observed under TEM and AFM microscopy studies, while irregular rod-like shape of NCC was observed under FESEM analysis. With 60min hydrolysis time, XRD analysis demonstrated the highest NCC crystallinity degree with 79.5%. In thermal analysis by TGA and DSC, the shorter hydrolysis time tended to produce NCC with higher thermal stability. Thus, the isolated NCC from roselle-derived MCC has high potential to be used in application of pharmaceutical and biomedical fields for nanocomposite fabrication.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/chemistry*
  4. Varma LT, Singh N, Gorain B, Choudhury H, Tambuwala MM, Kesharwani P, et al.
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2020;17(4):279-291.
    PMID: 32039683 DOI: 10.2174/1567201817666200210122340
    The collection of different bulk materials forms the nanoparticles, where the properties of the nanoparticle are solely different from the individual components before being ensembled. Selfassembled nanoparticles are basically a group of complex functional units that are formed by gathering the individual bulk components of the system. It includes micelles, polymeric nanoparticle, carbon nanotubes, liposomes and niosomes, etc. This self-assembly has progressively heightened interest to control the final complex structure of the nanoparticle and its associated properties. The main challenge of formulating self-assembled nanoparticle is to improve the delivery system, bioavailability, enhance circulation time, confer molecular targeting, controlled release, protection of the incorporated drug from external environment and also serve as nanocarriers for macromolecules. Ultimately, these self-assembled nanoparticles facilitate to overcome the physiological barriers in vivo. Self-assembly is an equilibrium process where both individual and assembled components are subsisting in equilibrium. It is a bottom up approach in which molecules are assembled spontaneously, non-covalently into a stable and welldefined structure. There are different approaches that have been adopted in fabrication of self-assembled nanoparticles by the researchers. The current review is enriched with strategies for nanoparticle selfassembly, associated properties, and its application in therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/chemistry*
  5. Balla HH, Abdullah S, Mohdfaizal W, Zulkifli R, Sopian K
    J Oleo Sci, 2013;62(7):533-9.
    PMID: 23823920
    A numerical simulation model for laminar flow of nanofluids in a pipe with constant heat flux on the wall was built to study the effect of the Reynolds number on convective heat transfer and pressure loss. The investigation was performed for hybrid nanofluids consisting of CuO-Cu nanoparticles and compared with CuO and Cu in which the nanoparticles have a spherical shape with size 50, 50, 50nm respectively. The nanofluids were prepared, following which the thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity were measured for a range of temperatures (10 -60°C). The numerical results obtained were compared with the existing well-established correlation. The prediction of the Nusselt number for nanofluids agrees well with the Shah correlation. The comparison of heat transfer coefficients for CuO, Cu and CuO-Cu presented an increase in thermal conductivity of the nanofluid as the convective heat transfer coefficient increased. It was found that the pressure loss increases with an increase in the Reynolds number, nanoparticle density and particle volume fraction. However, the flow demonstrates enhancement in heat transfer which becomes greater with an increase in the Reynolds number for the nanofluid flow.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/chemistry*
  6. Zamiri R, Zakaria A, Ahangar HA, Sadrolhosseini AR, Mahdi MA
    Int J Mol Sci, 2010;11(11):4764-70.
    PMID: 21151470 DOI: 10.3390/ijms11114764
    In this study we used a laser ablation technique for preparation of silver nanoparticles. The fabrication process was carried out by ablation of a silver plate immersed in palm oil. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm was used for ablation of the plate at different times. The palm coconut oil allowed formation of nanoparticles with very small and uniform particle size, which are dispersed very homogeneously within the solution. The obtained particle sizes for 15 and 30 minute ablation times were 2.5 and 2 nm, respectively. Stability study shows that all of the samples remained stable for a reasonable period of time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry*
  7. Chen YW, Lee HV, Abd Hamid SB
    Carbohydr Polym, 2017 Dec 15;178:57-68.
    PMID: 29050615 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.09.029
    For the first time, a highly efficient Cr(NO3)3 catalysis system was proposed for optimization the yield and crystallinity of nanocellulose end product. A five-level three-factor central composite design coupled with response surface methodology was employed to elucidate parameters interactions between three design factors, namely reaction temperature (x1), reaction time (x2) and concentration of Cr(NO3)3 (x3) over a broad range of process conditions and determine the effect on crystallinity index and product yield. The developed models predicted the maximum nanocellulose yield of 87% at optimum process conditions of 70.6°C, 1.48h, and 0.48M Cr(NO3)3. At these conditions, the obtained nanocellulose presented high crystallinity index (75.3%), spider-web-like interconnected network morphology with the average width of 31.2±14.3nm. In addition, the yielded nanocellulose rendered a higher thermal stability than that of original cellulosic source and expected to be widely used as reinforcement agent in bio-nanocomposites materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/chemistry*
  8. Khalid K, Tan X, Mohd Zaid HF, Tao Y, Lye Chew C, Chu DT, et al.
    Bioengineered, 2020 12;11(1):328-355.
    PMID: 32138595 DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2020.1736240
    With the unique properties such as high surface area to volume ratio, stability, inertness, ease of functionalization, as well as novel optical, electrical, and magnetic behaviors, nanomaterials have a wide range of applications in various fields with the common types including nanotubes, dendrimers, quantum dots, and fullerenes. With the aim of providing useful insights to help future development of efficient and commercially viable technology for large-scale production, this review focused on the science and applications of inorganic and organic nanomaterials, emphasizing on their synthesis, processing, characterization, and applications on different fields. The applications of nanomaterials on imaging, cell and gene delivery, biosensor, cancer treatment, therapy, and others were discussed in depth. Last but not least, the future prospects and challenges in nanoscience and nanotechnology were also explored.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/chemistry
  9. Jamila N, Khan N, Hwang IM, Saba M, Khan F, Amin F, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Mar 15;147:853-866.
    PMID: 31739066 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.09.245
    Gums; composed of polysaccharides, carbohydrates, proteins, and minerals, are high molecular weight hydrophilic compounds with several biological applications. This study describes the nutritional and toxic elements content, chemical composition, synthesis of silver nanoparticles (G-AgNPs), and pharmacological and catalytic properties of Prunus armeniaca (apricot), Prunus domestica (plums), Prunus persica (peaches), Acacia modesta (phulai), Acacia arabica (kikar), and Salmalia malabarica (silk cotton tree) gums. The elemental contents were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). NMR spectroscopy was used for the identification of class of compounds in the mixture, their functional groups were determined through FTIR techniques, and plasmon resonance and size of G-AgNPs through UV-Vis spectroscopic technique and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the results, nutritional elements were present at appreciable concentrations, whereas toxic elements showed content below the maximum permissible ranges. Using the elemental data, linear discriminant and principal component analyses classified the gums to 99.9% variability index. Furthermore, G-AgNPs exhibited significant antioxidant, antibacterial, and redox catalytic potential. Hence, the subject G-AgNPs could have promising nutritional, therapeutic and environmental remediation applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry*
  10. Kian LK, Saba N, Jawaid M, Alothman OY, Fouad H
    Carbohydr Polym, 2020 Aug 01;241:116423.
    PMID: 32507177 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116423
    Olive fiber is a sustainable material as well as alternative biomass for extraction of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), which has been widely applied in various industries. In the present study, ONC-I, ONC-II, and ONC-III were extracted from olive stem fiber at different hydrolysis reaction times of 30 min, 45 min, and 60 min, respectively. The nanoparticle size was found gradually reducing from ONC-I (11.35 nm width, 168.28 nm length) to ONC-III (6.92 nm width, 124.16 nm length) due to the disintegration of cellulose fibrils. ONC-II and ONC-III possessed highly pure cellulose compartments and enhanced crystals structure. This study also showed that rigidity increased from ONC-I to ONC-II. ONC-III showed the highest crystallinity of 83.1 %, endowing it as a potentially reliable load-bearing agent. Moreover, ONC-III exhibited highest stable heat resistance among the chemically-isolated nanocellulose. We concluded that olive NCC could be promising materials for a variety of industrial applications in various fields.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/chemistry*
  11. Khavarian M, Chai SP, Mohamed AR
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2013 Jul;13(7):4825-37.
    PMID: 23901504
    The utilization of carbon dioxide for the production of valuable chemicals via catalysts is one of the efficient ways to mitigate the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is known that the carbon dioxide conversion and product yields are still low even if the reaction is operated at high pressure and temperature. The carbon dioxide utilization and conversion provides many challenges in exploring new concepts and opportunities for development of unique catalysts for the purpose of activating the carbon dioxide molecules. In this paper, the role of carbon-based nanocatalysts in the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from carbon dioxide and methanol are reviewed. The current catalytic results obtained with different carbon-based nanocatalysts systems are presented and how these materials contribute to the carbon dioxide conversion is explained. In addition, different strategies and preparation methods of nanometallic catalysts on various carbon supports are described to optimize the dispersion of metal nanoparticles and catalytic activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry*
  12. Safaei MR, Mahian O, Garoosi F, Hooman K, Karimipour A, Kazi SN, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:740578.
    PMID: 25379542 DOI: 10.1155/2014/740578
    This paper addresses erosion prediction in 3-D, 90° elbow for two-phase (solid and liquid) turbulent flow with low volume fraction of copper. For a range of particle sizes from 10 nm to 100 microns and particle volume fractions from 0.00 to 0.04, the simulations were performed for the velocity range of 5-20 m/s. The 3-D governing differential equations were discretized using finite volume method. The influences of size and concentration of micro- and nanoparticles, shear forces, and turbulence on erosion behavior of fluid flow were studied. The model predictions are compared with the earlier studies and a good agreement is found. The results indicate that the erosion rate is directly dependent on particles' size and volume fraction as well as flow velocity. It has been observed that the maximum pressure has direct relationship with the particle volume fraction and velocity but has a reverse relationship with the particle diameter. It also has been noted that there is a threshold velocity as well as a threshold particle size, beyond which significant erosion effects kick in. The average friction factor is independent of the particle size and volume fraction at a given fluid velocity but increases with the increase of inlet velocities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/chemistry*
  13. Danial WH, Abdul Majid Z, Mohd Muhid MN, Triwahyono S, Bakar MB, Ramli Z
    Carbohydr Polym, 2015 Mar 15;118:165-9.
    PMID: 25542122 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.10.072
    The study reports on the preparation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) from wastepaper, as an environmental friendly approach of source material, which can be a high availability and low-cost precursor for cellulose nanomaterial processing. Alkali and bleaching treatments were employed for the extraction of cellulose particles followed by controlled-conditions of acid hydrolysis for the isolation of CNCs. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FTIR) spectroscopy was used to analyze the cellulose particles extracted while Transmission electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of CNCs. The diameters of CNCs are in the range of 3-10nm with a length of 100-300nm while a crystallinity index of 75.9% was determined from X-ray diffraction analysis. The synthesis of this high aspect ratio of CNCs paves the way toward alternative reuse of wastepaper in the production of CNCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/chemistry*
  14. Bagheri S, Muhd Julkapli N, Bee Abd Hamid S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:727496.
    PMID: 25383380 DOI: 10.1155/2014/727496
    The lack of stability is a challenge for most heterogeneous catalysts. During operations, the agglomeration of particles may block the active sites of the catalyst, which is believed to contribute to its instability. Recently, titanium oxide (TiO2) was introduced as an alternative support material for heterogeneous catalyst due to the effect of its high surface area stabilizing the catalysts in its mesoporous structure. TiO2 supported metal catalysts have attracted interest due to TiO2 nanoparticles high activity for various reduction and oxidation reactions at low pressures and temperatures. Furthermore, TiO2 was found to be a good metal oxide catalyst support due to the strong metal support interaction, chemical stability, and acid-base property. The aforementioned properties make heterogeneous TiO2 supported catalysts show a high potential in photocatalyst-related applications, electrodes for wet solar cells, synthesis of fine chemicals, and others. This review focuses on TiO2 as a support material for heterogeneous catalysts and its potential applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/chemistry*
  15. Mansur S, Ishak A, Pop I
    PLoS One, 2015;10(3):e0117733.
    PMID: 25760733 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117733
    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stagnation point flow of a nanofluid over a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet is studied. Numerical results are obtained using boundary value problem solver bvp4c in MATLAB for several values of parameters. The numerical results show that dual solutions exist for the shrinking case, while for the stretching case, the solution is unique. A stability analysis is performed to determine the stability of the dual solutions. For the stable solution, the skin friction is higher in the presence of magnetic field and increases when the suction effect is increased. It is also found that increasing the Brownian motion parameter and the thermophoresis parameter reduces the heat transfer rate at the surface.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/chemistry*
  16. Nurdin I, Johan MR, Yaacob II, Ang BC
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:589479.
    PMID: 24963510 DOI: 10.1155/2014/589479
    Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles have been synthesized using a chemical coprecipitation method at different nitric acid concentrations as an oxidizing agent. Characterization of all samples performed by several techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential. The XRD patterns confirmed that the particles were maghemite. The crystallite size of all samples decreases with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. TEM observation showed that the particles have spherical morphology with narrow particle size distribution. The particles showed superparamagnetic behavior with decreased magnetization values at the increasing concentration of nitric acid. TGA measurement showed that the stability temperature decreases with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. DLS measurement showed that the hydrodynamic particle sizes decrease with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. Zeta potential values show a decrease with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. The increasing concentration of nitric acid in synthesis of maghemite nanoparticles produced smaller size particles, lower magnetization, better thermal stability, and more stable maghemite nanoparticles suspension.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/chemistry*
  17. Kamali KZ, Alagarsamy P, Huang NM, Ong BH, Lim HN
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:396135.
    PMID: 25136664 DOI: 10.1155/2014/396135
    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were synthesized by the solid transformation of ferrous hydroxide and ferrihydrite in hydrothermal condition. The as-prepared α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, PL, XRD, Raman, TEM, AFM, FESEM, and EDX analysis. The experimental results indicated the formation of uniform hematite nanoparticles with an average size of 45 nm and perfect crystallinity. The electrochemical behavior of a GC/α-Fe2O3 electrode was studied using CV and EIS techniques with an electrochemical probe, [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) redox couple. The electrocatalytic activity was investigated toward DA oxidation in a phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8) by varying different experimental parameters. The chronoamperometric study showed a linear response in the range of 0-2 μM with LoD of 1.6 μM for DA. Square wave voltammetry showed a linear response in the range of 0-35 μM with LoD of 236 nM for DA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanoparticles/chemistry*
  18. Aziz MS, Suwanpayak N, Jalil MA, Jomtarak R, Saktioto T, Ali J, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2012;7:11-7.
    PMID: 22275818 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S27417
    A new optical trapping design to transport gold nanoparticles using a PANDA ring resonator system is proposed. Intense optical fields in the form of dark solitons controlled by Gaussian pulses are used to trap and transport nanoscopic volumes of matter to the desired destination via an optical waveguide. Theoretically, the gradient and scattering forces are responsible for this trapping phenomenon, where in practice such systems can be fabricated and a thin-film device formed on the specific artificial medical materials, for instance, an artificial bone. The dynamic behavior of the tweezers can be tuned by controlling the optical pulse input power and parameters of the ring resonator system. Different trap sizes can be generated to trap different gold nanoparticles sizes, which is useful for gold nanoparticle therapy. In this paper, we have shown the utility of gold nanoparticle trapping and delivery for therapy, which may be useful for cosmetic therapy and related applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry*
  19. Zamiri R, Zakaria A, Husin MS, Wahab ZA, Nazarpour FK
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:2221-4.
    PMID: 22114485 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S23830
    In the present work, we prepared silver nanoparticles by laser ablation of pure silver plate in ethanol and then irradiated the silver nanoparticles using a 532 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Transmission electron microscopic images of the sample after irradiation clearly showed formation of big structures, such as microrods and microbelts in ethanol. The obtained microbelts had a width of about 0.166 μm and a length of 1.472 μm. The reason for the formation of such a big structure is the tendency of the nanoparticles to aggregate in ethanol before irradiation, which causes fusion of the nanoparticles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry*
  20. Darroudi M, Ahmad MB, Abdullah AH, Ibrahim NA, Shameli K
    Int J Mol Sci, 2010;11(10):3898-905.
    PMID: 21152307 DOI: 10.3390/ijms11103898
    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were successfully synthesized in the natural polymeric matrix. Silver nitrate, gelatin, glucose, and sodium hydroxide have been used as silver precursor, stabilizer, reducing agent, and accelerator reagent, respectively. This study investigated the role of NaOH as the accelerator. The resultant products have been confirmed to be Ag-NPs using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The colloidal sols of Ag-NPs obtained at different volumes of NaOH show strong and different surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks, which can be explained from the TEM images of Ag-NPs and their particle size distribution. Compared with other synthetic methods, this work is green, rapid, and simple to use. The newly prepared Ag-NPs may have many potential applications in chemical and biological industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry*
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