1. It is shown that in contradistinction to the marked stability of ascorbic acid in acid solution towards nitrate is its sensitiveness towards nitrite. 2. The primary major product of the action of the nitrite is dehydroascorbic acid, which appears to be relatively stable towards the nitrite. 3. The nutritional and other physiological implications of these findings are discussed.
A significant breakthrough and progress have been made in the study of the kinetics of microbial transformation in sewers under aerobic and under changing aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Fundamental knowledge on anoxic kinetics of wastewater is still lacking, so it is not now possible to apply an integrated approach to municipal wastewater treatment incorporating sewer networks as a bio-chemical reactor. This paper presents the results of studies on determining half saturation constants for nitrate, KNO3, and nitrite, KNO2, in raw wastewater. The average values of KNO3 and KNO2, determined from experiments conducted on 7 different wastewater samples were found to be 0.76 gNO3-N/m3 and 0.33 gNO2-N/m3 respectively.
The CANON process is a promising method for nitrogen removal in wastewaters with low organic carbon content like reject water. This study investigated the effect of important factors for optimization of the CANON process through inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). In the acclimation period, complete ammonium removal and 43.3% total N removal were obtained at hydraulic retention time of 12 h, temperature of 30°C ± 0.5°C and DO equal to 7-9 mg/L. The effects of air flow rate (AFR) (representative of DO), SRT and C/N were evaluated. Air flow rate was the most important factor for controlling the process, but the effect of SRT was negligible. When AFR was increased from 100 to 500 mL/min, both ammonium removal efficiency (33-43% to 81-83%) and nitrite accumulation (nitritation, 40 mgN/L to 100-120 mgN/L) were increased, but with increasing AFR to 1000 mL/min only ammonium removal efficiency was increased and because of better condition (high DO) for NOBs, nitritation was decreased. C/N had an effect like AFR of 1000 and only increased ammonium removal efficiency and total N removal. With increasing AFR and C/N, both OUR and AUR were increased, but SVI was decreased.
Accumulation of nitrite intermediate in autohydrogenotrophic denitrification process has been a challenging difficulty to tackle. This study showed that further growth of "true denitrifying" bacteria and adaptation to nitrite led to a faster reduction of nitrite than nitrate as a solution to circumvent nitrite accumulation. Moreover, two effective parameters namely pH and bicarbonate dose were optimized in order to achieve a better reduction rate. Sodium bicarbonate dose ranging from 20 to 2000 mg/L and pH in the range of 6.5-8.5 was selected to be examined employing 0.2 g MLVSS/L of reacclimatized denitrifying bacteria. Eleven runs of experiments were designed considering the interactive effect of these two operative parameters. A fairly close reduction time less than 4.5 h (>22.22 mg NO2(-)-N/g MLVSS/h) was gained for the pH range between 7 and 8. The highest specific nitrite reduction rate at 25 mg NO2(-)-N/g MLVSS/h was achieved applying 1000 mg NaHCO3/L at pH 7.5 and 8. The pH was found to be the leading parameter and bicarbonate as the less effective parameter on nitrite reduction removal. Central composite design (CCD) and response surface design (RSM) were employed to develop a model as well as define the optimum condition. Using the experimental data, the developed quadratic model predicted optimum condition at pH 7.8 and sodium bicarbonate dose 1070 mg/L upon which denitrifiers managed to accomplish reduction within 3.5 h and attained the specific degradation rate of 28.57 mg NO2(-)-N/g MLVSS/h.
It is important to diagnose and treat urinary tract infection in children before renal damage has taken place. Hence a new screening procedure will be of interest. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of urinary nitrite in screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria among school children compared to a more traditional method. Of the 44,816 school children investigated 240 (0.54%) students were judged to have bacteriuria ie 82 (0.19%) in boys and 158 (0.35%) in girls. Escherichia coli was the commonest organism isolated (28.75%). Urine dipstick testing for nitrite was found to have a low sensitivity and positive predictive value. While urinalysis for pyuria was noted to have a sensitivity of 77.9%, a specificity of 95.8% and a negative predictive value of 99.9%.
The effect of pre-treatment of dewatered sludge using different nitrite concentrations and pH for microbial fuel cell (MFC) application was investigated. The results show that the addition of nitrite was feasible to increase the solubilization rate of the sludge and may reduce mass transfer limitation at the anode. This helped the MFC to reach higher voltage and to generate more power. The higher free nitrous acid (FNA) concentration under the acidic condition helped to increase sludge solubilization. However, under an alkaline condition, during which the FNA concentration was relatively low, the solubilization of the sludge was higher. The highest voltage and power density produced was 390 mV and 153 mW/m2, respectively, with the addition of nitrite at 100 mg-N/L and pH 9. Furthermore, it was found that elevated levels of FNA could inhibit electrogenic bacteria thus reducing power generation.
Changes in nitrate and nitrite contents (leaves and stem) of Amaranthus gangeticus (AG) and Amaranthus paniculatus (AP), resulting from blanching, storage time (0-4 days), storage temperature (0 and 4ºC), and reheating were analysed. Results showed that fresh AG (1859 ± 7.07 mg/kg) had higher nitrite content than AP (1262 ± 2.12 mg/kg). Nitrites content was 506 ± 2 and 825 ± 3.5 mg/kg for AG and AP, respectively. Reheating and storage times significantly increased the conversion of nitrate to nitrite in AG and AP. Storage at 0 and 4oC exhibited a significant change (P < 0.05) in nitrate and nitrite contents for both samples. Higher nitrite content was found in AP when stored at 4oC and 0oC. The present study indicated that storage time and temperature affected the nitrite contents in blanched AG and AP when stored in low temperatures. Apart from that reheating was also found to increase the formation of nitrite.
A new biosensor for the analysis of nitrite in food was developed based on hemoglobin (Hb) covalently immobilized on the succinimide functionalized poly(n-butyl acrylate)-graphene [poly(nBA)-rGO] composite film deposited on a carbon-paste screen-printed electrode (SPE). The immobilized Hb on the poly(nBA)-rGO conducting matrix exhibited electrocatalytic ability for the reduction of nitrite with significant enhancement in the reduction peak at −0.6 V versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Thus, direct determination of nitrite can be achieved by monitoring the cathodic peak current signal of the proposed polyacrylic-graphene hybrid film-based voltammetric nitrite biosensor. The nitrite biosensor exhibited a reproducible dynamic linear response range from 0.05⁻5 mg L−1 nitrite and a detection limit of 0.03 mg L−1. No significant interference was observed by potential interfering ions such as Ca2+, Na⁺, K⁺, NH₄⁺, Mg2+, and NO₃− ions. Analysis of nitrite in both raw and processed edible bird’s nest (EBN) samples demonstrated recovery of close to 100%. The covalent immobilization of Hb on poly(nBA)-rGO composite film has improved the performance of the electrochemical nitrite biosensor in terms of broader detection range, lower detection limit, and prolonged biosensor stability.
Edible bird nests (EBNs) are highly demanded globally. The industry was recently affected by an import ban to China due to high nitrite levels.Subsequently, many concerns have been raised. In this study, the microbial composition of both raw and commercial EBNs was investigated. The raw EBNs were purchased from swiftlet farms: Kuala Sanglang (Perlis), Pantai Remis (Perak), Kluang (Johor), Kajang (Selangor) and Kota Bharu (Kelantan). The commercial nests were purchased from five different Chinese traditional medicinal shops (Companies A-E) in Malaysia and one from Indonesia (Medan). A total of 123 and 34 isolates were successfully identified from unboiled raw and commercial EBNs respectively. The highest average CFU (1.77 x 104) was associated with raw EBNs obtained from Kluang, while for the commercial EBNs, those obtained from Company M1 had the highest CFU (5.50 x 104). Bacillus sp. accounted for the highest isolated species from both unboiled raw and commercial EBNs. Bacillus sp. and Brevibacillus sp. were mainly isolated from the boiled EBNs. Bacillus spp. were the dominant bacterial groups in all the raw EBNs except for those obtained from Kajang. The average number of bacteria isolated from the raw EBNs (average = 7) was higher compared with those isolated from the commercial EBNs (average = 4). The highest average number of bacterial isolates was reported in the raw EBNs obtained from Kota Bharu. Among the commercial EBNs, one EBN sample each from Companies A and M1 showed the highest number of isolates (n = 10). In general, there was a significant reduction in the number of bacteria isolated after boiling the EBNs. Raw EBNs obtained from Kajang had a distinct pool of bacterial species where the majority of the isolated species belonged to Staphylococcus species. The associated health impacts of these microorganisms to the consumers and public need to be addressed.
Edible bird nests (EBNs) are important ethnomedicinal commodity in the Chinese community. Recently, But and others showed that the white EBNs could turn red by vapors from sodium nitrite (NaNO2) in acidic condition or from bird soil, but this color-changing agent remained elusive. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nitrite and nitrate contents and its affects on EBN's color. EBNs were collected from swiftlet houses or caves in Southeast Asia. White EBNs were exposed to vapor from NaNO2 in 2% HCl, or bird soil. The levels of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) in EBNs were determined through ion chromatography analysis. Vapors from NaNO2 in 2% HCl or bird soil stained white bird nests to brown/red colors, which correlated with increase nitrite and nitrate levels. Moreover, naturally formed cave-EBNs (darker in color) also contained higher nitrite and nitrate levels compared to white house-EBNs, suggesting a relationship between nitrite and nitrate with EBN's color. Of note, we detected no presence of hemoglobin in red "blood" nest. Using infrared spectra analysis, we demonstrated that red/brown cave-EBNs contained higher intensities of C-N and N-O bonds compared to white house-EBNs. Together, our study suggested that the color of EBNs was associated with the prevalence of the nitrite and nitrate contents.
A two-stage anoxic transformation process, involving growth of biomass utilizing two types of different electron acceptors, namely nitrate and nitrite, has been observed. The present water quality modules established for sewer processes cannot account for the two-stage process. This paper outlines the development of a model concept that enables the two-stage anoxic transformation process to be simulated. The proposed model is formulated in a matrix form that is similar to the Activated Sludge Models and Sewer Process Model matrices. The model was successfully applied to simulate changes in nitrate and nitrite concentrations during anoxic transformations in the bulkwater phase of municipal wastewater.
Several parts of the world have been facing the problem of nitrite and nitrate contamination in ground and surface water. The acute toxicity of nitrite has been shown to be 10-fold higher than that of nitrate. In the present study, aminated silica carbon nanotube (ASCNT) was synthesised and tested for nitrite removal. The synergistic effects rendered by both amine and silica in ASCNT have significantly improved the nitrite removal efficiency. The IEP increased from 2.91 for pristine carbon nanotube (CNT) to 8.15 for ASCNT, and the surface area also increased from 178.86 to 548.21 m2 g-1. These properties have promoted ASCNT a novel adsorbent to remove nitrite. At optimum conditions of 700 ppm of nitrite concentration at pH 7 and 5 h of contact with 15 mg of adsorbent, the ASCNT achieved the maximal loading capacity of 396 mg/g (85% nitrite removal). The removal data of nitrite onto ASCNT fitted the Langmuir isotherm model better than the Freundlich isotherm model with the highest regression value of 0.98415, and also, the nonlinear analysis of kinetics data showed that the removal of nitrite followed pseudo-second-order kinetic. The positive values of both ΔS° and ΔH° suggested an endothermic reaction and an increase in randomness at the solid-liquid interface. The negative ΔG° values indicated a spontaneous adsorption process. The ASCNT was characterised using FESEM-EDX and FTIR, and the results obtained confirmed the removal of nitrite. Based on the findings, ASCNT can be considered as a novel and promising candidate for the removal of nitrite ions from wastewater.
A diesel-degrading bacterium has been isolated from a diesel-polluted site. The isolate was tentatively identified as Staphylococcus aureus strain DRY11 based on partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny and Biolog GP microplate panels and Microlog database. Isolate 11 showed an almost linear increase in cellular growth with respect to diesel concentrations with optimum growth occurring at 4% (v/v) diesel concentration. Optimization studies using different nitrogen sources showed that the best nitrogen source was potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite was optimum at 1.2 g l(-1) and higher concentrations were strongly inhibitory to cellular growth. The optimal pH that supported growth of the bacterium was between 7.5 to 8.0 and the isolate exhibited optimal broad temperature supporting growth on diesel from 27 to 37 degrees C. An almost complete removal of diesel components was seen from the reduction in hydrocarbon peaks observed using Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography analysis after 5 days of incubation. The characteristics of this bacterium suggest that it is suitable for bioremediation of diesel spills and pollutions in the tropics.
Nitrate reduotase is induced by nitrate in excised embryos and germinating intact seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L.). The enzyme is induced 24 hr after imbibition. The rate of enzyme formation increases with the age of seedlings. There is a lag period of 30 to 40 min between the addition of substrate and the formation of nitrate reductase. Formation of the enzyme is promoted by the presence of ammonium. Chloramphenicol, actinomycin D and cycloheximide effectively inhibit the formation of nitrate reductase.Rice seedlings can assimilate nitrate from the beginning of germination. However, the utilization of nitrate is completely suppressed by the presence of ammonium. As soon as ammonium is depleted from the medium, nitrate utilization is resumed. Ammonium inhibits the first step of nitrate reduction, i.e., NO(-) (3) --> NO(-) (2), but does not inhibit the assimilation of nitrite. This provides an example of feedback inhibition in higher plants.
The novel immobilized microbial granules (IMG) shows a significant effect of nitrification for freshwater aquaculture. However, there is lack of evaluation study on the performance of nitrification at high salinity due to the concentration of recycled water or seawater utilization. A laboratory scale moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) with IMG was tested on recycled synthetic aquaculture wastewater for the nitrification at 2.5 mg/L NH3-N daily. The results indicated that IMG showed a high salinity tolerance and effectively converted ammonia to nitrate up to 92% at high salinity of 35.0 g/L NaCl. As salinity increased from near zero to 35.0 g/L, the microbial activity of nitrite oxidation bacteria (NOB) in the IMG decreased by 86.32%. The microbial community analysis indicated that salinity significantly influenced the community structure. It was found that Nitrosomonas sp. and Nitrospira sp. were the dominant genera for ammonia oxidation bacteria (AOB) and NOB respectively at different salinity levels.
Anammox bacteria can easily undergo starvation due to fluctuations in feed flowrate and concentration in wastewater treatment plants. In this study, we analyzed the effects of different types of storage conditions (presence of ammonium (Ra), nitrite (Rn), hydrazine (Rh), and no substrate (Rc)) in aiding the viability of anammox bacteria during starvation and recovery. After starvation, the bacteria were subjected to a 15-week recovery period. Anammox bacteria showed better results during starvation and recovery in Rh as compared to other conditions. Decay rate values obtained after starvation in Ra, Rn, Rh, and Rc were 0.032/day, 0.042/day, 0.019/day, and 0.037/day, respectively. Meanwhile, µmax values obtained in Rh, Ra, Rn, and Rc on the 15th week of recovery were 0.092, 0.075, 0.011, and 0.067 d-1, respectively. This indicated that the availability of hydrazine helps to reduce the mortality rate of anammox bacteria during starvation and enhances the recovery of anammox process.
This paper aimed to describe the effects of sand mining on the Kelantan River with respect to physical and chemical parameter analyses. Three replicates of water samples were collected from five stations along the Kelantan River (November 2010 until February 2011). The physical parameters included water temperature, water conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity, whereas the chemical parameters included the concentration of nitrogen nutrients such as ammonia, nitrate and nitrite. The Kelantan River case study revealed that TSS, turbidity and nitrate contents exceed the Malaysian Interim National Water Quality Standard (INWQS) range and are significantly different between Station 1 (KK) and Station 3 (TM). Station 1 has the largest variation of TDS, TSS, turbidity and nitrogen nutrients because of sand mining and upstream logging activities. The extremely high content of TSS and the turbidity have caused poor and stressful conditions for the aquatic life in the Kelantan River.
The study of river water quality plays an important role in assessing the pollution status and health of the water bodies. Human-induced activities such as domestic activities, aquaculture, agriculture and industries have detrimentally affected the river water quality. Pinang River is one of the important rivers in Balik Pulau District that supplies freshwater for human consumption. A total of 442 physical and chemical parameters data of the Pinang River, Balik Pulau catchment were analysed to determine the sources of pollutants entering the river. Non-supervised artificial neural network (ANN) was employed to classify and cluster the river into upstream, middle-stream and downstream zones. The monitored data and non-supervised ANN analysis demonstrated that the source of nitrate was derived from the upper part of the Pinang River, Balik Pulau while the sources of nitrite, ammonia and ortho-phosphate are predominant at the middle-stream of the river system. Meanwhile, the sources of high total suspended solid and biological oxygen demand were concentrated at the downstream of the river.
Biofouling is a crucial factor in membrane bioreactor (MBR) applications, particularly for high organic loading operations. This paper reports a study on biofouling in an MBR to establish a relationship between critical flux, Jc, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) (ranging from 5 to 20 g L-1) and volumetric loading rate (6.3 kg COD m-3 h-1) of palm oil mill effluent (POME). A lab-scale 100 L hybrid MBR consisting of anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic reactors was used with flat sheet microfiltration (MF) submerged in the aerobic compartment. The food-to-microorganism (F/M) ratio was maintained at 0.18 kg COD kg-1 MLSSd-1. The biofouling tendency of the membrane was obtained based on the flux against the transmembrane pressure (TMP) behaviour. The critical flux is sensitive to the MLSS. At the MLSS 20 g L-1 the critical flux is about four times lower than that for the MLSS concentration of 5 g L-1. The results showed high removal efficiency of denitrification and nitrification up to 97% at the MLSS concentration 20 g L-1. The results show that the operation has to compromise between a high and a low MLSS concentration. The former will favour a higher removal rate, while the latter will favour a higher critical flux.
The concentrations of calcium, phosphate, protein and nitrite in whole unstimulated saliva, and the salivary flow rate under fasting conditions (saliva collected at least after 6 h without food and water) were compared with those under control conditions (saliva collected within 30 min to 1 h after food). The flow rate of fasting saliva was half that of control (0.098 ml/min vs 0.208 ml/min) and no significant differences in the flow rate were observed between sexes. The concentration of nitrite under fasting conditions was 50% higher than that in control saliva (p less than 0.05). The protein concentration was decreased, but not significantly, under fasting conditions. The composition of fasting saliva with regard to calcium and phosphate concentrations was comparable to that of the control. No significant variations in these components between sexes were observed under either condition.