Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 104 in total

  1. Hong YH, Betik AC, McConell GK
    Exp Physiol, 2014 Dec 1;99(12):1569-73.
    PMID: 25192731 DOI: 10.1113/expphysiol.2014.079202
    Nitric oxide is produced within skeletal muscle fibres and has various functions in skeletal muscle. There is evidence that NO may be essential for normal increases in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction/exercise. Although there have been some discrepant results, it has been consistently demonstrated that inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) attenuates the increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction in mouse and rat muscle ex vivo, during in situ contraction in rats and during exercise in humans. The NO-mediated increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction/exercise is probably due to the modulation of intramuscular signalling that ultimately increases glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and is, surprisingly, independent of blood flow. In this review, we discuss the evidence for and against a role of NO in regulating skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction/exercise and outline the possible mechanism(s) involved. Emerging findings regarding the role of neuronal NOS mu (nNOSμ) in this process are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/metabolism*
  2. Ugusman A, Zakaria Z, Chua KH, Nordin NA, Abdullah Mahdy Z
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:169370.
    PMID: 25093198 DOI: 10.1155/2014/169370
    Nitric oxide (NO), produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), is a major antiatherogenic factor in the blood vessel. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. Decreased availability of endothelial NO promotes the progression of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Rutin is a flavonoid with multiple cardiovascular protective effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of rutin on eNOS and NO production in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVEC were divided into four groups: control; oxidative stress induction with 180 μM H₂O₂; treatment with 300 μM rutin; and concomitant induction with rutin and H₂O₂ for 24 hours. HUVEC treated with rutin produced higher amount of NO compared to control (P < 0.01). In the oxidative stress-induced HUVEC, rutin successfully induced cells' NO production (P < 0.01). Rutin promoted NO production in HUVEC by inducing eNOS gene expression (P < 0.05), eNOS protein synthesis (P < 0.01), and eNOS activity (P < 0.05). Treatment with rutin also led to increased gene and protein expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in HUVEC. Therefore, upregulation of eNOS expression by rutin may be mediated by bFGF. The results showed that rutin may improve endothelial function by augmenting NO production in human endothelial cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/metabolism*
  3. Swamy M, Salleh MJ, Sirajudeen KN, Yusof WR, Chandran G
    Int J Med Sci, 2010 May 31;7(3):147-54.
    PMID: 20567615
    Nitric oxide is postulated to be involved in the pathophysiology of neurological disorders due to hypoxia/ anoxia in brain due to increased release of glutamate and activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in pathophysiology of many neurological disorders and in brain function. To understand their role in anoxia (hypobaric hypoxia) and reperfusion (reoxygenation), the nitric oxide synthase, argininosuccinate synthetase, argininosuccinate lyase, glutamine synthetase and arginase activities along with the concentration of nitrate /nitrite, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and total antioxidant status were estimated in cerebral cortex, cerebellum and brain stem of rats subjected to anoxia and reperfusion. The results of this study clearly demonstrated the increased production of nitric oxide by increased activity of nitric oxide synthase. The increased activities of argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase suggest the increased and effective recycling of citrulline to arginine in anoxia, making nitric oxide production more effective and contributing to its toxic effects. The decreased activity of glutamine synthetase may favor the prolonged availability of glutamic acid causing excitotoxicity leading to neuronal damage in anoxia. The increased formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased total antioxidant status indicate the presence of oxidative stress in anoxia and reperfusion. The increased arginase and sustained decrease of GS activity in reperfusion group likely to be protective.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/metabolism*
  4. Mokhtar SS, Vanhoutte PM, Leung SW, Yusof MI, Wan Sulaiman WA, Mat Saad AZ, et al.
    Nitric Oxide, 2016 Feb 29;53:35-44.
    PMID: 26768833 DOI: 10.1016/j.niox.2015.12.007
    Diabetes impairs endothelium-dependent relaxations. The present study evaluated the contribution of different endothelium-dependent relaxing mechanisms to the regulation of vascular tone in subcutaneous blood vessels of humans with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Subcutaneous arteries were isolated from tissues of healthy controls and diabetics. Vascular function was determined using wire myography. Expressions of proteins were measured by Western blotting and immunostaining. Endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine were impaired in arteries from diabetics compared to controls (P = 0.009). Acetylcholine-induced nitric oxide (NO)-mediated relaxations [in the presence of an inhibitor of cyclooxygenases (COX; indomethacin) and small and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blockers (UCL1684 and TRAM 34, respectively)] were attenuated in arteries from diabetics compared to controls (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/metabolism*
  5. Ellulu MS, Patimah I, Khaza'ai H, Rahmat A, Abed Y, Ali F
    Inflammopharmacology, 2016 Feb;24(1):1-10.
    PMID: 26750181 DOI: 10.1007/s10787-015-0255-y
    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a collective term comprising of a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels. These diseases are the largest cause of morbidity and premature death worldwide. Coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease (stroke) are the most frequently occurring diseases. The two major initiators involved in the development of atherosclerotic CVD are vascular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid oxidation. In atherosclerosis development, ROS is associated with rapid loss of anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic activities of the endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO(·)) resulting in endothelial dysfunction. In part involving activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, ROS have been involved in signaling cascades leading to vascular pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic gene expression. ROS is also a potent activator of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which indicate plaque destabilization and rupture. The second initiator involved in atherosclerotic CVD is the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Oxidation of LDL in vessel wall leads to an inflammatory cascade that activates atherogenic pathway leading to foam cell formation. The accumulation of foam cells leads to fatty streak formation, which is the earliest visible atherosclerotic lesion. In contrast, the cardiac sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a) and hepatic apolipoprotein E (apoE) expression can improve cardiovascular function. SERCA2a regulates the cardiac contractile function by lowering cytoplasmic calcium levels during relaxation, and affecting NO(·) action in vascular cells, while apoE is a critical ligand in the plasma clearance of triglyceride- and cholesterol-rich lipoproteins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/metabolism
  6. Zhang CY, Tan BK
    Phytother Res, 1999 Mar;13(2):157-9.
    PMID: 10190192
    14-deoxyandrographolide (DA) and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDA) are two diterpenoids isolated from A. paniculata, a popular folk medicine used as an antihypertensive drug in Malaysia. We have previously reported that DDA exhibited a greater hypotensive effect in anaesthetized rats and a vasorelaxant activity in isolated rat aorta, compared with DA. Their vasorelaxant activities were mediated through the activation of the enzymes, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and guanylyl cyclase. The present study demonstrated that both DA and DDA stimulated nitric oxide (NO) release from human endothelial cells. DDA compared with DA caused a greater production of NO; this is in line with the finding of the earlier study that the vasorelaxant effect of DDA was more dependent on endothelium than DA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/metabolism*
  7. Azizan A, Ahamad Bustamam MS, Maulidiani M, Shaari K, Ismail IS, Nagao N, et al.
    Mar Drugs, 2018 May 07;16(5).
    PMID: 29735927 DOI: 10.3390/md16050154
    Microalgae are promising candidate resources from marine ecology for health-improving effects. Metabolite profiling of the microalgal diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans was conducted by using robust metabolomics tools, namely ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis (MVDA). The unsupervised data analysis, using principal component analysis (PCA), resolved the five types of extracts made by solvents ranging from polar to non-polar into five different clusters. Collectively, with various extraction solvents, 11 amino acids, cholesterol, 6 fatty acids, 2 sugars, 1 osmolyte, 6 carotenoids and 2 chlorophyll pigments were identified. The fatty acids and both carotenoid pigments as well as chlorophyll, were observed in the extracts made from medium polar (acetone, chloroform) and non-polar (hexane) solvents. It is suggested that the compounds were the characteristic markers that influenced the separation between the clusters. Based on partial least square (PLS) analysis, fucoxanthin, astaxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, and lutein displayed strong correlation to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity. This metabolomics study showed that solvent extractions are one of the main bottlenecks for the maximum recovery of bioactive microalgal compounds and could be a better source of natural antioxidants due to a high value of metabolites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/metabolism*
  8. Seow SL, Naidu M, Sabaratnam V, Vidyadaran S, Wong KH
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2017;19(5):405-418.
    PMID: 28845770 DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v19.i5.30
    In Malaysia and China, the sclerotium of Lignosus rhinocerotis is used by local communities and traditional medicine practitioners as a general tonic and remedy to treat a variety of ailments, including inflammation-associated disorders. In this study, 10 samples from different preparations of L. rhinocerotis sclerotium, including a hot aqueous extract (HAE), an ethanol extract (EE), fractions from the HAE and EE, and crude polysaccharides, were tested for their in vitro cytotoxic and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)--stimulated BV2 microglia. Of the 10 samples tested, HAE was the least cytotoxic toward BV2 microglia, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 176.23 ± 2.64 mg/mL at 24 hours of incubation and 20.01 ± 1.69 mg/ mL at 48 hours of incubation. The inhibition of NO production was explored by pretreatment of BV2 microglia with samples at 2 incubation time points (4 and 24 hours) before the stimulation by LPS for 24 hours. After 24 hours of pretreatment, 8 of the 10 samples inhibited NO production by 50% or more, and cytotoxic effects were not observed. Among the 8 active samples, 500 µg/mL of HAE, 250 µg/mL of an n-butanol fraction of the HAE, and 250 µg/mL of an ethyl acetate fraction of HAE showed maximum inhibition of NO production by 88.95%, 86.50%, and 85.93%, respectively. These results suggest that the L. rhinocerotis sclerotium may contain secondary metabolites that have the potential to inhibit NO production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/metabolism*
  9. Swamy M, Norlina W, Azman W, Suhaili D, Sirajudeen KN, Mustapha Z, et al.
    PMID: 25435633
    BACKGROUND: Propolis has been proposed to be protective on neurodegenerative disorders. To understand the neuroprotective effects of honeybee propolis, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were studied in different brain regions-cerebral cortex (CC), cerebellum (CB) and brain stem (BS) of rats supplemented with propolis and subjected to kainic acid (KA) mediated excitotoxicity.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups; Control group and KA group received vehicle and saline. Propolis group and propolis + KA group were orally administered with propolis (150mg/kg body weight), five times every 12 hours. KA group and propolis + KA group were injected subcutaneously with kainic acid (15mg/kg body weight) and were sacrificed after 2 hrs and CC, CB and BS were separated homogenized and used for estimation of GS activity, NO, TBARS, and TAS concentrations by colorimetric methods. Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, reported as mean + SD from 6 animals, and p<0.05 considered statistically significant.

    RESULTS: NO was increased (p< 0.001) and GS activity was decreased (p< 0.001) in KA treated group compared to control group as well as propolis + KA treated group. TBARS was decreased and TAS was increased (p< 0.001) in propolis + KA treated group compared KA treated group.

    CONCLUSION: This study clearly demonstrated the restoration of GS activity, NO levels and decreased oxidative stress by propolis in kainic acid mediated excitotoxicity. Hence the propolis can be a possible potential candidate (protective agent) against excitotoxicity and neurodegenerative disorders.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/metabolism*
  10. Razali FN, Ismail A, Abidin NZ, Shuib AS
    PLoS One, 2014;9(10):e108988.
    PMID: 25299340 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108988
    The polysaccharide fraction from Solanum nigrum Linne has been shown to have antitumor activity by enhancing the CD4+/CD8+ ratio of the T-lymphocyte subpopulation. In this study, we analyzed a polysaccharide extract of S. nigrum to determine its modulating effects on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells since macrophages play a key role in inducing both innate and adaptive immune responses. Crude polysaccharide was extracted from the stem of S. nigrum and subjected to ion-exchange chromatography to partially purify the extract. Five polysaccharide fractions were then subjected to a cytotoxicity assay and a nitric oxide production assay. To further analyze the ability of the fractionated polysaccharide extract to activate macrophages, the phagocytosis activity and cytokine production were also measured. The polysaccharide fractions were not cytotoxic, but all of the fractions induced nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 cells. Of the five fractions tested, SN-ppF3 was the least toxic and also induced the greatest amount of nitric oxide, which was comparable to the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression detected in the cell lysate. This fraction also significantly induced phagocytosis activity and stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6. Our study showed that fraction SN-ppF3 could classically activate macrophages. Macrophage induction may be the manner in which polysaccharides from S. nigrum are able to prevent tumor growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/metabolism
  11. Karimi E, Mehrabanjoubani P, Keshavarzian M, Oskoueian E, Jaafar HZ, Abdolzadeh A
    J Sci Food Agric, 2014 Aug;94(11):2324-30.
    PMID: 24415452 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6567
    Plant foods are rich sources of bioactive compounds that can act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease, reduce inflammation, reduce the incidence of cancers and diabetes. This study aimed to determine the phenolics and flavonoids profiling in three varieties of rice straw and five varieties of the seed husk of Iranian rice using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and nitric oxide assays.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/metabolism
  12. Wijesinghe WA, Kim EA, Kang MC, Lee WW, Lee HS, Vairappan CS, et al.
    Environ Toxicol Pharmacol, 2014 Jan;37(1):110-7.
    PMID: 24317194 DOI: 10.1016/j.etap.2013.11.006
    5β-Hydroxypalisadin B, a halogenated secondary metabolite isolated from red seaweed Laurencia snackeyi was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced zebrafish embryo. Preliminary studies suggested the effective concentrations of the compound as 0.25, 0.5, 1 μg/mL for further in vivo experiments. 5β-Hydroxypalisadin B, exhibited profound protective effect in the zebrafish embryo as confirmed by survival rate, heart beat rate, and yolk sac edema size. The compound acts as an effective agent against reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation induced by LPS and tail cut. Moreover, 5β-hydroxypalisadin B effectively inhibited the LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in zebrafish embryo. All the tested protective effects of 5β-hydroxypalisadin B were comparable to the well-known anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone. According to the results obtained, 5β-hydroxypalisadin B isolated from red seaweed L. snackeyi could be considered as an effective anti-inflammatory agent which might be further developed as a functional ingredient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/metabolism
  13. Mani V, Ramasamy K, Ahmad A, Wahab SN, Jaafar SM, Kek TL, et al.
    Phytother Res, 2013 Jan;27(1):46-53.
    PMID: 22447662 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.4676
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by signs of major oxidative stress and the loss of cholinergic cells. The present study was designed to investigate the role of the total alkaloidal extract from Murraya koenigii (MKA) leaves on age related oxidative stress and the cholinergic pathway in aged mice. Ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a standard drug. The MKA improved the level of protective antioxidants such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GRD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in brain homogenate at higher doses (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.). Moreover, a dose dependent decline was noted in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the nitric oxide assay (NO) at all doses of MKA (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.). Interestingly, significant progress was noted with the supplementation of MKA by an improvement of the acetylcholine (ACh) levels and a reduction in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in aged mouse brain. In addition, a significant elevation of serum albumin (ALBU), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and total protein as well as a decline in creatinine, total cholesterol, urea nitrogen and glucose levels with MKA also ameliorated the hepatic and renal functions in normal ageing process. The results showed the possible utility of Murraya koenigii leaves in neuroprotection against neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/metabolism
  14. Kandasamy R, Kanti Pal H, Swamy M, Abdullah J
    Int J Neurosci, 2013 Jun;123(6):385-91.
    PMID: 23270401 DOI: 10.3109/00207454.2012.761983
    Nitric oxide has a definitive role in the complex pathophysiology of traumatc brain injury (TBI). This prospective cohort study investigated the changes in nitric oxide metabolite (NOx) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and their correlation with factors associated with severity and prognosis after severe TBI. NOx levels were measured in CSF obtained via ventriculostomy in 44 adult patients admitted after severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 8/15). The overall mean level of CSF NOx in the study population was 7.40 ± 1.59 μmol/L. Levels of CSF NOx were found to be significantly higher in subgroups of patients with poorer outcome measured by Glasgow Outcome Scale score (p < 0.042), in patients with high intracranial pressure (ICP) readings (p < 0.027) and in those with higher Marshall computed tomography (CT) grading scores (p < 0.026). Simple logistic regression demonstrated that CSF NOx levels were a significant predictor of ICP (b = 0.493, 95%CI: 1.03, 2.58, p = 0.033). A patient with 1 μmol/L increase in NOx level had 1.6 times the odds to have an ICP ≥ 20 mmHg when other confounders were not adjusted. NOx level is also a significant predictor of Marshall CT grading (b = 0.473, 95%CI: 1.02, 2.50, p = 0.037). A patient with 1 μmol/L increase in NOx level had 1.6 times the odds to have a high Marshall grade when other confounders were not adjusted. It can be concluded that CSF NOx levels may serve as a potentially useful biomarker in severe TBI given its significant association with ICP readings as well as Marshall CT grading.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/metabolism*
  15. Nathan SA, Qvist R, Puthucheary SD
    FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol., 2005 Feb 1;43(2):177-83.
    PMID: 15681148
    The oxidative response of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Escherichia coli infected macrophages from normal and melioidosis subjects was determined by measuring the production of nitric oxide which is one of the reactive nitrogen intermediates, and the activation state of these macrophages was determined by measuring the generation of 8-iso-PGF(2alpha), a bioactive product of free radical induced lipid peroxidation. Macrophages obtained from the melioidosis patients generated significantly lower levels of nitric oxide and 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) compared to macrophages obtained from the normal subjects (P<0.001). The reduced efficiency of the oxygen dependent microbicidal mechanism in macrophages of melioidosis patients may be one of the survival strategies developed by B. pseudomallei to remain viable intracellularly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/metabolism*
  16. Yong YK, Chiong HS, Somchit MN, Ahmad Z
    PMID: 26468073 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0901-3
    Histamine is established as a potent inflammatory mediator and it is known to increased endothelial permeability by promoting gap formation between endothelial cells. Previous studies have shown that aqueous extract of Bixa orellana leaves (AEBO) exhibits antihistamine activity in vivo, yet the mechanism of its action on endothelial barrier function remains unclear. Therefore, the current study aimed to determine the protective effect of AEBO against histamine-induced hyperpermeability in vitro.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/metabolism
  17. Phan CS, Ng SY, Kim EA, Jeon YJ, Palaniveloo K, Vairappan CS
    Mar Drugs, 2015 May;13(5):3103-15.
    PMID: 25996100 DOI: 10.3390/md13053103
    Two new bicyclogermacrenes, capgermacrenes A (1) and B (2), were isolated with two known compounds, palustrol (3) and litseagermacrane (4), from a population of Bornean soft coral Capnella sp. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. Compound 1 was found to inhibit the accumulation of the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory IL-1b and NO production by down-regulating the expression of iNOS protein in RAW 264.7 macrophages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/metabolism
  18. Newaz MA, Nawal NN, Rohaizan CH, Muslim N, Gapor A
    Am J Hypertens, 1999 Aug;12(8 Pt 1):839-44.
    PMID: 10480480
    Antioxidant protection provided by different doses of alpha-tocopherol was compared by determining nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in blood vessels of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) treated with alpha-tocopherol. SHR were divided into four groups namely hypertensive control (C), treatment with 17 mg of alpha-tocopherol/kg diet (alpha1), 34 mg of alpha-tocopherol/kg diet (alpha2), and 170 mg of alpha-tocopherol/kg diet (alpha3). Wister Kyoto (WKY) rats were used as normal control (N). Blood pressure were recorded from the tail by physiography every other night for the duration of the study period of 3 months. At the end of the trial, animals were sacrificed. The NOS activity in blood vessels was measured by [3H]arginine radioactive assay and the nitrite concentration in plasma by spectrophotometry at wavelength 554 nm using Greiss reagent. Analysis of data was done using Student's t test and Pearson's correlation. The computer program Statistica was used for all analysis. Results of our study showed that for all the three alpha-tocopherol-treated groups, blood pressure was significantly (P < .001) reduced compared to the hypertensive control and maximum reduction of blood pressure was shown by the dosage of 34 mg of alpha-tocopherol/kg diet (C: 209.56 +/- 8.47 mm Hg; alpha2: 128.83 +/- 17.13 mm Hg). Also, NOS activity in blood vessels of SHR was significantly lower than WKY rats (N: 1.54 +/- 0.26 pmol/mg protein, C: 0.87 +/- 0.23 pmol/mg protein; P < .001). Although alpha-tocopherol in doses of alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3 increased the NOS activity in blood vessels, after treatment only that of alpha2 showed a statistical significance (P < .01). Plasma nitrite concentration was significantly reduced in SHR compared to normal WKY rats (N: 54.62 +/- 2.96 mol/mL, C: 26.24 +/- 2.14 mol/mL; P < .001) and accordingly all three groups showed significant improvement in their respective nitrite level (P < .001). For all groups, NOS activity and nitrite level showed negative correlation with blood pressure. It was significant for NOS activity in hypertensive control (r = -0.735, P = .038), alpha1 (r = -0.833, P = .001), and alpha2 (r = -0.899, P = .000) groups. For plasma nitrite, significant correlation was observed only in group alpha1 (r = -0.673, P = .016) and alpha2 (r = -0.643, P = .024). Only the alpha2 group showed significant positive correlation (r = 0.777, P = .003) between NOS activity and nitrite level. In conclusion it was found that compared to WKY rats, SHR have lower NOS activity in blood vessels, which upon treatment with antioxidant alpha-tocopherol increased the NOS activity and concomitantly reduced the blood pressure. There was correlation of lipid peroxide in blood vessels with NOS and nitric oxide, which implies that free radicals may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/metabolism
  19. Syed Najmuddin SU, Romli MF, Hamid M, Alitheen NB, Nik Abd Rahman NM
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2016 Aug 24;16(1):311.
    PMID: 27558166 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-016-1290-y
    Annona muricata Linn which comes from Annonaceae family possesses many therapeutic benefits as reported in previous studies and to no surprise, it has been used in many cultures to treat various ailments including headaches, insomnia, and rheumatism to even treating cancer. However, Annona muricata Linn obtained from different cultivation area does not necessarily offer the same therapeutic effects towards breast cancer (in regards to its bioactive compound production). In this study, anti-proliferative and anti-cancer effects of Annona muricata crude extract (AMCE) on breast cancer cell lines were evaluated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/metabolism
  20. Tilwani RK, Vessillier S, Pingguan-Murphy B, Lee DA, Bader DL, Chowdhury TT
    Inflamm Res, 2017 Jan;66(1):49-58.
    PMID: 27658702 DOI: 10.1007/s00011-016-0991-5
    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Oxygen tension and biomechanical signals are factors that regulate inflammatory mechanisms in chondrocytes. We examined whether low oxygen tension influenced the cells response to TNFα and dynamic compression.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chondrocyte/agarose constructs were treated with varying concentrations of TNFα (0.1-100 ng/ml) and cultured at 5 and 21 % oxygen tension for 48 h. In separate experiments, constructs were subjected to dynamic compression (15 %) and treated with TNFα (10 ng/ml) and/or L-NIO (1 mM) at 5 and 21 % oxygen tension using an ex vivo bioreactor for 48 h. Markers for catabolic activity (NO, PGE2) and tissue remodelling (GAG, MMPs) were quantified by biochemical assay. ADAMTS-5 and MMP-13 expression were examined by real-time qPCR. 2-way ANOVA and a post hoc Bonferroni-corrected t test were used to analyse data.

    RESULTS: TNFα dose-dependently increased NO, PGE2 and MMP activity (all p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Nitric Oxide/metabolism
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