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  1. Albalawi F, Hussein MZ, Fakurazi S, Masarudin MJ
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2021;16:161-184.
    PMID: 33447033 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S288236
    The emergence of nanotechnology as a key enabling technology over the past years has opened avenues for new and innovative applications in nanomedicine. From the business aspect, the nanomedicine market was estimated to worth USD 293.1 billion by 2022 with a perception of market growth to USD 350.8 billion in 2025. Despite these opportunities, the underlying challenges for the future of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in nanomedicine research became a significant obstacle in bringing ENMs into clinical stages. These challenges include the capability to design bias-free methods in evaluating ENMs' toxicity due to the lack of suitable detection and inconsistent characterization techniques. Therefore, in this literature review, the state-of-the-art of engineered nanomaterials in nanomedicine, their toxicology issues, the working framework in developing a toxicology benchmark and technical characterization techniques in determining the toxicity of ENMs from the reported literature are explored.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/toxicity
  2. How CW, Rasedee A, Abbasalipourkabir R
    IEEE Trans Nanobioscience, 2013 Jun;12(2):72-8.
    PMID: 23268387 DOI: 10.1109/TNB.2012.2232937
    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) composed of solid and liquid lipids, and surfactants are potentially good colloidal drug carriers. Before NLC can be used as drug carriers, the cytotoxicity of their components must be ascertained. The cytotoxicity of solid lipids (trilaurin, palmitin, docosanoid acid, and hydrogenated palm oil [HPO]) and surfactants (Polysorbate 20, 80, and 85) were determined on BALB/c 3T3 cells. The HPO and Polysorbate 80 were least cytotoxic and used with olive oil in the formulation of NLC. The particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, specific surface area, and crystallinity index of the NLC were 61.14 nm, 0.461, -25.4 mV, and 49.07 m(2) and 27.12% respectively, while the melting point was 4.3 °C lower than of HPO. Unlike in serum-free, NLC incubated in fetal bovine serum-supplemented medium did not show particle growth, suggesting that serum proteins in medium inhibit nanoparticles aggregation. The study also showed that NLC was less toxic to BALB/c 3T3 cells than Polysorbate 80. Thus, NLC with olive oil, HPO, and Polysorbate 80 as components are potentially good drug carriers with minimal cytotoxicity on normal cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/toxicity*
  3. Shamsi S, Alagan AA, Sarchio SNE, Md Yasin F
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2020;15:8311-8329.
    PMID: 33149578 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S271159
    Background: In the current literature, there are ongoing debates on the toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) that demonstrate contradictory findings regarding its toxicity profile. As a potential drug carrier, these findings are very concerning due to the safety concerns in humans, as well as the dramatic rise of GO being excreted into the environment. Therefore, there is an imperative need to mitigate the potential toxicity of GO to allow for a safer application in the future.

    Purpose: The present study aims to address this issue by functionalizing GO with Pluronic F127 (PF) as a means to mitigate toxicity and resolve the biocompatibility of GO. Although results from previous studies generally indicated that Pluronic functionalized GO exhibits relatively low toxicity to living organisms, reports that emphasize on its toxicity, particularly during embryonic developmental stage, are still scarce.

    Methods: In the present study, two different sizes of native GO samples, GO and NanoGO, as well as PF-functionalized GO, GO-PF and NanoGO-PF, were prepared and characterized using DLS, UV-Vis, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, and FESEM analyses. Toxicological assessment of all GO samples (0-100 µg/mL) on zebrafish embryonic developmental stages (survival, hatching and heart rates, and morphological changes) was recorded daily for up to 96 hours post-fertilization (hpf).

    Results: The toxicity effects of each GO sample were observed to be higher at increasing concentrations and upon prolonged exposure. NanoGO demonstrated lower toxicity effects compared to GO. GO-PF and NanoGO-PF were also found to have lower toxicity effects compared to native GO samples. GO-PF showed the lowest toxicity response on zebrafish embryo.

    Conclusion: These findings highlight that toxicity is dependent on the concentration, size, and exposure period of GO. Functionalization of GO with PF through surface coating could potentially mitigate the toxicity effects of GO in embryonic developmental stages, but further investigation is warranted for broader future applications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/toxicity*
  4. Rahman HS, Rasedee A, Othman HH, Chartrand MS, Namvar F, Yeap SK, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:563930.
    PMID: 25276798 DOI: 10.1155/2014/563930
    Zerumbone- (ZER-) loaded nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC) (ZER-NLC) prepared for its antileukemia effect in vitro was evaluated for its toxicological effects by observing changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, and brain tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow stem cells. The acute toxicity study for ZER-NLC was conducted by orally treating BALB/c mice with a single dose with either water, olive oil, ZER, NLC, or ZER-NLC for 14 days. The animals were observed for clinical and behavioral abnormalities, toxicological symptoms, feed consumption, and gross appearance. The liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, and brain tissues were assessed histologically. Total haemogram was counted by hemocytometry and microhematocrit reader. Bone marrow examination in terms of cellular morphology was done by Wright staining with bone marrow smear. Furthermore, serum biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Grossly all treated mice, their investigated tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow were normal. At oral doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg ZER-NLC there was no sign of toxicity or mortality in BALB/c mice. This study suggests that the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of ZER-NLC is higher than 200 mg/kg, thus, safe by oral administration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/toxicity*
  5. Teh SJ, Yeoh SL, Lee KM, Lai CW, Abdul Hamid SB, Thong KL
    PMID: 27203568 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2016.05.013
    The immobilization of photocatalyst nanoparticles on a solid substrate is an important aspect for improved post-treatment separation and photocatalyst reactor design. In this study, we report the simple preparation of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-hybridized zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films using a one-step electrochemical deposition, and investigated the effect of rGO-hybridization on the photoinactivation efficiency of ZnO thin films towards Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) as target bacterial pathogens. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) revealed the formation of geometric, hexagonal flakes of ZnO on the ITO glass substrate, as well as the incorporation of rGO with ZnO in the rGO/ZnO thin film. Raman spectroscopy indicated the successful incorporation of rGO with ZnO during the electrodeposition process. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy indicates that rGO hybridization with ZnO increases the amount of oxygen vacancies, evidenced by the shift of visible PL peak at 650 to 500nm. The photoinactivation experiments showed that the thin films were able to reduce the bacterial cell density of Staph. aureus and S. Typhi from an initial concentration of approximately 10(8) to 10(3)CFU/mL within 15min. The rGO/ZnO thin film increased the photoinactivation rate for S. aureus (log[N/No]) from -5.1 (ZnO) to -5.9. In contrast, the application of rGO/ZnO thin film towards the photoinactivation of S. Typhi did not improve its photoinactivation rate, compared to the ZnO thin film. We may summarise that (1) rGO/ZnO was effective to accelerate the photoinactivation of S. aureus but showed no difference to improve the photoinactivation of S. Typhi, in comparison to the performance of ZnO thin films, and (2) the photoinactivation in the presence of ZnO and rGO/ZnO was by ROS damage to the extracellular wall.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/toxicity*
  6. Sharma AK, Gothwal A, Kesharwani P, Alsaab H, Iyer AK, Gupta U
    Drug Discov Today, 2017 02;22(2):314-326.
    PMID: 27671487 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2016.09.013
    Dendrimers are novel nanoarchitectures with unique properties including a globular 3D shape, a monodispersed unimicellar nature and a nanometric size range. The availability of multiple peripheral functional groups and tunable surface engineering enable the facile modification of the dendrimer surface with different therapeutic drugs, diagnostic agents and targeting ligands. Drug encapsulation, and solubilizing and passive targeting also equally contribute to the therapeutic use of dendrimers. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the delivery of anticancer drugs using dendrimers, as well as other biomedical and diagnostic applications. Taken together, the immense potential and utility of dendrimers are envisaged to have a significant positive impact on the growing arena of drug delivery and targeting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanostructures/toxicity
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