Displaying all 4 publications

  1. Grulich AE, McCredie M, Coates M
    Br. J. Cancer, 1995 Feb;71(2):400-8.
    PMID: 7841061
    Cancer incidence during 1972-90 in Asian migrants to New South Wales, Australia, is described. Overall cancer incidence was lower than in the Australia born in most migrant groups, and this reached significance in migrants born in China/Taiwan, the Philippines, Vietnam and India/Sri Lanka, and in male migrants born in Indonesia. For the majority of cancers, rates were more similar to those in the Australia born than to those in the countries of birth. For cancers of the breast, colorectum and prostate, rates were relatively low in the countries of birth, but migrants generally exhibited rates nearer those of the Australia born. For cancers of the liver and cervix and, in India/Sri Lanka-born migrants, of the oral cavity, incidence was relatively high in the countries of birth but tended to be lower, nearer Australia-born rates, in the migrants. For these cancers, environmental factors related to the migrant's adopted country, and migrant selection, appeared to have a major effect on the risk of cancer. For certain other cancers, incidence was more similar to that in the countries of birth. Nasopharyngeal cancer, and lung cancer in females, had high rates in both the countries of birth and in migrants to Australia. Nasopharyngeal cancer rates were highest in China/Taiwan and Hong Kong-born migrants, and were also significantly high in migrants from Malaysia/Singapore, Vietnam and the Philippines. Rates of lung cancer were significantly high in women born in China/Taiwan, and the excess was greater for adenocarcinoma than for squamous cell carcinoma. Melanoma had low rates in both the migrants and in the countries of birth. For these cancers, it was probable that genetic factors, or environmental factors acting prior to migration, were important in causation.
    Matched MeSH terms: New South Wales/epidemiology
  2. Shilling H, Murray G, Brotherton JML, Hawkes D, Saville M, Sivertsen T, et al.
    Vaccine, 2020 01 29;38(5):1186-1193.
    PMID: 31767467 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.11.019
    INTRODUCTION: Australia has recently implemented major changes in cervical cancer prevention policies including introduction of primary human papillomavirus (HPV) screening starting at age 25, and replacement of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine with the nonavalent vaccine in the national school-based program. We assessed the feasibility and utility of conducting HPV testing in residual clinical specimens submitted for routine Chlamydia trachomatis screening, as a means of tracking HPV vaccine program impact among young sexually active women.

    METHODS: De-identified residual specimens from women aged 16-24 years submitted for chlamydia testing were collected from three pathology laboratories in Victoria and New South Wales. Limited demographic information, and chlamydia test results were also collected. Patient identifiers were sent directly from the laboratories to the National HPV Vaccination Program Register, to obtain HPV vaccination histories. Samples underwent HPV genotyping using Seegene Anyplex II HPV 28 assay.

    RESULTS: Between April and July 2018, 362 residual samples were collected, the majority (60.2%) of which were cervical swabs. Demographic data and vaccination histories were received for 357 (98.6%) women (mean age 21.8, SD 2.0). Overall, 65.6% of women were fully vaccinated, 9.8% partially, and 24.7% unvaccinated. The majority (86.0%) resided in a major city, 35.9% were classified in the upper quintile of socioeconomic advantage and chlamydia positivity was 7.8%.The prevalence of quadrivalent vaccine-targeted types (HPV6/11/16/18) was 2.8% (1.5-5.1%) overall with no differences by vaccination status (p = 0.729). The prevalence of additional nonavalent vaccine-targeted types (HPV31/33/45/52/58) was 19.3% (15.6-23.8%). One or more oncogenic HPV types were detected in 46.8% (95% CI 41.6-52.0%) of women.

    CONCLUSIONS: HPV testing of residual chlamydia specimens provides a simple, feasible method for monitoring circulating genotypes. Applied on a larger scale this method can be utilised to obtain a timely assessment of nonavalent vaccine impact among young women not yet eligible for cervical screening.

    Matched MeSH terms: New South Wales/epidemiology
  3. Aziz Z, Chong NJ
    J Subst Abuse Treat, 2015 Jun;53:47-51.
    PMID: 25616750 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2014.12.008
    The aim of this study was to examine opioid-dependent patients' satisfaction with the methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program in Malaysia and identify predictors of satisfaction. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire developed and validated by Rankin Court, New South Wales, Australia. Of 502 patients approached in 11 MMT centers in Malaysia, 425 agreed to participate giving a response rate of 85%. In terms of overall satisfaction, a high percentage of respondents (85%) were satisfied with the MMT services. A logistic regression analysis showed that only "centres" and marital status were associated with overall satisfaction and that being single (OR 3.31; 95% CI 1.52 to 7.20) or married (OR 4.06; 95% CI 1.76 to 9.38) was associated with higher odds of overall satisfaction compared to being divorced or separated. An analysis of the responses pertaining to the most desired changes required at the center found dosing hours, waiting area and staff shortages to be common. The findings acquired from this survey will be useful to attain a clearer perspective on what aspects of the MMT service need to be reviewed for the improvement of service delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: New South Wales/epidemiology
  4. Piyasena TBH, Setoh YX, Hobson-Peters J, Prow NA, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Khromykh AA, et al.
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis, 2017 12;17(12):825-835.
    PMID: 29083957 DOI: 10.1089/vbz.2017.2172
    In Australia, infection of horses with the West Nile virus (WNV) or Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) occasionally results in severe neurological disease that cannot be clinically differentiated. Confirmatory serological tests to detect antibody specific for MVEV or WNV in horses are often hampered by cross-reactive antibodies induced to conserved epitopes on the envelope (E) protein. This study utilized bacterially expressed recombinant antigens derived from domain III of the E protein (rE-DIII) of MVEV and WNV, respectively, to determine whether these subunit antigens provided specific diagnostic markers of infection with these two viruses. When a panel of 130 serum samples, from horses with known flavivirus infection status, was tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using rE-DIII antigens, a differential diagnosis of MVEV or WNV was achieved for most samples. Time-point samples from horses exposed to flavivirus infection during the 2011 outbreak of equine encephalitis in south-eastern Australia also indicated that the rE-DIII antigens were capable of detecting and differentiating MVEV and WNV infection in convalescent sera with similar sensitivity and specificity to virus neutralization tests and blocking ELISAs. Overall, these results indicate that the rE-DIII is a suitable antigen for use in rapid immunoassays for confirming MVEV and WNV infections in horses in the Australian context and warrant further assessment on sensitive, high-throughput serological platforms such as multiplex immune assays.
    Matched MeSH terms: New South Wales/epidemiology
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