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  1. Wong XY, Sena-Torralba A, Álvarez-Diduk R, Muthoosamy K, Merkoçi A
    ACS Nano, 2020 03 24;14(3):2585-2627.
    PMID: 32031781 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.9b08133
    Nanotheranostics is one of the biggest scientific breakthroughs in nanomedicine. Most of the currently available diagnosis and therapies are invasive, time-consuming, and associated with severe toxic side effects. Nanotheranostics, on the other hand, has the potential to bridge this gap by harnessing the capabilities of nanotechnology and nanomaterials for combined therapeutics and diagnostics with markedly enhanced efficacy. However, nanomaterial applications in nanotheranostics are still in its infancy. This is due to the fact that each disease has a particular microenvironment with well-defined characteristics, which promotes deeper selection criteria of nanomaterials to meet the disease needs. In this review, we have outlined how nanomaterials are designed and tailored for nanotheranostics of cancer and other diseases such as neurodegenerative, autoimmune (particularly on rheumatoid arthritis), and cardiovascular diseases. The penetrability and retention of a nanomaterial in the biological system, the therapeutic strategy used, and the imaging mode selected are some of the aspects discussed for each disease. The specific properties of the nanomaterials in terms of feasibility, physicochemical challenges, progress in clinical trials, its toxicity, and their future application on translational medicine are addressed. Our review meticulously and critically examines the applications of nanotheranostics with various nanomaterials, including graphene, across several diseases, offering a broader perspective of this emerging field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/therapeutic use
  2. Shin Low S, Nong Lim C, Yew M, Siong Chai W, Low LE, Manickam S, et al.
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2021 Dec;80:105805.
    PMID: 34706321 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105805
    Recent advances in ultrasound (US) have shown its great potential in biomedical applications as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The coupling of US-assisted drug delivery systems with nanobiomaterials possessing tailor-made functions has been shown to remove the limitations of conventional drug delivery systems. The low-frequency US has significantly enhanced the targeted drug delivery effect and efficacy, reducing limitations posed by conventional treatments such as a limited therapeutic window. The acoustic cavitation effect induced by the US-mediated microbubbles (MBs) has been reported to replace drugs in certain acute diseases such as ischemic stroke. This review briefly discusses the US principles, with particular attention to the recent advancements in drug delivery applications. Furthermore, US-assisted drug delivery coupled with nanobiomaterials to treat different diseases (cancer, neurodegenerative disease, diabetes, thrombosis, and COVID-19) are discussed in detail. Finally, this review covers the future perspectives and challenges on the applications of US-mediated nanobiomaterials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/therapeutic use*
  3. Lee JJ, Saiful Yazan L, Che Abdullah CA
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2017;12:2373-2384.
    PMID: 28392694 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S127329
    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide, especially among women, with substantial after-treatment effects. The survival rates of breast cancer have decreased over the years even with the existence of various therapeutic strategies, specifically, chemotherapy. Clinical drugs administered for breast cancer appear to be non-targeting to specific cancer sites leading to severe side effects and potentially harming healthy cells instead of just killing cancer cells. This leads to the need for designing a targeted drug delivery system. Nanomaterials, both organic and inorganic, are potential drug nanocarriers with the ability of targeting, imaging and tracking. Various types of nanomaterials have been actively researched together with their drug conjugate. In this review, we focus on selected nanomaterials, namely solid-lipid, liposomal, polymeric, magnetic nanoparticles, quantum dots, and carbon nanotubes and their drug conjugates, for breast cancer studies. Their advantages, disadvantages and previously conducted studies were highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/therapeutic use*
  4. Subin TS, Vijayan V, Kumar KJR
    Pharm Nanotechnol, 2017;5(3):180-191.
    PMID: 28641516 DOI: 10.2174/2211738505666170615095542
    BACKGROUND: Nanomedicine is a branch which deals with medicinal products, devices, nonbiological complex drugs and antibody-nanoparticle conjugates and general health products that are manufactured using nanotechnology.

    OBJECTIVE: Nano-medicine provides the same efficacies as traditional medicines owing to their improved solubility and bioavailability with reduced dosages. However, there are currently safety concerns due to the difficulties related to nanomaterial characterization; this might be the reason for unawareness of such medicines among the patients. The absence of clear regulatory guidelines further complicates matters, as it makes the path to registering them with regulatory bodies difficult. However, some products have overcome these obstacles and have been registered. While there are many international initiatives to harmonize the regulatory requirements and helps the industry to determine the most important characteristics that influence in vivo product performance.

    CONCLUSION: This review focuses on the various types of nanopharmaceuticals, and developments process with strategies tailored to upcoming regulations may satisfy the patients' needs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/therapeutic use
  5. Rashidzadeh H, Danafar H, Rahimi H, Mozafari F, Salehiabar M, Rahmati MA, et al.
    Nanomedicine (Lond), 2021 03;16(6):497-516.
    PMID: 33683164 DOI: 10.2217/nnm-2020-0441
    COVID-19, as an emerging infectious disease, has caused significant mortality and morbidity along with socioeconomic impact. No effective treatment or vaccine has been approved yet for this pandemic disease. Cutting-edge tools, especially nanotechnology, should be strongly considered to tackle this virus. This review aims to propose several strategies to design and fabricate effective diagnostic and therapeutic agents against COVID-19 by the aid of nanotechnology. Polymeric, inorganic self-assembling materials and peptide-based nanoparticles are promising tools for battling COVID-19 as well as its rapid diagnosis. This review summarizes all of the exciting advances nanomaterials are making toward COVID-19 prevention, diagnosis and therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/therapeutic use*
  6. Izham MNM, Hussin Y, Rahim NFC, Aziz MNM, Yeap SK, Rahman HS, et al.
    BMC Complement Med Ther, 2021 Oct 07;21(1):254.
    PMID: 34620132 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-021-03422-y
    BACKGROUND: Eucalyptol is an active compound of eucalyptus essential oil and was reported to have many medical attributes including cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cells. However, it has low solubility in aqueous solutions which limits its bioavailability and cytotoxic efficiency. In this study, nanostructured lipid carrier loaded with eucalyptol (NLC-Eu) was formulated and characterized and the cytotoxic effect of NLC-Eu towards breast cancer cell lines was determined. In addition, its toxicity in animal model, BALB/c mice was also incorporated into this study to validate the safety of NLC-Eu.

    METHODS: Eucalyptol, a monoterpene oxide active, was used to formulate the NLC-Eu by using high pressure homogenization technique. The physicochemical characterization of NLC-Eu was performed to assess its morphology, particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential. The in vitro cytotoxic effects of this encapsulated eucalyptol on human (MDA MB-231) and murine (4 T1) breast cancer cell lines were determined using the MTT assay. Additionally, acridine orange/propidium iodide assay was conducted on the NLC-Eu treated MDA MB-231 cells. The in vivo sub-chronic toxicity of the prepared NLC-Eu was investigated using an in vivo BALB/c mice model.

    RESULTS: As a result, the light, translucent, milky-colored NLC-Eu showed particle size of 71.800 ± 2.144 nm, poly-dispersity index of 0.258 ± 0.003, and zeta potential of - 2.927 ± 0.163 mV. Furthermore, the TEM results of NLC-Eu displayed irregular round to spherical morphology with narrow size distribution and relatively uniformed particles. The drug loading capacity and entrapment efficiency of NLC-Eu were 4.99 and 90.93%, respectively. Furthermore, NLC-Eu exhibited cytotoxic effects on both, human and mice, breast cancer cells with IC50 values of 10.00 ± 4.81 μg/mL and 17.70 ± 0.57 μg/mL, respectively at 72 h. NLC-Eu also induced apoptosis on the MDA MB-231 cells. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, all of the studied mice did not show any signs of toxicity, abnormality or mortality. Besides that, no significant changes were observed in the body weight, internal organ index, hepatic and renal histopathology, serum biochemistry, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde contents.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the well-characterized NLC-Eu offers a safe and promising carrier system which has cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cell lines.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/therapeutic use*
  7. Sharma AK, Gothwal A, Kesharwani P, Alsaab H, Iyer AK, Gupta U
    Drug Discov Today, 2017 02;22(2):314-326.
    PMID: 27671487 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2016.09.013
    Dendrimers are novel nanoarchitectures with unique properties including a globular 3D shape, a monodispersed unimicellar nature and a nanometric size range. The availability of multiple peripheral functional groups and tunable surface engineering enable the facile modification of the dendrimer surface with different therapeutic drugs, diagnostic agents and targeting ligands. Drug encapsulation, and solubilizing and passive targeting also equally contribute to the therapeutic use of dendrimers. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the delivery of anticancer drugs using dendrimers, as well as other biomedical and diagnostic applications. Taken together, the immense potential and utility of dendrimers are envisaged to have a significant positive impact on the growing arena of drug delivery and targeting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/therapeutic use
  8. Zulkifli FH, Hussain FSJ, Rasad MSBA, Mohd Yusoff M
    Carbohydr Polym, 2014 Dec 19;114:238-245.
    PMID: 25263887 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.08.019
    In this study, a novel fibrous membrane of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC)/poly(vinyl alcohol) blend was successfully fabricated by electrospinning technique and characterized. The concentration of HEC (5%) with PVA (15%) was optimized, blended in different ratios (30-50%) and electrospun to get smooth nanofibers. Nanofibrous membranes were made water insoluble by chemically cross-linking by glutaraldehyde and used as scaffolds for the skin tissue engineering. The microstructure, morphology, mechanical and thermal properties of the blended HEC/PVA nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning colorimetry, universal testing machine and thermogravimetric analysis. Cytotoxicity studies on these nanofibrous scaffolds were carried out using human melanoma cells by the MTT assays. The cells were able to attach and spread in the nanofibrous scaffolds as shown by the SEM images. These preliminary results show that these nanofibrous scaffolds that supports cell adhesion and proliferation is promising for skin tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/therapeutic use
  9. Alipour E, Alimohammady F, Yumashev A, Maseleno A
    J Mol Model, 2019 Dec 13;26(1):7.
    PMID: 31834504 DOI: 10.1007/s00894-019-4267-1
    Today, drug delivery systems based on nanostructures have become the most efficient to be studied. Recent studies revealed that the fullerenes can be used as drug carriers and transport drugs in a target cell. The aim of the present work is to study the interaction of C60 fullerene containing porphyrin-like transition metal-N4 clusters (TMN4C55, TM = Fe, Co, and Ni) with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ibuprofen (Ibp)) by employing the method of the density functional theory. Results showed that the C60 fullerene with TMN4 clusters could significantly enhance the tendency of C60 for adsorption of ibuprofen drug. Also, our ultraviolet-visible results show that the electronic spectra of Ibp/TMN4C55 complexes exhibit a blue shift toward lower wavelengths (higher energies). It was found that the NiN4C55 fullerene had high chemical reactivity, which was important for binding of the drug onto the carrier surface. In order to gain insight into the binding features of Ibp/TMN4C55 complexes, the atoms in molecules analysis was also performed. Our results exhibit the electrostatic features of the Ibp/TMN4C55 bonding. Consequently, this study demonstrated that the TMN4C55 fullerenes could be used as potential carriers for delivery of Ibp drug in the nanomedicine domain. Graphical Abstract The TMN4C55 (TM=Fe, Co, and Ni) fullerenes could be used as potential carriers for delivery of ibuprofen drug in the nanomedicine domain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/therapeutic use
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