Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 22 in total

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  1. Homayounfar M, Zomorodian M, Martinez CJ, Lai SH
    PLoS One, 2015;10(12):e0143198.
    PMID: 26641095 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143198
    So far many optimization models based on Nash Bargaining Theory associated with reservoir operation have been developed. Most of them have aimed to provide practical and efficient solutions for water allocation in order to alleviate conflicts among water users. These models can be discussed from two viewpoints: (i) having a discrete nature; and (ii) working on an annual basis. Although discrete dynamic game models provide appropriate reservoir operator policies, their discretization of variables increases the run time and causes dimensionality problems. In this study, two monthly based non-discrete optimization models based on the Nash Bargaining Solution are developed for a reservoir system. In the first model, based on constrained state formulation, the first and second moments (mean and variance) of the state variable (water level in the reservoir) is calculated. Using moment equations as the constraint, the long-term utility of the reservoir manager and water users are optimized. The second model is a dynamic approach structured based on continuous state Markov decision models. The corresponding solution based on the collocation method is structured for a reservoir system. In this model, the reward function is defined based on the Nash Bargaining Solution. Indeed, it is used to yield equilibrium in every proper sub-game, thereby satisfying the Markov perfect equilibrium. Both approaches are applicable for water allocation in arid and semi-arid regions. A case study was carried out at the Zayandeh-Rud river basin located in central Iran to identify the effectiveness of the presented methods. The results are compared with the results of an annual form of dynamic game, a classical stochastic dynamic programming model (e.g. Bayesian Stochastic Dynamic Programming model, BSDP), and a discrete stochastic dynamic game model (PSDNG). By comparing the results of alternative methods, it is shown that both models are capable of tackling conflict issues in water allocation in situations of water scarcity properly. Also, comparing the annual dynamic game models, the presented models result in superior results in practice. Furthermore, unlike discrete dynamic game models, the presented models can significantly reduce the runtime thereby avoiding dimensionality problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Negotiating*
  2. Ahmed A, Al-Amin AQ, Rasiah R
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Oct;26(29):30003-30015.
    PMID: 31414393 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-06141-7
    This study critically evaluates two COP proposals on Malaysia that have been under consideration to reduce climate damage. A top-down disaggregation framework deploying an "Empirical Regional Downscaling Dynamic Integrated Model of Climate and the Economy" is used to evaluate the local government climate roadmap and Malaysia's emissions reduction agendas under COP21 and subsequently COP22 proposals. The findings show that the costs from climate damage over the period 2010-2110 under the Malaysian Optimal Climate Action scenario will amount to MYR5,483 (US$1589) billion. The commensurate climate damage costs under the COP21 and COP22 scenario would be MYR5, 264 (US$1526) billion. Thus, the effective proposal for reducing climate damage in Malaysia over the period 2010-2110 is the COP22 time-adjusted COP21 proposal but there are a number of macroeconomic cost implications for savings and consumption that policy makers must address before acting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Negotiating*
  3. González-Briones A, Chamoso P, De La Prieta F, Demazeau Y, Corchado JM
    Sensors (Basel), 2018 May 19;18(5).
    PMID: 29783768 DOI: 10.3390/s18051633
    Nowadays, it is becoming increasingly common to deploy sensors in public buildings or homes with the aim of obtaining data from the environment and taking decisions that help to save energy. Many of the current state-of-the-art systems make decisions considering solely the environmental factors that cause the consumption of energy. These systems are successful at optimizing energy consumption; however, they do not adapt to the preferences of users and their comfort. Any system that is to be used by end-users should consider factors that affect their wellbeing. Thus, this article proposes an energy-saving system, which apart from considering the environmental conditions also adapts to the preferences of inhabitants. The architecture is based on a Multi-Agent System (MAS), its agents use Agreement Technologies (AT) to perform a negotiation process between the comfort preferences of the users and the degree of optimization that the system can achieve according to these preferences. A case study was conducted in an office building, showing that the proposed system achieved average energy savings of 17.15%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Negotiating
  4. Purmal K, Nambiar P
    Int Dent J, 2009 Jun;59(3):155-60.
    PMID: 19637524
    To study the success and failures of the mediation process of complaints from 2004-2007 by the Complaints Bureau Steering Committee and the Public Complaints Bureau Committee of the Malaysian Dental Association (MDA).
    Matched MeSH terms: Negotiating*
  5. Sutoyo E, Mungad M, Hamid S, Herawan T
    PLoS One, 2016;11(2):e0148837.
    PMID: 26928627 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148837
    Conflict analysis has been used as an important tool in economic, business, governmental and political dispute, games, management negotiations, military operations and etc. There are many mathematical formal models have been proposed to handle conflict situations and one of the most popular is rough set theory. With the ability to handle vagueness from the conflict data set, rough set theory has been successfully used. However, computational time is still an issue when determining the certainty, coverage, and strength of conflict situations. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to handle conflict situations, based on some ideas using soft set theory. The novelty of the proposed approach is that, unlike in rough set theory that uses decision rules, it is based on the concept of co-occurrence of parameters in soft set theory. We illustrate the proposed approach by means of a tutorial example of voting analysis in conflict situations. Furthermore, we elaborate the proposed approach on real world dataset of political conflict in Indonesian Parliament. We show that, the proposed approach achieves lower computational time as compared to rough set theory of up to 3.9%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Negotiating
  6. Gunasekaran, S.S., Ahmad, M.S., Mostafa, S.A.
    MyJurnal
    The collaborative and competitive nature of multi-agent systems (MAS) is visible through the simple social mode of communication that emerges between human-agent interactions or agent-to-agent interactions. A simple mode of communication involves the fundamental actions carried out by individual agents in achieving their desired goal. The sum of these achievements contribute to the overall group goal. Comparatively, the collective intelligence (CI) of a MAS simply means that these agents should work together to produce better solutions than those made possible when using the traditional approach. In designing MAS with CI properties, formalisation of a higher level deliberation process is essential. A high level deliberation process refers to the judgement comprehension of tasks, reasoning and problem solving and planning. In this paper, we propose our Collective Intelligence Model, CIM, which has the potential to control and coordinate a high-level deliberation process of a MAS. CIM is inspired by the emerging processes of controlled discussion, argumentation and negotiation between two or more intelligent human agents. These processes screen and validate the deliberation process through a crossfertilisation approach. The emergent property of the cross-fertilised ideas results in an intelligent solution that solves optimisation-related tasks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Negotiating
  7. Abigail, Dan-mallam Yakubu, Dulzalani Eden, Awang Ideris
    MyJurnal
    Negotiation is a crucial tool for resolving a dispute. The outcome of every negotiation relies heavily on
    the negotiation strategies of the parties involved, the exchange of information and their characters
    during the negotiation process. Considering distributive approach, the negotiators are more interested
    in the maximization of personal achievements as they are not concern in collective or joint success with
    their partners. One of the key requirements for the integrative strategy is cooperation between the
    negotiators while distributive strategy is purely for a competitive approach. These two types of
    strategies distributive and integrative are in relation to the behavior and attitudes negotiators normally
    display in a negotiation table: cooperative and competitive. The reason why negotiators commonly
    used cooperative and competitive strategies are mentioned in this paper, distributive and integrative
    strategies are also summarized. Follow by possible solution of overcoming the negotiation challenges
    is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Negotiating
  8. Minas H, Tsutsumi A, Izutsu T, Goetzke K, Thornicroft G
    PMID: 25774216 DOI: 10.1186/s13033-015-0003-0
    The negotiations on the SDG goals and targets, leading to the sustainable development Declaration in September 2015, are now in the final stages. Ensuring that people with mental disorders are not left behind in the global development program from 2015 to 2030 will require specific and explicit commitments and targets against which progress in mental health can be measured and reported. The arguments for inclusion of explicit mental health targets in the SDGs are compelling. The final negotiations on the SDG goals and targets will now determine whether people with mental illness and psychosocial disabilities will continue to be neglected or will benefit equitably from inclusion in the post-2015 development program.
    Matched MeSH terms: Negotiating
  9. Gleeson D, Lexchin J, Lopert R, Kilic B
    Glob Soc Policy, 2018 Apr;18(1):7-27.
    PMID: 29706802 DOI: 10.1177/1468018117734153
    The final text of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), agreed between the 12 negotiating countries in 2016, included a suite of intellectual property provisions intended to expand and extend pharmaceutical company exclusivities on medicines. It drew wide criticism for including such provisions in an agreement that involved developing countries (Vietnam, Peru, Malaysia, Mexico, Chile and Brunei Darussalam) because of the effect on delaying the introduction of low-cost generics. While developing nations negotiated transition periods for implementing some obligations, all parties would have eventually been expected to meet the same standards had the TPP come into force. While the TPP has stalled following US withdrawal, there are moves by some of the remaining countries to reinvigorate the agreement without the United States. The proponents may seek to retain as much as possible of the original text in the hope that the United States will re-join the accord in future. This article presents a comparative analysis of the impact the final 2016 TPP intellectual property chapter could be expected to have (if implemented in its current form) on the intellectual property laws and regulatory regimes for medicines in the TPP countries. Drawing on the published literature, it traces the likely impact on access to medicines. It focuses particularly on the differential impact on regulatory frameworks for developed and developing nations (in terms of whether or not legislative action would have been required to implement the agreement). The article also explores the political and economic dynamics that contributed to these differential outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Negotiating
  10. Fatahyah Yahya, Rizal Abu Bakar, Nur Fatihah Mat Yusoff
    MyJurnal
    This study aimed to explore the influence of adult attachment on relationship quality among parents having children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A correlational research design was used to achieve the research objectives. Sixty eight parents of children with ADHD participated in this study. Two measures were used in this study: the Experience in Close Relationship (ECR) and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS). The findings indicated that when the anxiety attachment level of the participants was high, the marital satisfaction was low.The findings of this study can make a contribution to those focusing on conflict resolution and marital quality with a deeper understanding on the interpersonal problems in the relationship from attachment theory perspectives. It is suggested that a longitudinal research be conducted in the future with both groups of clinical and community in order to explore how attachment variables can predict relationship adjustment and child adjustment overtime.
    Matched MeSH terms: Negotiating
  11. Suzy Aziziyana Saili, Rosila Bee Mohd Hussain, Khairulnizam Mat Karim
    MyJurnal
    A plural society existence due to economic policy is an outcome of foreign colonization. Due to the
    British economic policy, Malaya saw the influx two foreign ethnic; Chinese and Indian, working in tin
    mining and rubber estates respectively. Early conflict involving the Malays and these foreign workers
    is inevitable which is evident during both the Japanese intervention and the British colonization. The
    objective of this paper is to review the role and responsibilities of Communities Liaison Committee in
    pioneering social cohesion between the three main ethnics in Malaya during the crucial time of
    Japanese intervention, British colonization, communist threat and the declaration of emergency. Before
    CLC, a cooperation was initiated by AMCJA-PUTERA coalition but was short lived due to the absence
    of support from the British and lack of bargaining between Malays and Non-Malays. CLC received a
    full patronage of the British as the pioneer of social cohesion in Malaya, especially when it was able to call upon the three main ethnic in its discussion of bargaining and negotiation or what is widely known
    as the social contract, as well as practicing political power sharing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Negotiating
  12. Inam A, Ho JA, Sheikh AA, Shafqat M, Najam U
    Curr Psychol, 2021 Apr 13.
    PMID: 33867780 DOI: 10.1007/s12144-021-01697-5
    Leadership and its connection with social sustainability are frequently prescribed for effective management. Integrating self-leadership among the employees is an emerging area to focus on empowering an organization. The principal objective of this study was to empirically investigate the impact of self-leadership on normative commitment and work performance through the mediating role of work engagement. This phenomenon of self-leadership was explained by using the theoretical lens of the social cognitive theory and intrinsic motivation theory. Data was collected from 318 employees who worked in the telecom sector in Pakistan and analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) AMOS. The findings revealed that in the presence of self-leadership, employee's work engagement, commitment to the organization, and overall work performance elevated significantly. Furthermore, the results also illustrated the occurrence of two significant mediating paths. First, the mediating role of work engagement in the relationship between self-leadership and normative commitment, and second, the mediation of work engagement in the relationship between self-leadership and work performance. The findings of the study significantly contribute practically, and theoretically to the existing literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Negotiating
  13. Plotino G, Nagendrababu V, Bukiet F, Grande NM, Veettil SK, De-Deus G, et al.
    J Endod, 2020 Jun;46(6):707-729.
    PMID: 32334856 DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2020.01.023
    INTRODUCTION: Negotiation, glide path, and preflaring are essential steps in root canal shaping procedures. This report aimed to discuss the terminology, basic concepts, and clinical considerations of negotiation, glide path, and preflaring procedures and the influence of these steps on root canal shaping.

    METHODS: This systematic review was undertaken following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The protocol has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (number CRD42019127021). A comprehensive literature search was performed by 2 independent reviewers using a selected search strategy in 2 electronic databases (PubMed and Scopus) until January 28, 2019. A further search was performed manually in endodontic journals. Studies investigating or comparing at least 1 shaping property resulting from root canal instrumentation with a glide path or preflaring in human extracted teeth or clinical studies were included.

    RESULTS: The literature shows that the definition of glide path and preflaring procedures remains controversial, which requires an elaboration in the American Association of Endodontists' Glossary of Endodontic Terms. After the removal of irrelevant and duplicated articles, 98 articles were included. The impact of glide path preparation and preflaring on working length determination, apical file size determination, canal transportation, separation of endodontic files, shaping time, dentinal microcrack formation, and extrusion of debris was discussed. Because of heterogeneity among the included studies, quantitative synthesis was not performed for most of the parameters.

    CONCLUSIONS: An evidence-based guideline is needed to define and correlate the basic concepts and current applications of each step of contemporary advancements in root canal instruments. Glide path preparation reduces the risk of debris extrusion, has no influence on the incidence of dentinal crack formation, and improves the preservation of the original canal anatomy. The creation of a glide path may have no impact on Reciproc files (VDW, Munich, Germany) in reaching the full working length. Preflaring increases the accuracy of working length determination. Further randomized clinical trials are required to evaluate the effect of a glide path and preflaring on root canal treatment outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Negotiating
  14. Kamal SM, Hassan CH, Salikon RH
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Mar;27(2):NP2410-22.
    PMID: 24345848 DOI: 10.1177/1010539513510554
    This study examines safer sex negotiation and its association with condom use among clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangladesh. Data were collected from 484 FSWs living in Dhaka city following a convenient sampling procedure. Overall, 47% of the clients were suggested to use condom during last sexual intercourse and 21% did so. Both bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses yielded significantly increased risk of negotiation for safer sex with clients among FSWs with higher education. The power bargaining significantly (P < .001) increased the risk of condom use by 2.15 times (95% confidence interval = 1.28-3.59). The odds of condom use were significantly higher among the FSWs with higher education, unmarried, hotel-based, and among those with higher level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. The Bangladeshi FSWs have little control over their profession. HIV prevention programs should aim to encourage FSWs through information, education, and communication program to insist on condom use among clients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Negotiating*
  15. Lee, K., Yunus, M., Loong, Y. Y., Shamsuddin, A., Zubaidah, J., Rosna, A. R.
    MyJurnal
    Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for coronary heart disease and the most important factor for cerebrovascular diseases. Adherence to treatment is a fundamental pre-requisite for therapeutic benefit in hypertensive patients. Adherence is a complex behavioural process that is strongly influenced by the way in which patients live, as well as the psychological and social support system.
    Aim: To understand and conceptualize the experience of people on long-term antihypertensive treatment Method: Qualitative analysis using semi-structured interviews with ten hypertensive patients from the medical clinic of Kuala Lumpur General Hospital.
    Results: Although the participants were aware of having high blood pressure they declined receiving any treatment at the early stage of the disease. Fear of death and disease complications are reinforcements for participants to adhere to medication. They perceived the label of “hypertension” will affect their self-identity and social role. Positive thinking regarding medication assists participants to adhere to treatment. Conversely, participants who perceived medication negatively also adhere to a medication regime, as adherence behaviour satisfies the family. Participants justified modifying their regimen or taking Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) as they believe know the their body best. However, participants wished to obtain more information regarding hypertension and its treatment from the doctors.
    Conclusion: In finding the fine balance between stepping in and holding back treatment and care, health professionals need to know their clients in context. This balance can only be achieved by establishing processes of negotiation within an ongoing therapeutic relationship.

    Study site: medical clinic of Kuala Lumpur General Hospital.
    Matched MeSH terms: Negotiating
  16. Ng, Soo Boon, Siew, Siew Kim, Regina Joseph Cyril
    MyJurnal
    Starting peace-building in early childhood is crucial as this is the best time to model a harmonious personality as well as exposure to value-based curriculum. Peace-building helps in preventing conflict and violence among peers, at home and in the community. In Malaysia, the elements of moral values such as tolerance, respect and unity are integrated across the National Preschool Curriculum in order to instill the awareness of maintaining peace and unity. This qualitative study aimed to explore the perspectives of the children, parents and teachers regarding peace and peace-building. Instruments in the form of questions were sent to various kindergarten teachers from public and private setting including those from urban and rural areas. Seven preschools responded. Interview of children, parents and teachers were conducted and transcribed through a focal point from each school and sent back to the researchers for analysis. Constant comparative method analysis was used where categories were created. Based on the analysis, children’s perception of peace is predominantly linked to love and orderliness and is within the environment they live in; whereas parents and teachers have more comprehensive and complicated views of peace which is related to harmony and tolerance in a bigger perspective. Children perceived peace-building pragmatically, to them peace-building just happened in everyday living. They perceived cleaning up, helping each other, sharing happiness, listening and cooperating as actions for peace-building. Parents and teachers understood their roles in creating peace for the young children; and unanimously agreed that they must be the role model for the children in creating peace. Parents and teachers believed that the immediate environment children live in must be harmonious, caring, and loving so that they can build up the character of their children who will love and practice peace in their own life. Methodology of peace building adopted by parents and children were mainly dialogue, negotiation and situational learning.
    Matched MeSH terms: Negotiating
  17. Eriksson K, Strimling P, Gelfand M, Wu J, Abernathy J, Akotia CS, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2021 03 05;12(1):1481.
    PMID: 33674587 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-21602-9
    Norm enforcement may be important for resolving conflicts and promoting cooperation. However, little is known about how preferred responses to norm violations vary across cultures and across domains. In a preregistered study of 57 countries (using convenience samples of 22,863 students and non-students), we measured perceptions of the appropriateness of various responses to a violation of a cooperative norm and to atypical social behaviors. Our findings highlight both cultural universals and cultural variation. We find a universal negative relation between appropriateness ratings of norm violations and appropriateness ratings of responses in the form of confrontation, social ostracism and gossip. Moreover, we find the country variation in the appropriateness of sanctions to be consistent across different norm violations but not across different sanctions. Specifically, in those countries where use of physical confrontation and social ostracism is rated as less appropriate, gossip is rated as more appropriate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Negotiating
  18. McCoy R
    Med Confl Surviv, 2007 Oct-Dec;23(4):259-66.
    PMID: 17987978 DOI: 10.1080/13623690701596668
    Climate change and nuclear war are currently the most dangerous challenges to human civilisation and survival. The effects of climate change are now sufficient to persuade many governments to take effective measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Today there are about 27,000 nuclear warheads, many at least ten times more powerful than the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs, and a meaningful medical response to a nuclear attack is impossible. Nevertheless, the threat of nuclear war does not raise public concern, and indeed the nuclear-weapon states are upgrading their capability. The only effective preventive measure is the abolition of nuclear weapons. Steps towards this include: a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty, for the nuclear weapon states to observe their obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty to enter into force. The ultimate need is for a Nuclear Weapons Convention; International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War have launched an International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear weapons (ICAN) to promote a NWC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Negotiating
  19. Low, W.Y.
    JUMMEC, 2009;12(1):3-14.
    MyJurnal
    Youth sexuality is a great concern for many. Sexual health issues facing our youths are: premarital sexual intercourse, sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted and unsafe pregnancies and abortions, sexual diversity, HIV/AIDS, and cybersex. Various factors lead to risky sexual and reproductive health behavior, particularly among those unmarried youths: lack of sexual and reproductive health information and skills in negotiating sexual relationships and the inaccessibility of youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services. Growing peer pressure of pre-marital sex plays a major role in sexual and reproductive health related decision-making among youths. Another factor is the issue of sexuality education which is still considered a sensitive topic and thus impinging on its implementation, due to cultural and religious constraints. Misunderstanding and a lack of information on sexual diversity have caused a concern for many, as there is a tendency for judgments, stereotypes, discriminations and prejudices towards homosexuality in the society. Online sexual activities or cybersex have become the next sexual revolution. Negative consequences are shown for those hooked on cybersex. Healthy youths are fundamental to the prevention initiatives. Promoting the sexual and reproductive needs and rights of our youths is warranted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Negotiating
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