Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 84 in total

  1. Dorgay CE, Bromberg DJ, Doltu S, Litz T, Galvez S, Polonsky M, et al.
    Int J Drug Policy, 2022 Jun;104:103683.
    PMID: 35417790 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2022.103683
    BACKGROUND: Eastern Europe and Central Asia have intertwined HIV and incarceration epidemics, concentrated in people who inject drugs. Moldova is one of the few countries in this region that offers methadone within prisons, but uptake and post-release retention remains suboptimal. Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) procedures are a potential implementation strategy to address this problem.

    METHODS: From June 1, 2017 to March 3, 2018, we conducted a 2-stage SBIRT strategy in nine prisons and four pre-trial detention facilities in Moldova among incarcerated persons with opioid use disorder (OUD; N = 121) and within 90 days of release. Survey results were analyzed to evaluate the effect of the SBIRT strategy on the uptake of and post-release retention on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT).

    RESULTS: Among the 121 screened with OUD, 27 were on MMT at baseline within the prison and this number increased to 41 after the two-step SBIRT intervention, reflecting a 51.9% increase over baseline. Eleven (78.6%) of the 14 participants that newly started MMT did so only after completing both SBIRT sessions. The brief intervention did not significantly improve knowledge about methadone but did improve attitudes towards it. Among the 41 participants who received methadone during this trial, 40 (97.6%) were retained 6 months after release; the one participant not retained was on methadone at the time of the intervention and had planned to taper off.

    CONCLUSION: The SBIRT strategy significantly improved participant attitudes, but treatment initiation mostly occurred after completing both sessions, including soon after release, but remained low overall. Work within the Moldovan prison subculture to dispel negative myths and misinformation is needed to further scale-up OAT in Moldova.

    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods
  2. Loh DA, Plugge E, Van Hout MC
    Int J Drug Policy, 2023 Feb;112:103957.
    PMID: 36693296 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2023.103957
    BACKGROUND: Criminalisation of drug use and compulsory detention has largely characterised the Southeast Asia region's response to people who use drugs. Whilst access to and provision of healthcare for people living in prison are mandated by international human rights standards, many opioid dependent people living in prison continue to lack access to opioid substitution treatment (OST) during incarceration, and face uncertainties of continuity of care beyond the prison gate.

    METHODS: A scoping review using Arksey and O'Malley's framework mapped what is currently known about the continuity of OST post-release in Southeast Asia, with a focus on the three countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam) that provide OST in at least one prison. A multi-lingual systematic search (English, Malay, Indonesian, Vietnamese) on Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library collected and reviewed extant relevant published empirical and grey literature including government reports between 2011 and 2021. Of the 365 records found, 18 were eligible for inclusion following removal of duplicates and application of exclusion criteria. These records were charted and thematically analysed.

    RESULTS: Three main themes were generated: Facilitators of post release continuity of care, Barriers to post release continuity of care and Therapeutic considerations supporting post release continuity of care. When individual and structural gaps exist, disruptions to continuity of OST care post release are observed. Adequate methadone dosage of >80mg/day appears significantly associated with retention in post-release OST.

    CONCLUSIONS: The review highlights the facilitators, barriers and therapeutic considerations of continuity of care of OST between prison and community for people living in prisons from Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam. Improving community services with family support are key to supporting continued OST adherence post release along with reducing societal stigma towards people who use drugs and those entering or leaving prison. Further efforts are warranted to ensure parity, quality and continuity of OST care post release.

    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment
  3. Robson N, Rashid R, Nazar M, Habil H
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2015 Mar;7(1):121-5.
    PMID: 23857876 DOI: 10.1111/j.1758-5872.2012.00194.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment*
  4. Ramli FF, Tg Abu Bakar Sidik TMI, Naina Mohamed I
    PMID: 32197338 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17061993
    Sexual dysfunction has been extensively studied in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients. However, little data is available regarding sexual inactivity in the MMT patient population. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and putative risk factors for sexual inactivity in the MMT patient population. This cross-sectional study involved 25-71 year old MMT patients recruited from six methadone clinics. Two hundred and seventy-one patients were interviewed for demographic characteristics, comorbidities, concurrent medications used, and sexual activity. The prevalence of sexual inactivity in the MMT population was found to be 47.6%. Increasing age (p < 0.01) and being single/divorced (p < 0.01) were significantly associated with sexual inactivity. In subgroup analysis, increasing age was significantly associated with sexual inactivity in both single/divorced (p < 0.05) and married (p < 0.05) subgroups, while unemployment (p < 0.05) was only significantly associated with sexual inactivity in the earlier subgroup. Our results suggest that sexual inactivity is common in the MMT patient population. The putative risk factors are related to biological and sociocultural factors. Having specific comorbidities or being on certain medications were not correlated with sexual inactivity in the MMT population. Routine assessment of sexual problems is essential, and proper management should be performed for MMT patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment*
  5. Bazazi AR, Culbert GJ, Wegman MP, Heimer R, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    BMC Infect Dis, 2022 Nov 11;22(1):837.
    PMID: 36368939 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-022-07804-6
    INTRODUCTION: Mortality is elevated after prison release and may be higher in people with HIV and opioid use disorder (OUD). Maintenance with opioid agonist therapy (OAT) like methadone or buprenorphine reduces mortality in people with OUD and may confer benefits to people with OUD and HIV leaving prison. Survival benefits of OAT, however, have not been evaluated prospectively in people with OUD and HIV leaving prison.

    METHODS: This study prospectively evaluated mortality after prison release and whether methadone initiated before release increased survival after release in a sample of men with HIV and OUD (n = 291). We linked national death records to data from a controlled trial of prerelease methadone initiation conducted from 2010 to 2014 with men with HIV and OUD imprisoned in Malaysia. Vital statistics were collected through 2015. Allocation to prerelease methadone was by randomization (n = 64) and participant choice (n = 246). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate treatment effects of prerelease methadone on postrelease survival.

    RESULTS: Overall, 62 deaths occurred over 872.5 person-years (PY) of postrelease follow-up, a crude mortality rate of 71.1 deaths per 1000 PY (95% confidence interval [CI] 54.5-89.4). Most deaths were of infectious etiology, mostly related to HIV. In a modified intention-to-treat analysis, the impact of prerelease methadone on postrelease mortality was consistent with a null effect in unadjusted (hazard ratio [HR] 1.3, 95% CI 0.6-3.1) and covariate-adjusted (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.5-2.8) models. Predictors of mortality were educational level (HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.8), pre-incarceration alcohol use (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.9), and lower CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (HR 0.8 per 100-cell/mL increase, 95% CI 0.7-1.0).

    CONCLUSIONS: Postrelease mortality in this sample of men with HIV and OUD was extraordinarily high, and most deaths were likely of infectious etiology. No effect of prerelease methadone on postrelease mortality was observed, which may be due to study limitations or an epidemiological context in which inadequately treated HIV, and not inadequately treated OUD, is the main cause of death after prison release.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02396979. Retrospectively registered 24/03/2015.

    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods
  6. Mohd Salleh NA, Voon P, Karamouzian M, Milloy MJ, Richardson L
    Drug Alcohol Depend, 2021 01 01;218:108342.
    PMID: 33097340 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108342
    BACKGROUND: The beneficial links between engagement in methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) and HIV treatment outcomes have been extensively described. Nevertheless, people who use drugs (PWUD) continue to experience suboptimal HIV treatment outcomes. In this systematic review, we sought to identify components of MMT service provision that are associated with improvements in HIV care outcomes across the HIV care cascade.

    METHODS: We searched for peer-reviewed studies in online databases. To be eligible for inclusion in this review, studies must have involved a population or sub-population of PWUD engaged in MMT; report improved uptake of HIV testing, exposure to ART, or HIV-1 RNA plasma viral load suppression; provide details on MMT services; and be published in English between 1 January 2006 until 31 December 2018.

    RESULTS: Out of the 5594 identified records, 22 studies were eligible for this systematic review. Components of MMT services associated with HIV care cascade outcomes described in the studies were classified in three categories of care models: 1) standard MMT care with adequate doses, 2) standard MMT care and alongside additional medical component(s), and 3) standard MMT care, additional medical component(s) as well as informational or instrumental social support.

    CONCLUSION: The few studies identified reflect a scarcity of evidence on the role of social support to increase the benefits of MMT for PWUD who are living with HIV. Further research is needed to assess the role of medical and social service components in MMT care delivery in advancing PWUD along the HIV care cascade.

    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods*; Opiate Substitution Treatment/statistics & numerical data
  7. Mukherjee TI, Wickersham JA, Desai MM, Pillai V, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Drug Alcohol Depend, 2016 07 01;164:120-7.
    PMID: 27207155 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.04.037
    INTRODUCTION: Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is crucial for HIV prevention and treatment in people who inject opioids. In Malaysia, a large proportion of the prison population is affected by both HIV and opioid use disorders. This study assessed individual preferences and factors associated with interest in receiving MMT among male prisoners meeting criteria for opioid dependence in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A convenience sample of 96 HIV-positive and 104 HIV-negative incarcerated men who met pre-incarceration criteria for opioid dependence was interviewed using a structured questionnaire to examine participant characteristics and attitudes toward MMT. Factors associated with interest in prison-based MMT initiation were identified using logistic regression analysis.

    RESULTS: Among all participants, 85 (42.5%) were interested in receiving MMT within prison. Independent correlates of interest in prison-based MMT were being previously married (AOR=4.15, 95% CI: 1.15, 15.02), previously incarcerated (AOR=5.68, 95% CI: 1.54, 21.02), depression (AOR=3.66, 95% CI: 1.68, 7.98), daily heroin use in the 30days prior to incarceration (AOR=5.53, 95% CI: 1.65, 18.58), and more favorable attitudes toward MMT (AOR=19.82, 95% CI: 6.07, 64.74).

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, interest in receiving prison-based MMT was low, and was associated with adverse social, mental health, and drug use consequences. Incarceration provides a unique opportunity to initiate MMT for those who need it, however, optimal scale-up efforts must be systemic and address modifiable factors like improving attitudes toward and motivation for MMT. Informed or shared decision-making tools may be useful in improving expectations and acceptability of MMT.

    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods*; Opiate Substitution Treatment/psychology*
  8. Watan Pal A, Aziz Z, Kamarulzaman A
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2021 Dec;46(6):1531-1548.
    PMID: 34159618 DOI: 10.1111/jcpt.13449
    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) has a high mortality rate and affects millions of people worldwide. Many organizations and societies develop Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) to serve as a framework for healthcare providers to decide and support best practice to manage and treat OUD. However, not all CPGs sufficiently address all the important aspects of optimal care for managing OUD. This study aims to review current CPGs for management of OUD, evaluate their methodological quality and summarize their recommendations.

    METHODS: We conducted this systematic review according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA). Various databases were searched for CPGs and Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE-II) instrument was used to assess the methodological quality. We also summarized the treatments plans of CPGs across continuum of care (diagnosis and assessment, treatment initiation, pharmacotherapy and psychosocial).

    RESULTS: This review included 28 CPGs of varying qualities. CPGs from high-income countries and international organizations rated high for their methodological quality. Most CPGs scored high for the scope and purpose domain and scored low for applicability domain. Recommendations for the continuum of care for OUD varied across CPGs. Buprenorphine was recommended in most of the CPGs, followed by methadone. Recommendations for psychosocial interventions also varied, with cognitive behaviour therapies and counselling or education being the common recommendations in many CPGs WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: We found most CPGs have scope and purpose and clarity of presentation. However, the methodological rigour and applicability scored low. CPGs need to frame health questions in a comprehensible manner and provide an update as evidence grows. It is important for CPG developers to consider methodological quality as a factor when developing CPG recommendations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods; Opiate Substitution Treatment/standards
  9. Ramli FF, Shuid AN, Pakri Mohamed RM, Tg Abu Bakar Sidik TMI, Naina Mohamed I
    PMID: 31683816 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16214249
    Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is commonly associated with methadone usage. However, little data is known regarding the health-seeking behavior for ED in the methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) population. This study aimed to determine the health-seeking behavior of MMT patients with ED who perceived themselves as having ED. We aimed to assess the attitudes and health-seeking behavior, the effectiveness of the treatment and the factors associated with treatment-seeking behavior. Methods: This was an observational questionnaire-based study. Patients were first screened for ED (n = 154) using the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5). Fifty patients with ED were evaluated for health-seeking behavior for ED. Results: More than half of the patients who thought they had ED (78%) believed their sex life was affected. Most patients (48%) did not seek any information regarding ED. Education level (p = 0.017) and marital status (p = 0.008) were predictive factors of health-seeking behavior. Conclusions: The health-seeking rate among MMT patients with ED needs to be improved. Measures to increase awareness of ED in MMT patients should be taken to overcome the barrier to health-seeking behavior. Health practitioners should take action to screen ED in this population to increase the detection rate and offer appropriate management according to the patients' needs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment
  10. Liyana, H. M. A., Hidayah, N. A. B., Nasir, M.
    Thymoquinone (TQ) is the main pharmacologically active compound found in the seeds oil of Nigella
    Sativa. Various studies had been investigated on the therapeutic effects of TQ against several diseases such as
    anticancer research, antibacterial, and so on. As a result, a considerable amount of information has been
    generated from these researches thus providing a better understanding of the promising effects of this
    compound. However, research studies on the potential role of this compound on opioid addiction studies are
    still lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to highlight the potential role of TQ as a non-opioid
    substitution therapy in opioid addiction and the chances of this compound to be explored further with special
    attention to opioid substitution therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment
  11. Ab Lloh S, Mohamad N, Badrin S, Abu Bakar R, Ahmad I
    J Ethn Subst Abuse, 2023;22(1):45-59.
    PMID: 33472556 DOI: 10.1080/15332640.2021.1871696
    The study aimed to determine the prevalence of continuity of illicit drug use and its associated factors among Malay opioid users receiving methadone treatment in Kelantan, Malaysia. This cross-sectional study involved a total of 150 respondents. Sociodemographic characteristic of participants, level of religiosity, and quality of life were collected using the self-administered questionnaires. The prevalence of continuity illicit drug use was 38.7% (n = 58) by self-report and 40.7% (n = 61) by positive urine test result for drugs. Positive hepatitis C status and high quality of life in the psychological health domain were associated with low continuity of illicit drug use by self-reported data and urine drug test results. In conclusion, the continuity of illicit drug use among methadone program users is still high, especially among those on methadone therapy for less than 2 years.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment
  12. Mitra S, Grant C, Nolan S, Mohd Salleh NA, Milloy MJ, Richardson L
    AIDS Behav, 2022 Jun;26(6):1933-1942.
    PMID: 34977956 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-021-03543-y
    A robust evidence-base describes the beneficial association between opioid agonist therapy (OAT) and HIV-related outcomes among people living with HIV and opioid use disorder. While some evidence suggests the stabilizing effect of OAT on antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment engagement, less is understood about the potential for an inverse relationship. We sought to examine the relationship between transitions in ART engagement and transitions onto OAT. We used data from a prospective cohort of people living with HIV who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada-a setting with no-cost access to ART and low or no-cost access to OAT among low-income residents. Restricting the sample to those who reported daily or greater opioid use, we used generalized linear mixed-effects models to estimate the relationships between our primary outcome of transitions onto OAT (methadone or buprenorphine/naloxone) and transitions (1) onto ART and (2) into ART adherence. Subsequent analyses assessed the temporal sequencing of transitions. Between 2005 and 2017, among 433 participants, 48.3% reported transitioning onto OAT at least once. In concurrent analyses, transitions onto ART were positively and significantly associated with transitions onto OAT. Temporal sequencing revealed that transitions into OAT were also positively and significantly associated with subsequent transitions onto ART. OAT's potential to facilitate the uptake of ART points to the continued need to scale-up low-threshold, client-centered substance use services integrated alongside HIV care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment
  13. Zahari Z, Lee CS, Ibrahim MA, Musa N, Mohd Yasin MA, Lee YY, et al.
    Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse, 2016 09;42(5):587-596.
    PMID: 27284701 DOI: 10.3109/00952990.2016.1172078
    BACKGROUND: Methadone is a substrate of the permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter, which is encoded by the ABCB1 (MDR1) gene. Large interindividual variability in serum methadone levels for therapeutic response has been reported. Genetic variations in ABCB1 gene may be responsible for the variability in observed methadone concentrations.
    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the associations of ABCB1 polymorphisms and serum methadone concentration over the 24-hour dosing interval in opioid-dependent patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT).
    METHODS: One hundred and forty-eight male opioid-dependent patients receiving MMT were recruited. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from whole blood and genotyped for ABCB1 polymorphisms [i.e. 1236C>T (dbSNP rs1128503), 2677G>T/A (dbSNP rs2032582), and 3435C>T (dbSNP rs1045642)] using the allelic discrimination real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after the dose. Serum methadone concentrations were measured using the Methadone ELISA Kit.
    RESULTS: Our results revealed an association of CGC/TTT diplotype (1236C>T, 2677G>T/A, and 3435C>T) with dose-adjusted serum methadone concentration over the 24-hour dosing interval. Patients with CGC/TTT diplotype had 32.9% higher dose-adjusted serum methadone concentration over the 24-hour dosing interval when compared with those without the diplotype [mean (SD) = 8.12 (0.84) and 6.11 (0.41) ng ml-1mg-1, respectively; p = 0.033].
    CONCLUSION: There was an association between the CGC/TTT diplotype of ABCB1 polymorphisms and serum methadone concentration over the 24-hour dosing interval among patients on MMT. Genotyping of ABCB1 among opioid-dependent patients on MMT may help individualize and optimize methadone substitution treatment.
    Study site: Psychiatric Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), and other MMT clinics in Kelantan,
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment*
  14. Mohammadi M, Kazeminia M, Abdoli N, Khaledipaveh B, Shohaimi S, Salari N, et al.
    Health Qual Life Outcomes, 2020 Nov 23;18(1):373.
    PMID: 33225933 DOI: 10.1186/s12955-020-01599-3
    BACKGROUND: Opioids addiction and misuse are among the major problems in the world today. There have been several preliminary studies examining the effect of methadone on depression among addicts, however, these studies have reported inconsistent and even contradictory results. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of methadone on depression in addicts in Iran and around the world, using a meta-analysis approach.

    METHODS: This study was a systematic review and meta-analysis including articles published in the SID, MagIran, IranMedex, IranDoc, Cochrane, Embase, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched systematically to find articles published from 2006 to March 2019. Heterogeneity index was determined using the Cochran's test (Qc) and I2. Considering heterogeneity of studies, the random effects model was used to estimate the standardized difference of mean score for depression. Subsequently, the level of depression reduction in Iran and worldwide in the intervention group before and after the testwas measured.

    RESULTS: A total of 19 articles met the inclusion criteria, and were therefore selected for this systematic review and meta-analysis. The sample size of the intervention group in the selected studies was 1948. According to the meta-analysis results, the mean depression score in the intervention group was 26.4 ± 5.6 and 18.4 ± 2.6 before and after intervention respectively, indicating the reducing effect of methadone on depression, and this difference was statistically significant (P treatment plan.

    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment*
  15. Yee A, Hoong MC, Joyce YC, Loh HS
    Subst Use Misuse, 2018 01 28;53(2):276-285.
    PMID: 28857640 DOI: 10.1080/10826084.2017.1342661
    BACKGROUND: Nicotine use disorder is highly prevalent among methadone maintenance patients with its tobacco-related problems. However, the treatment modalities for nicotine use disorder remain limited.
    OBJECTIVE: Our meta-analysis aims to examine the effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment in this group of patients.
    METHODS: A total of 1358 participants were recruited from 9 eligible studies, published from the start of studies in this field till Feb 2016, identified from PubMed, OVID, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases. Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of each report based on predefined inclusion criteria. Pooled odd ratios or weighted mean difference was performed using random effects.
    RESULTS: The treatments for smoking cessation among MMT patients are behavioral and pharmacological therapies. Smoking cessation was better achieved with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) especially with adjunctive behavioral therapy. The pooled odds ratio of smokers' abstinence of smoking by the end of the treatment between NRT and placebo group was 6.32 (95% CI = 1.18 to 33.75, p = 0.03) and is statistically significant. Any additional behavior therapy among MMT patients who received the smoking cessation pharmacotherapy as the primary treatment was not better than those who only received standard care (Odds ratio was 2.53, 95% CI = 0.75 to 8.56, p = 0.14).
    CONCLUSIONS: Although NRT is proven to be effective in smoking cessation, more studies are warranted to prove the effects of other pharmacotherapy in smoking cessation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment/psychology*
  16. Ismail H, Ahmad H, Sanef A, Shahabudin W, Reffin N, Chan D, et al.
    Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse, 2023 Jan 02;49(1):97-108.
    PMID: 36786756 DOI: 10.1080/00952990.2022.2161051
    Background: In recent years, amphetamine-type-stimulants (ATS) have been extensively misused in South-East Asia, inducing major problems among methadone-maintenance-treatment (MMT) patients.Objective: We examine ATS-misuse prevalence and its determinants among MMT patients in East-Coast-Malaysia.Methods: A retrospective-observational study was conducted on government-subsidized medication for opioid-use-disorder (MOUD) treatment clinics involving 292 MMT-patients (98% males) who were selected using a multilevel-proportional-stratified random sampling technique. Information obtained during the mandatory monitoring procedure from January 1 to December 31 2019, was utilized to determine ATS misuse prevalence from consecutive random urine drug screening. The determinants associated with its use, namely sociodemographics, social networks, comorbidities, and pharmacological assessments were analyzed via a logistic model.Results: Overall, 52.2% of the MMT-patients (95% CI: 0.42-0.54) had misused ATS at least once during their methadone treatment. These misusing patients were active smokers, hepatitis B and C seronegative, concurrently misused opioids, and had received suboptimum prescribed doses of methadone. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the odds of misusing ATS during methadone treatment were 37 times higher among those who concurrently misused opioids (AOR: 37.60, 95% CI: 14.03-100.74) and 12 times higher among those who received suboptimal methadone doses (<60 mg/day) (AOR: 12.24, 95% CI: 5.58-25.43).Conclusion: This study demonstrated the significant prevalence of ATS misuse among MMT-patients in East-Coast-Malaysia, especially among patients who were prescribed suboptimal doses of methadone and/or demonstrated concomitant opioid-misuse. Stringent urine-monitoring is crucial to prevent diversion to ATS misuse. Nonetheless, to avoid negligence and improve physician engagement, the relevant authorities should immediately plan a comprehensive national-standard training module comprising support activities for professional methadone-prescribers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods
  17. Wickersham JA, Marcus R, Kamarulzaman A, Zahari MM, Altice FL
    Bull World Health Organ, 2013 Feb 01;91(2):124-9.
    PMID: 23554524 DOI: 10.2471/BLT.12.109132
    PROBLEM: In Malaysia, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is highly concentrated among people who inject opioids. For this reason, the country undertook a three-phase roll-out of a methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programme. In Phase 3, described in this paper, MMT was implemented within prisons and retention in care was assessed.

    APPROACH: After developing standard operating procedures and agreement between its Prisons Department and Ministry of Health, Malaysia established pilot MMT programmes in two prisons in the states of Kelantan (2008) and Selangor (2009) - those with the highest proportions of HIV-infected prisoners. Community-based MMT programmes were also established in Malaysia to integrate treatment activities after prisoners' release.

    LOCAL SETTING: Having failed to reduce the incidence of HIV infection, in 2005 Malaysia embarked on a harm reduction strategy.

    RELEVANT CHANGES: STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES WERE MODIFIED TO: (i) escalate the dose of methadone more slowly; (ii) provide ongoing education and training for medical and correctional staff and inmates; (iii) increase the duration of methadone treatment before releasing prisoners; (iv) reinforce linkages with community MMT programmes after prisoners' release; (v) screen for and treat tuberculosis; (vi) escalate the dose of methadone during treatment for HIV infection and tuberculosis; and (vii) optimize the daily oral dose of methadone (> 80 mg) before releasing prisoners.

    LESSONS LEARNT: Prison-based MMT programmes can be effectively implemented but require adequate dosing and measures are needed to improve communication between prison and police authorities, prevent police harassment of MMT clients after their release, and improve systems for tracking release dates.

    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods*; Opiate Substitution Treatment/trends
  18. Madden L, Bojko MJ, Farnum S, Mazhnaya A, Fomenko T, Marcus R, et al.
    Int J Drug Policy, 2017 11;49:48-53.
    PMID: 28957756 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.07.025
    BACKGROUND: Opioid agonist therapies (OAT) like methadone and buprenorphine maintenance treatment remain markedly under-scaled in Ukraine despite adequate funding. Clinicians and administrators were assembled as part of an implementation science strategy to scale-up OAT using the Network for Improvement of Addiction Treatment (NIATx) approach.

    METHODS: Nominal Group Technique (NGT), a key ingredient of the NIATx toolkit, was directed by three trained coaches within a learning collaborative of 18 OAT clinicians and administrators to identify barriers to increase OAT capacity at the regional "oblast" level, develop solutions, and prioritize local change projects. NGT findings were supplemented from detailed notes collected during the NGT discussion.

    RESULTS: The top three identified barriers included: (1) Strict regulations and inflexible policies dictating distribution and dispensing of OAT; (2) No systematic approach to assessing OAT needs on regional or local level; and (3) Limited funding and financing mechanisms combined with a lack of local/regional control over funding for OAT treatment services.

    CONCLUSIONS: NGT provides a rapid strategy for individuals at multiple levels to work collaboratively to identify and address structural barriers to OAT scale-up. This technique creates a transparent process to address and prioritize complex issues. Targeting these priorities allowed leaders at the regional and national level to advocate collectively for approaches to minimize obstacles and create policies to improve OAT services.

    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment/economics; Opiate Substitution Treatment/trends*
  19. Ramli FF, Syed Hashim SA, Mohd Effendy N
    Int J Med Sci, 2021;18(2):575-581.
    PMID: 33390827 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.52201
    Background: Long-term opioid therapy is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). However, other factors may also contribute to low BMD. Several studies have examined the variables that might contribute to low BMD in patients receiving opioid replacement therapy (OST). However, to our knowledge, there was no systemic review conducted to address this particular issue. Thus, we reviewed the articles on the factors associated with low BMD in the population of opioid use disorder receiving substitution therapy. Methods: The articles that examined correlates or risk factors of low BMD in OST population were retrieved from OVID, SCOPUS, and PUBMED from inception until July 2020 by two independent investigators. Results: A total of 429 articles from three databases were retrieved initially. After screening based on eligibility criteria, five articles were included in the final analysis. The risk factors or correlates found to be significantly associated with low BMD in the OST population include male gender, low body mass index, low testosterone level, methadone or heroin use, and longer duration of heavy alcohol use. The review limitations include small sample sizes and inconsistent definition of variables. Conclusion: OST patients should be screened for BMD and its associated factors. Guidelines and training of practitioners involving in the OST service should be provided to increase the detection of low BMD in the OST population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment/adverse effects*; Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods
  20. Yee A, Loh HS, Ng CG, Sulaiman AH
    Am J Mens Health, 2018 07;12(4):1016-1022.
    PMID: 29493379 DOI: 10.1177/1557988318759197
    Low sexual desire (SD) is not life threatening, but its negative impact on the quality of life and intimacy of a relationship among the patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is significant. This cross-sectional study involved 183 men on MMT who were interviewed and who completed the Malay version of the SDI-2 (SDI-2-BM), the Malay version of the self-rated Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-BM) and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF Scale (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaires. Findings showed 32.8% ( n = 60) participants had low SD. Those who were older, had sexual partners, and were smokers achieved lower scores in both dyadic SD (≤24) and solitary SD (≤6), and suffered lower quality of life in their social relationship. MMT is very cost-effective in rehabilitating opioid dependence; however, as clinicians, we need to address and manage the issues of low SD and depression among patients on MMT, especially the older men.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment/adverse effects*; Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods
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