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  1. Nesaretnam K, Radhakrishnan A, Selvaduray KR, Reimann K, Pailoor J, Razak G, et al.
    Lipids, 2002 Jun;37(6):557-60.
    PMID: 12120953
    Biological therapies are new additions to breast cancer treatment. Among biological compounds, beta-carotene has been reported to have immune modulatory effects, in particular, enhancement of natural killer cell activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by macrophages. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of palm carotene supplementation on the tumorigenicity of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells injected into athymic nude mice and to explore the mechanism by which palm carotenes suppress tumorigenesis. Forty-eight 4-wk-old mice were injected with 1 x 10(6) MCF-7 cells into their mammary fat pad. The experimental group was supplemented with palm carotene whereas the control group was not. Significant differences were observed in tumor incidence (P< 0.001) and tumor surface area and metastasis to lung (P< 0.005) between the two groups. Natural killer (NK) cells and B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of carotene-supplemented mice were significantly increased (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) compared with controls. These results suggest that palm oil carotene is able to modulate the immune system by increasing peripheral blood NK cells and B-lymphocytes and suppress the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Transplantation
  2. Leow SS, Sekaran SD, Sundram K, Tan Y, Sambanthamurthi R
    J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics, 2013;6(6):305-26.
    PMID: 24642698 DOI: 10.1159/000357948
    Plant phenolics can inhibit, retard or reverse carcinogenesis, and may thus help prevent or treat cancer. Oil palm phenolics (OPP) previously showed anti-tumour activities in vivo via a cytostatic mechanism at 1,500 ppm gallic acid equivalent. Here, we report other possible molecular mechanisms by which this extract attenuates cancer, especially those concerning the immune response.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Transplantation
  3. Kumar SS, Radhakrishnan AK, Cheong SK
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2010 Apr 01;13(7):303-15.
    PMID: 20836285
    The aim of this study was to establish an animal model of mammary carcinoma metastasis to discern the in vivo effects of growth and spread of breast cancer. Six-week-old female BALB/c mice were inoculated with 4T1 murine breast cancer cells. Mice weight and primary tumour mass volume were regularly recorded to study the physical effects of a vigorously growing and spreading of cancer cell line. Gross and histological studies were carried out to determine the approximate day of metastatic onset. Production of IFN-gamma was assessed by ELISA to understand its role in tumour growth and metastasis. Lymphocyte markers such as CD8+, CD25 and CD49b were analysed to elucidate its role in tumour growth and progression. Present study showed that the metastatic onset occurs approximately 11 days after the mice were inoculated with the 4T1 murine breast cancer cells. Gross studies showed hepatosplenomegaly. The breast cancer cells from primary tumour were found to spread rapidly to the liver on day 11. IFN-gamma production was higher in inoculated mice serum compared to control mice serum. Higher numbers of CD8+, CD25 and CD49b cells were observed in the peripheral blood of inoculated mice, compared to control mice. In conclusion, the 4T1 murine breast cancer cells can migrate and metastasise rapidly to the liver, eliciting various immune responses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Transplantation
  4. Fåhraeus R, Fu HL, Ernberg I, Finke J, Rowe M, Klein G, et al.
    Int J Cancer, 1988 Sep 15;42(3):329-38.
    PMID: 2843473
    Expression of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded nuclear antigens (EBNA 1 to 6) and membrane-associated protein (LMP) was investigated by immunoblotting in 83 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) biopsies and 25 other tumor and normal tissue specimens from the head and neck region. Fifty-eight of the 83 NPC biopsies were large enough to yield parallel data on virus DNA and viral expression. All 16 cases of clinically diagnosed and histologically confirmed NPCs from North Africa contained EBV DNA and expressed EBNA-1. Of 31 clinically diagnosed NPCs from China, 29 contained EBV DNA and 25 of these expressed EBNA-1. One control tissue biopsy from the oropharynx of NPC patients contained EBV DNA, but none expressed EBNA-1. The latent membrane protein (LMP) was detected in 22/31 of the Chinese and in 10/16 of the North African NPC biopsies. None of the NPC biopsies or control tissues expressed detectable amounts of EBNA 2 or any of the other 4 nuclear antigens which are invariably expressed in EBV-transformed B cells. A smaller number of tumors from Malaysia and East Africa exhibited a similar pattern of expression. EBV was rescued from a nude-mouse-passaged North African NPC tumor by co-cultivation of the tumor cells with umbilical cord blood lymphocytes. The tumor expressed EBNA 1 and LMP, but not EBNA 2 or the other 4 EBNAs. The resulting LCLs expressed all 6 nuclear antigens, EBNA 1 to 6 and LMP. Our data suggest that expression of the EBV genome is regulated in a tissue-specific fashion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Transplantation
  5. Kue CS, Kamkaew A, Lee HB, Chung LY, Kiew LV, Burgess K
    Mol. Pharm., 2015 Jan 5;12(1):212-22.
    PMID: 25487316 DOI: 10.1021/mp5005564
    This contribution features a small molecule that binds TrkC (tropomyosin receptor kinase C) receptor that tends to be overexpressed in metastatic breast cancer cells but not in other breast cancer cells. A sensitizer for (1)O2 production conjugated to this structure gives 1-PDT for photodynamic therapy. Isomeric 2-PDT does not bind TrkC and was used as a control throughout; similarly, TrkC- cancer cells were used to calibrate enhanced killing of TrkC+ cells. Ex vivo, 1- and 2-PDT where only cytotoxic when illuminated, and 1-PDT, gave higher cell death for TrkC+ breast cancer cells. A 1 h administration-to-illumination delay gave optimal TrkC+/TrkC--photocytotoxicity, and distribution studies showed the same delay was appropriate in vivo. In Balb/c mice, a maximum tolerated dose of 20 mg/kg was determined for 1-PDT. 1- and 2-PDT (single, 2 or 10 mg/kg doses and one illumination, throughout) had similar effects on implanted TrkC- tumors, and like those of 2-PDT on TrkC+ tumors. In contrast, 1-PDT caused dramatic TrkC+ tumor volume reduction (96% from initial) relative to the TrkC- tumors or 2-PDT in TrkC+ models. Moreover, 71% of the mice treated with 10 mg/kg 1-PDT (n = 7) showed full tumor remission and survived until 90 days with no metastasis to key organs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Transplantation
  6. Nesaretnam K, Ambra R, Selvaduray KR, Radhakrishnan A, Reimann K, Razak G, et al.
    Lipids, 2004 May;39(5):459-67.
    PMID: 15506241
    It has recently been shown that tocotrienols are the components of vitamin E responsible for inhibiting the growth of human breast cancer cells in vitro, through an estrogen-independent mechanism. Although tocotrienols act on cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and can induce programmed cell death, no specific gene regulation has yet been identified. To investigate the molecular basis of the effect of tocotrienols, we injected MCF-7 breast cancer cells into athymic nude mice. Mice were fed orally with 1 mg/d of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) for 20 wk. At end of the 20 wk, there was a significant delay in the onset, incidence, and size of the tumors in nude mice supplemented with TRF compared with the controls. At autopsy, the tumor tissue was excised and analyzed for gene expression by means of a cDNA array technique. Thirty out of 1176 genes were significantly affected. Ten genes were downregulated and 20 genes up-regulated with respect to untreated animals, and some genes in particular were involved in regulating the immune system and its function. The expression of the interferon-inducible transmembrane protein-1 gene was significantly up-regulated in tumors excised from TRF-treated animals compared with control mice. Within the group of genes related to the immune system, we also found that the CD59 glycoprotein precursor gene was up-regulated. Among the functional class of intracellular transducers/effectors/modulators, the c-myc gene was significantly down-regulated in tumors by TRF treatment. Our observations indicate that TRF supplementation significantly and specifically affects MCF-7 cell response after tumor formation in vivo and therefore the host immune function. The observed effect on gene expression is possibly exerted independently from the antioxidant activity typical of this family of molecules.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Transplantation
  7. Shintani T, Rosli SNZ, Takatsu F, Choon YF, Hayashido Y, Toratani S, et al.
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 2016 11;164:79-84.
    PMID: 26444325 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2015.09.043
    We have previously reported that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits NF-κB activity and thus inhibits growth of OSCC cells in serum-free culture and down-regulates HBp17/FGFBP-1 expression, which is important for cancer cell growth and angiogenesis. Here, we have investigated the effects of ED-71, an analog of vitamin D3 (VD) on OSCC cell lines in serum-free culture. It is known that ED-71 has a stronger inhibitory effect on bone resorption compared to VD and other VD analogs. To the best of our knowledge, there was no report examining the potential of ED-71 as an anti-cancer agent for OSCC. We found that ED-71 is able to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines at a concentration of hundred times lower than calcitriol. As Cyp24A1 was reportedly induced in cancer cells, we measured the expression of CYP24A1 in OSCC cell lines (NA and UE), A431 epidermoid carcinoma and normal fibroblast cell (gfi) in serum-free culture. As a result, CYP24A1 mRNA and the protein expression in the OSCC cells treated with ED-71 increased in a dose-dependent manner. However, in vivo experiment, in which the A431 cells were implanted in mice, tumor formation was reduced by the ED-71 treatment with no significant difference between Cyp24A1 expression in the tumors of ED-71-treated and control group, as analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. These results suggest that ED-71 is a potential anti-cancer agent for OSCC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Transplantation
  8. Zahra MH, Salem TAR, El-Aarag B, Yosri N, El-Ghlban S, Zaki K, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 08;24(13).
    PMID: 31288458 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24132495
    BACKGROUND/AIM: Plants play an important role in anti-cancer drug discovery, therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the biological activity of Alpinia zerumbet (A. zerumbet) flowers.

    METHODS: The phytochemical and biological criteria of A. zerumbet were in vitro investigated as well as in mouse xenograft model.

    RESULTS: A. zerumbet extracts, specially CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts, exhibited the highest potent anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. The most active CH2Cl2 extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation leading to isolatation of the naturally occurring 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK) which was characterized by IR, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. A. zerumbet extracts, specially MeOH and CH2Cl2 extracts, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards tumor volume (TV). Furthermore, A. zerumbet extracts declined the high level of malonaldehyde (MDA) as well as elevated the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver tissue homogenate. Moreover, DK showed anti-proliferative action on different human cancer cell lines. The recorded IC50 values against breast carcinoma (MCF-7), liver carcinoma (Hep-G2) and larynx carcinoma cells (HEP-2) were 3.08, 6.8, and 8.7 µg/mL, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings open the door for further investigations in order to explore the potential medicinal properties of A. zerumbet.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Transplantation
  9. Stebbing J, Zhang H, Xu Y, Lit LC, Green AR, Grothey A, et al.
    Oncogene, 2015 Apr 16;34(16):2103-14.
    PMID: 24909178 DOI: 10.1038/onc.2014.129
    Kinase suppressor of Ras-1 (KSR1) facilitates signal transduction in Ras-dependent cancers, including pancreatic and lung carcinomas but its role in breast cancer has not been well studied. Here, we demonstrate for the first time it functions as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer in contrast to data in other tumors. Breast cancer patients (n>1000) with high KSR1 showed better disease-free and overall survival, results also supported by Oncomine analyses, microarray data (n=2878) and genomic data from paired tumor and cell-free DNA samples revealing loss of heterozygosity. KSR1 expression is associated with high breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1), high BRCA1-associated ring domain 1 (BARD1) and checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) levels. Phospho-profiling of major components of the canonical Ras-RAF-mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway showed no significant changes after KSR1 overexpression or silencing. Moreover, KSR1 stably transfected cells formed fewer and smaller size colonies compared to the parental ones, while in vivo mouse model also demonstrated that the growth of xenograft tumors overexpressing KSR1 was inhibited. The tumor suppressive action of KSR1 is BRCA1 dependent shown by 3D-matrigel and soft agar assays. KSR1 stabilizes BRCA1 protein levels by reducing BRCA1 ubiquitination through increasing BARD1 abundance. These data link these proteins in a continuum with clinical relevance and position KSR1 in the major oncoprotein pathways in breast tumorigenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Transplantation
  10. Lee ST, Wong PF, He H, Hooper JD, Mustafa MR
    PLoS One, 2013;8(2):e57708.
    PMID: 23437404 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057708
    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) plays a role in prostate cancer and agents that suppress its activation may inhibit development or progression of this malignancy. Alpha (α)-tomatine is the major saponin present in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and we have previously reported that it suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells and also potently induces apoptosis of these cells. However, the precise mechanism by which α-tomatine suppresses NF-κB nuclear translocation is yet to be elucidated and the anti-tumor activity of this agent in vivo has not been examined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Transplantation
  11. Karimian H, Fadaeinasab M, Moghadamtousi SZ, Hajrezaei M, Zahedifard M, Razavi M, et al.
    Cell. Physiol. Biochem., 2015;36(3):988-1003.
    PMID: 26087920 DOI: 10.1159/000430273
    BACKGROUND: Tanacetum polycephalum L. Schultz-Bip is a member of the Asteraceae family. This study evaluated the chemopreventive effect of a T. polycephalum hexane extract (TPHE) using in in vivo and in vitro models.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Five groups of rats: normal control, cancer control, TPHE low dose, TPHE high dose and positive control (tamoxifen) were used for the in vivo study. Histopathological examination showed that TPHE significantly suppressed the carcinogenic effect of LA7 tumour cells. The tumour sections from TPHE-treated rats demonstrated significantly reduced expression of Ki67 and PCNA compared to the cancer control group. Using a bioassay-guided approach, the cytotoxic compound of TPHE was identified as a tricyclic sesquiterpene lactone, namely, 8β- hydroxyl- 4β, 15- dihydrozaluzanin C (HDZC). Signs of early and late apoptosis were observed in MCF7 cells treated with HDZC and were attributed to the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway based on the up-regulation of Bax and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. HDZC induced cell cycle arrest in MCF7 cells and increased the expression of p21 and p27 at the mRNA and protein levels.

    CONCLUSION: This results of this study substantiate the anticancer effect of TPHE and highlight the involvement of HDZC as one of the contributing compounds that act by initiating mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Neoplasm Transplantation
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