Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 209 in total

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  1. Rao PV, Gan SH
    Curr Drug Metab, 2015;16(5):371-5.
    PMID: 25429672 DOI: 10.2174/1389200215666141125120215
    Nanotechnology is a field encompassing nanostructures, nanomaterials and nanoparticles, which are of increasing importance to researchers and industrial players alike. Nanotechnology addresses the construction and consumption of substances and devices on the nanometer scale. Nanomedicine is a new field that combines nanotechnology with medicine to boost human health care. Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that includes various areas of biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. The most important problems related to diabetes management, such as self-monitoring of blood glucose levels and insulin injections, can now be conquered due to progress in nanomedicine, which offers glucose nanosensors, the layer-by-layer technique, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, oral insulins, microspheres, artificial pancreases and nanopumps. In this review, the key methodological and scientific characteristics of nanomedicine related to diabetes treatment, glucose monitoring and insulin administration are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology*
  2. Chellappan DK, Yenese Y, Wei CC, Gupta G
    Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets, 2017 09 11;17(2):87 - 95.
    PMID: 28427246 DOI: 10.2174/1871530317666170421121202
    Background and Objective: The incidence of diabetes has been on the rise and the rate of rise since the turn of this century has been phenomenal. One of the various battling issues faced by diabetics all over the globe is the management of diabetic wounds. Currently, there are several management strategies to deal with the treatment of diabetic wounds. The conventional methods have several limitations. One of the major limitations is the rate and progression of healing of a diabetic wound when adopting a conventional diabetic wound management therapy. Lately, several nano techniques and nano products have emerged in the market that offer promising results for such patients. The treatment outcomes are achieved more efficiently with such nanomedical products.
    Methods: This review attempts to consider the currently available nanotechnological applications in the management of diabetic wounds. We take a deeper look into the available nanotherapeutic agents and the different nanocarriers that could be used in the management of diabetic wound healing. Lately, researchers around the globe have started providing evidences on the effective use of such nanoparticles in various fields of Medicine extending from genetics to various other branches of medicine. This also includes the management of diabetic wounds.
    Conclusion: This paper discusses the challenges faced with these nanotherapies and nanoparticles with regard to the treatment of diabetic wounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology*
  3. Lund LA, Omar Z, Khan I
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2019 Dec;182:105044.
    PMID: 31491654 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.105044
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The last two and half decades are witnessed a great surge in the use convective fluids for enhancement of heat transfer of minerals ethylene glycol, oil and water due to their numerous applications in the industrial segments including chemical production, microelectronics, power generation, transportation, and air-conditioning. For this purpose, different procedures were applied to upgrade the thermal conductivity of common fluid but could not. Further, Choi and Eastman in 1995 introduced nanofluid which has good thermal properties as compared to common fluids. After that, it can be seen that researchers, mathematicians, and scientists tried to understand the principles of nanofluids and how to implicate them in many different practical applications. In this work, the Buongiorno model has been considered for nanofluid. One of the prime objectives is to consider all possible multiple solutions of the model because these solutions cannot be seen experimentally.

    METHODS: The governing equations of fluid flow have been transformed in the form of ordinary differential equations. These equations have been solved by two methods namely, shooting method and three-stage Lobatto IIIa formula.

    RESULTS: The effects of different parameters on temperature, velocity, concentration profiles, skin friction coefficient, Sherwood number, and reduced Nusselt number were obtained and presented graphically. It was noticed that four solutions existed at definite ranges of the parameters for high suction over both surfaces for the first time. The results of the stability analysis revealed that only the first solution is more stable and possess physical reliability compared to the remaining solutions.

    CONCLUSION: The graphs also indicated that the fluid velocity decreases as the thermophoresis parameter increases but the opposite behavior observed for both temperature and concentration profiles in the first solution. Furthermore, it was detected that the concentration profile declined at the higher values of the Brownian motion parameter.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology*
  4. Ong HS, Syafiq-Rahim M, Kasim NH, Firdaus-Raih M, Ramlan EI
    J Biotechnol, 2016 Oct 20;236:141-51.
    PMID: 27569553 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2016.08.017
    Fabrication of functional DNA nanostructures operating at a cellular level has been accomplished through molecular programming techniques such as DNA origami and single-stranded tiles (SST). During implementation, restrictive and constraint dependent designs are enforced to ensure conformity is attainable. We propose a concept of DNA polyominoes that promotes flexibility in molecular programming. The fabrication of complex structures is achieved through self-assembly of distinct heterogeneous shapes (i.e., self-organised optimisation among competing DNA basic shapes) with total flexibility during the design and assembly phases. In this study, the plausibility of the approach is validated using the formation of multiple 3×4 DNA network fabricated from five basic DNA shapes with distinct configurations (monomino, tromino and tetrominoes). Computational tools to aid the design of compatible DNA shapes and the structure assembly assessment are presented. The formations of the desired structures were validated using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imagery. Five 3×4 DNA networks were successfully constructed using combinatorics of these five distinct DNA heterogeneous shapes. Our findings revealed that the construction of DNA supra-structures could be achieved using a more natural-like orchestration as compared to the rigid and restrictive conventional approaches adopted previously.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  5. Aslani F, Bagheri S, Muhd Julkapli N, Juraimi AS, Hashemi FS, Baghdadi A
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:641759.
    PMID: 25202734 DOI: 10.1155/2014/641759
    Rapid development and wide applications of nanotechnology brought about a significant increment on the number of engineered nanomaterials (ENs) inevitably entering our living system. Plants comprise of a very important living component of the terrestrial ecosystem. Studies on the influence of engineered nanomaterials (carbon and metal/metal oxides based) on plant growth indicated that in the excess content, engineered nanomaterials influences seed germination. It assessed the shoot-to-root ratio and the growth of the seedlings. From the toxicological studies to date, certain types of engineered nanomaterials can be toxic once they are not bound to a substrate or if they are freely circulating in living systems. It is assumed that the different types of engineered nanomaterials affect the different routes, behavior, and the capability of the plants. Furthermore, different, or even opposing conclusions, have been drawn from most studies on the interactions between engineered nanomaterials with plants. Therefore, this paper comprehensively reviews the studies on the different types of engineered nanomaterials and their interactions with different plant species, including the phytotoxicity, uptakes, and translocation of engineered nanomaterials by the plant at the whole plant and cellular level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology
  6. Ali A, Akhtar J, Ahmad U, Basheer AS, Jaiswal N, Jahan A
    PMID: 36374840 DOI: 10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.2022039241
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. However, more than half of all incidence and mortality are caused by risk factors such as smoking, unhealthy diet, excessive alcohol consumption, inactivity, and excess weight, and thus can be protected. CRC morbidity and mortality can also be reduced by proper screening and monitoring. Over the last few years the amalgamation of nanotechnology with healthcare system has brought about the potential to administer the delivery of certain therapeutic drugs to cancer cells without affecting normal tissues. Recent strategies combine the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the overall performance of cancer nanomedicines. Targeted cancer nanotherapeutics provides many more opportunities for the selective detection of toxic chemicals within cancer cells. The distinctive features of nanoparticles, such as their small size, large surface to volume ratio, and the ability of nanoparticles to achieve several interactions of ligands at surface, offer great benefits of nanomedicines to treat various types of cancers. This review highlights the molecular mechanisms of colorectal carcinogenesis and discusses various key concepts in the development of nanotherapeutics targeted for CRC treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology
  7. Dey AD, Bigham A, Esmaeili Y, Ashrafizadeh M, Moghaddam FD, Tan SC, et al.
    Semin Cancer Biol, 2022 11;86(Pt 2):396-419.
    PMID: 35700939 DOI: 10.1016/j.semcancer.2022.06.003
    Chemotherapy is the first choice in the treatment of cancer and is always preferred to other approaches such as radiation and surgery, but it has never met the need of patients for a safe and effective drug. Therefore, new advances in cancer treatment are now needed to reduce the side effects and burdens associated with chemotherapy for cancer patients. Targeted treatment using nanotechnology are now being actively explored as they could effectively deliver therapeutic agents to tumor cells without affecting normal cells. Dendrimers are promising nanocarriers with distinct physiochemical properties that have received considerable attention in cancer therapy studies, which is partly due to the numerous functional groups on their surface. In this review, we discuss the progress of different types of dendrimers as delivery systems in cancer therapy, focusing on the challenges, opportunities, and functionalities of the polymeric molecules. The paper also reviews the various role of dendrimers in their entry into cells via endocytosis, as well as the molecular and inflammatory pathways in cancer. In addition, various dendrimers-based drug delivery (e.g., pH-responsive, enzyme-responsive, redox-responsive, thermo-responsive, etc.) and lipid-, amino acid-, polymer- and nanoparticle-based modifications for gene delivery, as well as co-delivery of drugs and genes in cancer therapy with dendrimers, are presented. Finally, biosafety concerns and issues hindering the transition of dendrimers from research to the clinic are discussed to shed light on their clinical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology
  8. Khatir NM, Banihashemian SM, Periasamy V, Majid WH, Rahman SA, Shahhosseini F
    Sensors (Basel), 2011;11(7):6719-27.
    PMID: 22163981 DOI: 10.3390/s110706719
    A new patterning method using Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) strands capable of producing nanogaps of less than 100 nm is proposed and investigated in this work. DNA strands from Bosenbergia rotunda were used as the fundamental element in patterning DNA on thin films of aluminium (Al) metal without the need for any lithographic techniques. The DNA strands were applied in buffer solutions onto thin films of Al on silicon (Si) and the chemical interactions between the DNA strands and Al creates nanometer scale arbitrary patterning by direct transfer of the DNA strands onto the substrate. This simple and cost-effective method can be utilized in the fabrication of various components in electronic chips for microelectronics and Nano Electronic Mechanical System (NEMS) applications in general.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  9. Boroumand Moghaddam A, Namvar F, Moniri M, Md Tahir P, Azizi S, Mohamad R
    Molecules, 2015;20(9):16540-65.
    PMID: 26378513 DOI: 10.3390/molecules200916540
    In the field of nanotechnology, the use of various biological units instead of toxic chemicals for the reduction and stabilization of nanoparticles, has received extensive attention. Among the many possible bio resources, biologically active products from fungi and yeast represent excellent scaffolds for this purpose. Since fungi and yeast are very effective secretors of extracellular enzymes and number of species grow fast and therefore culturing and keeping them in the laboratory are very simple. They are able to produce metal nanoparticles and nanostructure via reducing enzyme intracellularly or extracellularly. The focus of this review is the application of fungi and yeast in the green synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles. Meanwhile the domain of biosynthesized nanoparticles is somewhat novel; the innovative uses in nano medicine in different areas including the delivery of drug, cancer therapy, antibacterial, biosensors, and MRI and medical imaging are reviewed. The proposed signaling pathways of nanoparticles induced apoptosis in cancerous cells and anti-angiogenesis effects also are reviewed. In this article, we provide a short summary of the present study universally on the utilization of eukaryotes like yeast and fungi in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) and their uses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  10. Khalid K, Tan X, Mohd Zaid HF, Tao Y, Lye Chew C, Chu DT, et al.
    Bioengineered, 2020 12;11(1):328-355.
    PMID: 32138595 DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2020.1736240
    With the unique properties such as high surface area to volume ratio, stability, inertness, ease of functionalization, as well as novel optical, electrical, and magnetic behaviors, nanomaterials have a wide range of applications in various fields with the common types including nanotubes, dendrimers, quantum dots, and fullerenes. With the aim of providing useful insights to help future development of efficient and commercially viable technology for large-scale production, this review focused on the science and applications of inorganic and organic nanomaterials, emphasizing on their synthesis, processing, characterization, and applications on different fields. The applications of nanomaterials on imaging, cell and gene delivery, biosensor, cancer treatment, therapy, and others were discussed in depth. Last but not least, the future prospects and challenges in nanoscience and nanotechnology were also explored.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  11. Mat Noor NA, Shafie S, Admon MA
    PLoS One, 2021;16(5):e0250402.
    PMID: 33956793 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0250402
    The heat and mass transfer on time dependent hydrodynamic squeeze flow of Jeffrey nanofluid across two plates over permeable medium in the slip condition with heat generation/absorption, thermal radiation and chemical reaction are investigated. The impacts of Brownian motion and thermophoresis is examined in the Buongiorno's nanofluid model. Conversion of the governing partial differential equations to the ordinary differential equations is conducted via similarity transformation. The dimensionless equations are solved by imposing numerical method of Keller-box. The outputs are compared with previous reported works in the journals for the validation of the present outputs and found in proper agreement. The behavior of velocity, temperature, and nanoparticles concentration profiles by varying the pertinent parameters are examined. Findings portray that the acceleration of the velocity profile and the wall shear stress is due to the squeezing of plates. Furthermore, the velocity, temperature and concentration profile decline with boost in Hartmann number and ratio of relaxation to retardation times. It is discovered that the rate of heat transfer and temperature profile increase when viscous dissipation, thermophoresis and heat source/sink rises. In contrast, the increment of thermal radiation reduces the temperature and enhances the heat transfer rate. Besides, the mass transfer rate decelerates for increasing Brownian motion in nanofluid, while it elevates when chemical reaction and thermophoresis increases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  12. Nawaz N, Abu Bakar NK, Muhammad Ekramul Mahmud HN, Jamaludin NS
    Anal Biochem, 2021 10 01;630:114328.
    PMID: 34363786 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2021.114328
    In multiple biological processes, molecular recognition performs an integral role in detecting bio analytes. Molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) are tailored sensing materials that can biomimic the biologic ligands and can detect specific target molecules selectively and sensitively. The formulation of molecularly imprinted polymers is followed by the formulation of a control termed as non-imprinted polymer (NIP), which, in the absence of a template, is commonly formulated to evaluate whether distinctive imprints have been produced for the template. Given the difficulties confronting bioanalytical researchers, it is inevitable that this strategy would come out as a central route of multidisciplinary studies to create extremely promising stable artificial receptors as a replacement or accelerate biological matrices. The ease of synthesis, low cost, capability to 'tailor' recognition element for analyte molecules, and stability under harsh environments make MIPs promising candidates as a recognition tool for biosensing. Compared to biological systems, molecular imprinting techniques have several advantages, including high recognition ability, long-term durability, low cost, and robustness, allowing molecularly imprinted polymers to be employed in drug delivery, biosensor technology, and nanotechnology. Molecular imprinted polymer-based sensors still have certain shortcomings in determining biomacromolecules (nucleic acid, protein, lipids, and carbohydrates), considering the vast volume of the latest literature on biomicromolecules. These potential materials are still required to address a few weaknesses until gaining their position in recognition of biomacromolecules. This review aims to highlight the current progress in molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs)-based sensors for the determination of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or nucleobases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology*
  13. Akbari E, Buntat Z, Ahmad MH, Enzevaee A, Yousof R, Iqbal SM, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(3):5502-15.
    PMID: 24658617 DOI: 10.3390/s140305502
    Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are generally nano-scale tubes comprising a network of carbon atoms in a cylindrical setting that compared with silicon counterparts present outstanding characteristics such as high mechanical strength, high sensing capability and large surface-to-volume ratio. These characteristics, in addition to the fact that CNTs experience changes in their electrical conductance when exposed to different gases, make them appropriate candidates for use in sensing/measuring applications such as gas detection devices. In this research, a model for a Field Effect Transistor (FET)-based structure has been developed as a platform for a gas detection sensor in which the CNT conductance change resulting from the chemical reaction between NH3 and CNT has been employed to model the sensing mechanism with proposed sensing parameters. The research implements the same FET-based structure as in the work of Peng et al. on nanotube-based NH3 gas detection. With respect to this conductance change, the I-V characteristic of the CNT is investigated. Finally, a comparative study shows satisfactory agreement between the proposed model and the experimental data from the mentioned research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/instrumentation*; Nanotechnology/methods*
  14. Aziz MS, Jukgoljan B, Daud S, Tan TS, Ali J, Yupapin PP
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol, 2013 Jun;41(3):178-83.
    PMID: 22991944 DOI: 10.3109/10731199.2012.715087
    This paper presents the use of a modified add/drop optical filter incorporating with microring resonators known as a PANDA microring resonator system which can fabricate on small chip. By using an optical tweezer, the required molecules can be trapped and moved to the required destinations at the add/drop ports. The novelty is that the stored molecules in the designed chip can transport via the optical waveguide and can also be used to form molecular filter, which is an important technique for drug delivery, drug targeting, and molecular electronics. Results have shown that the multivariable filter can be obtained by tunable trapping control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/instrumentation*; Nanotechnology/methods
  15. Uddin MJ, Khan WA, Amin NS
    PLoS One, 2014;9(6):e99384.
    PMID: 24927277 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099384
    The unsteady two-dimensional laminar g-Jitter mixed convective boundary layer flow of Cu-water and Al2O3-water nanofluids past a permeable stretching sheet in a Darcian porous is studied by using an implicit finite difference numerical method with quasi-linearization technique. It is assumed that the plate is subjected to velocity and thermal slip boundary conditions. We have considered temperature dependent viscosity. The governing boundary layer equations are converted into non-similar equations using suitable transformations, before being solved numerically. The transport equations have been shown to be controlled by a number of parameters including viscosity parameter, Darcy number, nanoparticle volume fraction, Prandtl number, velocity slip, thermal slip, suction/injection and mixed convection parameters. The dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles as well as friction factor and heat transfer rates are presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the velocity reduces with velocity slip parameter for both nanofluids for fluid with both constant and variable properties. It is further found that the skin friction decreases with both Darcy number and momentum slip parameter while it increases with viscosity variation parameter. The surface temperature increases as the dimensionless time increases for both nanofluids. Nusselt numbers increase with mixed convection parameter and Darcy numbers and decreases with the momentum slip. Excellent agreement is found between the numerical results of the present paper with published results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  16. Zamiri R, Zakaria A, Husin MS, Wahab ZA, Nazarpour FK
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2011;6:2221-4.
    PMID: 22114485 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S23830
    In the present work, we prepared silver nanoparticles by laser ablation of pure silver plate in ethanol and then irradiated the silver nanoparticles using a 532 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Transmission electron microscopic images of the sample after irradiation clearly showed formation of big structures, such as microrods and microbelts in ethanol. The obtained microbelts had a width of about 0.166 μm and a length of 1.472 μm. The reason for the formation of such a big structure is the tendency of the nanoparticles to aggregate in ethanol before irradiation, which causes fusion of the nanoparticles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  17. Jalil MA, Tasakorn M, Suwanpayak N, Ali J, Yupapin PP
    IEEE Trans Nanobioscience, 2011 Jun;10(2):106-12.
    PMID: 21518667 DOI: 10.1109/TNB.2011.2142421
    A novel design of nanoscopic volume transmitter and receiver for drug delivery system using a PANDA ring resonator is proposed. By controlling some suitable parameters, the optical vortices (gradient optical fields/wells) can be generated and used to form the trapping tools in the same way as the optical tweezers. By using the intense optical vortices generated within the PANDA ring resonator, the nanoscopic volumes (drug) can be trapped and moved (transport) dynamically within the wavelength router or network. In principle, the trapping force is formed by the combination between the gradient field and scattering photons, which is reviewed. The advantage of the proposed system is that a transmitter and receiver can be formed within the same system (device), which is called a transceiver, which is available for nanoscopic volume (drug volume) trapping and transportation (delivery).
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/instrumentation*
  18. H P S AK, Saurabh CK, A S A, Nurul Fazita MR, Syakir MI, Davoudpour Y, et al.
    Carbohydr Polym, 2016 Oct 05;150:216-26.
    PMID: 27312632 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.05.028
    Chitin is one of the most abundant natural polymers in world and it is used for the production of chitosan by deacetylation. Chitosan is antibacterial in nature, non-toxic, and biodegradable thus it can be used for the production of biodegradable film which is a green alternative to commercially available synthetic counterparts. However, their poor mechanical and thermal properties restricted its wide spread applications. Chitosan is highly compatible with other biopolymers thus its blending with cellulose and/or incorporation of nanofiber isolated from cellulose namely cellulose nanofiber and cellulose nanowhiskers are generally useful. Cellulosic fibers in nano scale are attractive reinforcement in chitosan to produce environmental friendly composite films with improved physical properties. Thus chitosan based composites have wide applicability and potential in the field of biomedical, packaging and water treatment. This review summarises properties and preparation procedure of chitosan-cellulose blends and nano size cellulose reinforcement in chitosan bionanocomposites for different applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  19. Kian LK, Saba N, Jawaid M, Sultan MTH
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Jan;121:1314-1328.
    PMID: 30208300 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.09.040
    The utilization of nanocellulose has increasingly gained attentions from various research fields, especially the field of polymer nanocomposites owing to the growing environmental hazardous of petroleum based fiber products. Meanwhile, the searching of alternative cellulose sources from different plants has become the interests for producing nanocellulose with varying characterizations that expectedly suit in specific field of applications. In this content the long and strong bast fibers from plant species was gradually getting its remarkable position in the field of nanocellulose extraction and nanocomposites fabrications. This review article intended to present an overview of the chemical structure of cellulose, different types of nanocellulose, bast fibers compositions, structure, polylactic acid (PLA) and the most probable processing techniques on the developments of nanocellulose from different bast fibers especially jute, kenaf, hemp, flax, ramie and roselle and its nanocomposites. This article however more focused on the fabrication of PLA based nanocomposites due to its high firmness, biodegradability and sustainability properties in developed products towards the environment. Along with this it also explored a couple of issues to improve the processing techniques of bast fibers nanocellulose and its reinforcement in the PLA biopolymer as final products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
  20. Choudhury H, Pandey M, Yin TH, Kaur T, Jia GW, Tan SQL, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Aug;101:596-613.
    PMID: 31029353 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.04.005
    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the key barriers in chemotherapy, leading to the generation of insensitive cancer cells towards administered therapy. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of the cells are the consequences of MDR, resulted in drug resistivity, which reflects in impaired delivery of cytotoxic agents to the cancer site. Nanotechnology-based nanocarriers have shown immense shreds of evidence in overcoming these problems, where these promising tools handle desired dosage load of hydrophobic chemotherapeutics to facilitate designing of safe, controlled and effective delivery to specifically at tumor microenvironment. Therefore, encapsulating drugs within the nano-architecture have shown to enhance solubility, bioavailability, drug targeting, where co-administered P-gp inhibitors have additionally combat against developed MDR. Moreover, recent advancement in the stimuli-sensitive delivery of nanocarriers facilitates a tumor-targeted release of the chemotherapeutics to reduce the associated toxicities of chemotherapeutic agents in normal cells. The present article is focused on MDR development strategies in the cancer cell and different nanocarrier-based approaches in circumventing this hurdle to establish an effective therapy against deadliest cancer disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nanotechnology/methods*
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