Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 74 in total

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  1. Robson N, Rashid R, Nazar M, Habil H
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2015 Mar;7(1):121-5.
    PMID: 23857876 DOI: 10.1111/j.1758-5872.2012.00194.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment*
  2. Ramli FF, Tg Abu Bakar Sidik TMI, Naina Mohamed I
    PMID: 32197338 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17061993
    Sexual dysfunction has been extensively studied in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients. However, little data is available regarding sexual inactivity in the MMT patient population. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and putative risk factors for sexual inactivity in the MMT patient population. This cross-sectional study involved 25-71 year old MMT patients recruited from six methadone clinics. Two hundred and seventy-one patients were interviewed for demographic characteristics, comorbidities, concurrent medications used, and sexual activity. The prevalence of sexual inactivity in the MMT population was found to be 47.6%. Increasing age (p < 0.01) and being single/divorced (p < 0.01) were significantly associated with sexual inactivity. In subgroup analysis, increasing age was significantly associated with sexual inactivity in both single/divorced (p < 0.05) and married (p < 0.05) subgroups, while unemployment (p < 0.05) was only significantly associated with sexual inactivity in the earlier subgroup. Our results suggest that sexual inactivity is common in the MMT patient population. The putative risk factors are related to biological and sociocultural factors. Having specific comorbidities or being on certain medications were not correlated with sexual inactivity in the MMT population. Routine assessment of sexual problems is essential, and proper management should be performed for MMT patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment*
  3. Mukherjee TI, Wickersham JA, Desai MM, Pillai V, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Drug Alcohol Depend, 2016 07 01;164:120-7.
    PMID: 27207155 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.04.037
    INTRODUCTION: Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is crucial for HIV prevention and treatment in people who inject opioids. In Malaysia, a large proportion of the prison population is affected by both HIV and opioid use disorders. This study assessed individual preferences and factors associated with interest in receiving MMT among male prisoners meeting criteria for opioid dependence in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A convenience sample of 96 HIV-positive and 104 HIV-negative incarcerated men who met pre-incarceration criteria for opioid dependence was interviewed using a structured questionnaire to examine participant characteristics and attitudes toward MMT. Factors associated with interest in prison-based MMT initiation were identified using logistic regression analysis.

    RESULTS: Among all participants, 85 (42.5%) were interested in receiving MMT within prison. Independent correlates of interest in prison-based MMT were being previously married (AOR=4.15, 95% CI: 1.15, 15.02), previously incarcerated (AOR=5.68, 95% CI: 1.54, 21.02), depression (AOR=3.66, 95% CI: 1.68, 7.98), daily heroin use in the 30days prior to incarceration (AOR=5.53, 95% CI: 1.65, 18.58), and more favorable attitudes toward MMT (AOR=19.82, 95% CI: 6.07, 64.74).

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, interest in receiving prison-based MMT was low, and was associated with adverse social, mental health, and drug use consequences. Incarceration provides a unique opportunity to initiate MMT for those who need it, however, optimal scale-up efforts must be systemic and address modifiable factors like improving attitudes toward and motivation for MMT. Informed or shared decision-making tools may be useful in improving expectations and acceptability of MMT.

    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods*; Opiate Substitution Treatment/psychology*
  4. Ramli FF, Shuid AN, Pakri Mohamed RM, Tg Abu Bakar Sidik TMI, Naina Mohamed I
    PMID: 31683816 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16214249
    Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is commonly associated with methadone usage. However, little data is known regarding the health-seeking behavior for ED in the methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) population. This study aimed to determine the health-seeking behavior of MMT patients with ED who perceived themselves as having ED. We aimed to assess the attitudes and health-seeking behavior, the effectiveness of the treatment and the factors associated with treatment-seeking behavior. Methods: This was an observational questionnaire-based study. Patients were first screened for ED (n = 154) using the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5). Fifty patients with ED were evaluated for health-seeking behavior for ED. Results: More than half of the patients who thought they had ED (78%) believed their sex life was affected. Most patients (48%) did not seek any information regarding ED. Education level (p = 0.017) and marital status (p = 0.008) were predictive factors of health-seeking behavior. Conclusions: The health-seeking rate among MMT patients with ED needs to be improved. Measures to increase awareness of ED in MMT patients should be taken to overcome the barrier to health-seeking behavior. Health practitioners should take action to screen ED in this population to increase the detection rate and offer appropriate management according to the patients' needs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment
  5. Liyana, H. M. A., Hidayah, N. A. B., Nasir, M.
    MyJurnal
    Thymoquinone (TQ) is the main pharmacologically active compound found in the seeds oil of Nigella
    Sativa. Various studies had been investigated on the therapeutic effects of TQ against several diseases such as
    anticancer research, antibacterial, and so on. As a result, a considerable amount of information has been
    generated from these researches thus providing a better understanding of the promising effects of this
    compound. However, research studies on the potential role of this compound on opioid addiction studies are
    still lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to highlight the potential role of TQ as a non-opioid
    substitution therapy in opioid addiction and the chances of this compound to be explored further with special
    attention to opioid substitution therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment
  6. Zahari Z, Lee CS, Ibrahim MA, Musa N, Mohd Yasin MA, Lee YY, et al.
    Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse, 2016 09;42(5):587-596.
    PMID: 27284701 DOI: 10.3109/00952990.2016.1172078
    BACKGROUND: Methadone is a substrate of the permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter, which is encoded by the ABCB1 (MDR1) gene. Large interindividual variability in serum methadone levels for therapeutic response has been reported. Genetic variations in ABCB1 gene may be responsible for the variability in observed methadone concentrations.
    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the associations of ABCB1 polymorphisms and serum methadone concentration over the 24-hour dosing interval in opioid-dependent patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT).
    METHODS: One hundred and forty-eight male opioid-dependent patients receiving MMT were recruited. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from whole blood and genotyped for ABCB1 polymorphisms [i.e. 1236C>T (dbSNP rs1128503), 2677G>T/A (dbSNP rs2032582), and 3435C>T (dbSNP rs1045642)] using the allelic discrimination real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after the dose. Serum methadone concentrations were measured using the Methadone ELISA Kit.
    RESULTS: Our results revealed an association of CGC/TTT diplotype (1236C>T, 2677G>T/A, and 3435C>T) with dose-adjusted serum methadone concentration over the 24-hour dosing interval. Patients with CGC/TTT diplotype had 32.9% higher dose-adjusted serum methadone concentration over the 24-hour dosing interval when compared with those without the diplotype [mean (SD) = 8.12 (0.84) and 6.11 (0.41) ng ml-1mg-1, respectively; p = 0.033].
    CONCLUSION: There was an association between the CGC/TTT diplotype of ABCB1 polymorphisms and serum methadone concentration over the 24-hour dosing interval among patients on MMT. Genotyping of ABCB1 among opioid-dependent patients on MMT may help individualize and optimize methadone substitution treatment.
    Study site: Psychiatric Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), and other MMT clinics in Kelantan,
    Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment*
  7. Yee A, Hoong MC, Joyce YC, Loh HS
    Subst Use Misuse, 2018 01 28;53(2):276-285.
    PMID: 28857640 DOI: 10.1080/10826084.2017.1342661
    BACKGROUND: Nicotine use disorder is highly prevalent among methadone maintenance patients with its tobacco-related problems. However, the treatment modalities for nicotine use disorder remain limited.
    OBJECTIVE: Our meta-analysis aims to examine the effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment in this group of patients.
    METHODS: A total of 1358 participants were recruited from 9 eligible studies, published from the start of studies in this field till Feb 2016, identified from PubMed, OVID, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases. Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of each report based on predefined inclusion criteria. Pooled odd ratios or weighted mean difference was performed using random effects.
    RESULTS: The treatments for smoking cessation among MMT patients are behavioral and pharmacological therapies. Smoking cessation was better achieved with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) especially with adjunctive behavioral therapy. The pooled odds ratio of smokers' abstinence of smoking by the end of the treatment between NRT and placebo group was 6.32 (95% CI = 1.18 to 33.75, p = 0.03) and is statistically significant. Any additional behavior therapy among MMT patients who received the smoking cessation pharmacotherapy as the primary treatment was not better than those who only received standard care (Odds ratio was 2.53, 95% CI = 0.75 to 8.56, p = 0.14).
    CONCLUSIONS: Although NRT is proven to be effective in smoking cessation, more studies are warranted to prove the effects of other pharmacotherapy in smoking cessation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment/psychology*
  8. Mohammadi M, Kazeminia M, Abdoli N, Khaledipaveh B, Shohaimi S, Salari N, et al.
    Health Qual Life Outcomes, 2020 Nov 23;18(1):373.
    PMID: 33225933 DOI: 10.1186/s12955-020-01599-3
    BACKGROUND: Opioids addiction and misuse are among the major problems in the world today. There have been several preliminary studies examining the effect of methadone on depression among addicts, however, these studies have reported inconsistent and even contradictory results. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of methadone on depression in addicts in Iran and around the world, using a meta-analysis approach.

    METHODS: This study was a systematic review and meta-analysis including articles published in the SID, MagIran, IranMedex, IranDoc, Cochrane, Embase, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched systematically to find articles published from 2006 to March 2019. Heterogeneity index was determined using the Cochran's test (Qc) and I2. Considering heterogeneity of studies, the random effects model was used to estimate the standardized difference of mean score for depression. Subsequently, the level of depression reduction in Iran and worldwide in the intervention group before and after the testwas measured.

    RESULTS: A total of 19 articles met the inclusion criteria, and were therefore selected for this systematic review and meta-analysis. The sample size of the intervention group in the selected studies was 1948. According to the meta-analysis results, the mean depression score in the intervention group was 26.4 ± 5.6 and 18.4 ± 2.6 before and after intervention respectively, indicating the reducing effect of methadone on depression, and this difference was statistically significant (P treatment plan.

    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment*
  9. Wickersham JA, Marcus R, Kamarulzaman A, Zahari MM, Altice FL
    Bull World Health Organ, 2013 Feb 01;91(2):124-9.
    PMID: 23554524 DOI: 10.2471/BLT.12.109132
    PROBLEM: In Malaysia, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is highly concentrated among people who inject opioids. For this reason, the country undertook a three-phase roll-out of a methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programme. In Phase 3, described in this paper, MMT was implemented within prisons and retention in care was assessed.

    APPROACH: After developing standard operating procedures and agreement between its Prisons Department and Ministry of Health, Malaysia established pilot MMT programmes in two prisons in the states of Kelantan (2008) and Selangor (2009) - those with the highest proportions of HIV-infected prisoners. Community-based MMT programmes were also established in Malaysia to integrate treatment activities after prisoners' release.

    LOCAL SETTING: Having failed to reduce the incidence of HIV infection, in 2005 Malaysia embarked on a harm reduction strategy.

    RELEVANT CHANGES: STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES WERE MODIFIED TO: (i) escalate the dose of methadone more slowly; (ii) provide ongoing education and training for medical and correctional staff and inmates; (iii) increase the duration of methadone treatment before releasing prisoners; (iv) reinforce linkages with community MMT programmes after prisoners' release; (v) screen for and treat tuberculosis; (vi) escalate the dose of methadone during treatment for HIV infection and tuberculosis; and (vii) optimize the daily oral dose of methadone (> 80 mg) before releasing prisoners.

    LESSONS LEARNT: Prison-based MMT programmes can be effectively implemented but require adequate dosing and measures are needed to improve communication between prison and police authorities, prevent police harassment of MMT clients after their release, and improve systems for tracking release dates.

    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods*; Opiate Substitution Treatment/trends
  10. Yee A, Loh HS, Ng CG, Sulaiman AH
    Am J Mens Health, 2018 07;12(4):1016-1022.
    PMID: 29493379 DOI: 10.1177/1557988318759197
    Low sexual desire (SD) is not life threatening, but its negative impact on the quality of life and intimacy of a relationship among the patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is significant. This cross-sectional study involved 183 men on MMT who were interviewed and who completed the Malay version of the SDI-2 (SDI-2-BM), the Malay version of the self-rated Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-BM) and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF Scale (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaires. Findings showed 32.8% ( n = 60) participants had low SD. Those who were older, had sexual partners, and were smokers achieved lower scores in both dyadic SD (≤24) and solitary SD (≤6), and suffered lower quality of life in their social relationship. MMT is very cost-effective in rehabilitating opioid dependence; however, as clinicians, we need to address and manage the issues of low SD and depression among patients on MMT, especially the older men.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment/adverse effects*; Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods
  11. Madden L, Bojko MJ, Farnum S, Mazhnaya A, Fomenko T, Marcus R, et al.
    Int J Drug Policy, 2017 11;49:48-53.
    PMID: 28957756 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.07.025
    BACKGROUND: Opioid agonist therapies (OAT) like methadone and buprenorphine maintenance treatment remain markedly under-scaled in Ukraine despite adequate funding. Clinicians and administrators were assembled as part of an implementation science strategy to scale-up OAT using the Network for Improvement of Addiction Treatment (NIATx) approach.

    METHODS: Nominal Group Technique (NGT), a key ingredient of the NIATx toolkit, was directed by three trained coaches within a learning collaborative of 18 OAT clinicians and administrators to identify barriers to increase OAT capacity at the regional "oblast" level, develop solutions, and prioritize local change projects. NGT findings were supplemented from detailed notes collected during the NGT discussion.

    RESULTS: The top three identified barriers included: (1) Strict regulations and inflexible policies dictating distribution and dispensing of OAT; (2) No systematic approach to assessing OAT needs on regional or local level; and (3) Limited funding and financing mechanisms combined with a lack of local/regional control over funding for OAT treatment services.

    CONCLUSIONS: NGT provides a rapid strategy for individuals at multiple levels to work collaboratively to identify and address structural barriers to OAT scale-up. This technique creates a transparent process to address and prioritize complex issues. Targeting these priorities allowed leaders at the regional and national level to advocate collectively for approaches to minimize obstacles and create policies to improve OAT services.

    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment/economics; Opiate Substitution Treatment/trends*
  12. Ramli M, Zafri AB, Junid MR, Hatta S
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Dec;67(6):560-4.
    PMID: 23770945 MyJurnal
    The escalating problem of opiate dependence in Malaysia and the limitations of regimental approach of forced admission to rehabilitation centres had triggered the government to expand the methadone maintenance therapy to become a national programme. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term outcomes of the Methadone Maintenance Therapy programme in one of the busiest hospital in east coast Malaysia. We also explored the prevalence on non-compliance and factors associated to it. A total of 172 patient case notes at Methadone Clinic Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA) were retrieved for relevant data. A short survey was also conducted to determine the subjects' current employment and marital status. The programme's retention rate was 62% and factors associated with poor compliance were unemployment, low quality of life scores and low dose of methadone. A special attention on the patients with these three risk factors may improve their compliance to MMT. The short-term evaluation of MMT at HTAA revealed favourable findings.
    Study site: Psychiatric clinic, Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment
  13. Lim, Dwee Shion, Sambamoorthy, Vijayrama Rao, Ling, Diana Soon Ying, Sharifah Sulaiha Syed Aznal
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2014;15(2):131-139.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: This study was conducted to assess the effects of Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) and buprenorphine-naloxone Maintenance Therapy (BNX) on the Quality of life (QoL) of opiate abusers. Methods: The QoL status of opioid-dependent patients was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. It is a cross-sectional study involving a total of 108 patients who received MMT or BNX therapy in Malaysia from May 2011 to September 2011. Results: A statistically significant difference in the overall QoL and psychological aspect among patients on MMT was observed. On the contrary, the scores of overall QoL and quality of social relationship for BNX group were higher in patients with lower dosage. Conclusion: The comparison between patients on high dose MMT and high dose BNX exhibited significant difference in the overall QoL especially in psychological, social relationship and environment domains, with the high dose MMT group having better mean score. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 15 (2): July - December 2014: 131-139.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment
  14. Nurulhuda M.H., Najwa Haneem M., Khairi C.M., Norwati D., Aniza A.A.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Substance abuse is both a social and public health problem with a substantial burden to society. Opioid dependence results in unemployment, crimes, family disruption, and transmission of diseases. In Malaysia, methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) has been introduced as a harm reduction method. However, relapse during treatment remains an issue to be resolved that hinders successful outcome in the therapy. Spirituality in the treatment of substance abuse disorders has yet to be fully explored. This study aims to examine how MMT clients who relapsed perceive spiritual deficits as an influence and association of spiritual practice with relapse. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study done from June-July 2016. All MMT clients undergoing therapy at 3 treatment centers in Terengganu, Malaysia who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria and consented were included in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was filled via face to face interview and spiritual practice was assessed using Hatta Islamic Religiosity Scale. 121 questionnaires were assessed and data was analyzed using SPSS version 22 for quantitative data. Results: All respondents were males of Malay race and Islamic religion. Current relapse, defined as any episode of intake of opioid for the past one month after a period of abstinence was 34%. Only three out of 42 clients who relapsed had some spirituality theme in their perceived cause of their relapse. However, a significant majority of those relapsed had a spiritual practice score of less than the mean practice score. Conclusion: Relapse in opioid addiction remains high in those receiving MMT in Terengganu, Malaysia. Spirituality may have a subconscious influence towards relapse in addiction in MMT clients. Further effort should be taken to inculcate spirituality intervention effective to prevent relapse which may contribute towards achieving a more successful therapy outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment
  15. Mohd Adnan LH, Abu Bakar NH, Simbak N, Mohamad N, Ismail R, Ahmad NZ, et al.
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2020 Jul;23(7):849-852.
    PMID: 32774804 DOI: 10.22038/ijbms.2020.41678.9841
    Opioids, amphetamines, and other types of substances have been widely abused around the world. Opioid dependence and tolerance are two distinct phenomena that have been associated with substance abuse issues. The management of its adverse consequences is becoming more challenging. More and more people are treated in Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) program yet the issues are still unresolved. Researchers are continuing to study the best formulation in treating opioid dependent people starting with modern and alternative drug therapies. Since 2008 , thymoquinone (TQ) has been extensively studied by researchers around the world and has emerged to be a new potential drug candidate in managing substance abuse issues. Thus, the aim of this article is to review the effects that TQ may have on opioid dependent subjects and other abused substances such as amphetamine may have been studied. All of the articles from 2008 until 2019 involving the effects of TQ on substance abuse from Google Scholar®, Scopus®, and Pubmed® databases have been searched and reviewed. The keywords used were thymoquinone, opioid dependence, amphetamine, and Nigella sativa. The research results also have been discussed in this article. Based on the research conducted, TQ was effective in reducing the adverse health consequences associated with substance abuse such as withdrawal symptoms, tolerance, and cell damages. It is concluded that TQ could be a potential drug that can be complemented with the currently available drugs in substance abuse therapies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment
  16. Amir Faisal Mohd. Khairi, Hejar Abdul Rahman, Norsiah Ali
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) is the commonly used intervention for opioid dependents among Malays in FELDA settlements. However, relapse is common. Since majority of Malays are Muslims, Islamic Rehabilitation Intervention Module (ISRIM) using Health Belief Model (HBM) can be implemented as an intervention for reduction of relapse among opioid dependents in FELDA community. The objective of this study were to develop, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of ISRIM in the reduction of relapse among opioids dependent Malay males in FELDA communities in Jengka, Pahang. Methods: A single blind, cluster randomized controlled trial utilizing simple randomization was conducted, involving 10 MMT clinics. Intervention group received ISRIM for one session per week for four consecutive weeks, while control group were put on wait-list. Outcome was relapse, measured monthly for 6 months follow-up by the positive urine for drugs rapid test. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) was used as the main effectiveness analysis. Intention-to-treat (ITT), per protocol (PP) analysis, interaction terms, construct terms and key assumption terms were utilized. Results: Individual participation rate was 88.3%. All group comparisons at baseline were not significant (p>0.05). Cumulative relapse after 6-months follow-up for intervention and control group was 13.8% and 31.2%. There was significant difference in relapse between baseline, post-inter-vention and 6-months follow-up within intervention and control group (Q=29.06 vs 61.39,p
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment
  17. Yee A, Loh HS, Hisham Hashim HM, Ng CG
    Int. J. Impot. Res., 2014 Sep-Oct;26(5):161-6.
    PMID: 24990199 DOI: 10.1038/ijir.2014.18
    Methadone maintenance treatment is proven to be effective treatment for opioid dependence. Of the many adverse events reported, sexual dysfunction is one of the most common side effects. However, there may be other clinical factors that are associated with sexual dysfunction among methadone users. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the clinical factors associated with sexual dysfunction among male patients on methadone and buprenorphine treatments, of which eligible studies were selected using prior defined criteria. A total of 2619 participants from 16 eligible studies, published from inception till December 2012, were identified from the PubMed, OVID and EMBASE databases. The included studies provided prevalence estimates for sexual dysfunction among methadone users with a meta-analytical pooled prevalence of 52% (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.39-0.65). Only four studies compared sexual dysfunction between the two groups, with a significantly higher combined odds ratio in the methadone group (odds ratio=4.01, 95% CI, 1.52-10.55, P=0.0049). Our study shows that eight clinical factors are associated with sexual dysfunction among men receiving opioid substitution treatment, namely age, hormone assays, duration of treatment, methadone dose, medical status, psychiatric illness, other current substance use and familial status, and methadone versus buprenorphine treatment. Despite the methodological limitations, the findings of this meta-analysis study may offer better insights to clinicians in dealing with both sexual dysfunction and its related problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment/adverse effects*
  18. Baharudin A, Mislan N, Ibrahim N, Sidi H, Nik Jaafar NR
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2013 Apr;5 Suppl 1:67-73.
    PMID: 23857840 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12069
    INTRODUCTION: Depression is one of the most common psychiatric conditions in men. The aim of the study was to determine the depressive symptoms and associated factors among men on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT).
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 108 subjects who attended the Drug Clinic at Hospital Kuala Lumpur. The instruments used include the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition Axis-I Disorder, Beck Depression Inventory and the 15-item International Index of Erectile Function.
    RESULTS: The rate of depression was 44.4%. There were significant associations between Malay ethnicity, secondary education level and concurrent illicit cannabis use with depression (P treatment.
    KEYWORDS: depression; methadone maintenance therapy
    Study site: Drug Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment/psychology*
  19. Baharom N, Hassan MR, Ali N, Shah SA
    PMID: 22853701 DOI: 10.1186/1747-597X-7-32
    BACKGROUND: Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) is one of the popular choices for drug substitution therapy and is fairly new in Malaysia. Aside from its role in harm reduction against HIV infection, MMT programme may potentially enhances clients' quality of life. This study aims to identify the impact of MMT programme on clients' quality of life after 6 months in treatment and to explore factors that may be associated with changes in their quality of life.
    METHODS: In this retrospective report review, 122 subjects from 2 government MMT clinics were selected from the district of Tampin, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The raw score from the WHO Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF), at baseline and 6 months after therapy were collected and converted to 0-100 scale form to give quality of life scores for four domains; physical, psychological, social relationships and environment. Other variables of interest were socio-demography, age when joining MMT programme, age and duration of illicit drug use, HIV and Hepatitis C status, and the Opiate Treatment Index (OTI) score on drug use, sexual and social aspect at the baseline. Statistical analysis used the SPSS version 16.
    RESULTS: There was significant improvement in all four domains of quality of life, after 6 months of MMT. The largest improvement was for psychological domain (mean score difference 15.54 ± 20.81). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that, for the physical domain, there was no significant predictor. For both the psychological and social domains, having tertiary education is a significant predictor for improvement in both aspects of quality of life. Negative HIV status is associated with improvement for the environment domain.
    CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant short term improvement in the quality of life of MMT clients who stayed in the programme for at least 6 months in the district of Tampin, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
    Study site: MMT clinic, Tampin, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment*
  20. Lua PL, Talib NS
    Subst Use Misuse, 2012 Aug;47(10):1100-5.
    PMID: 22545914 DOI: 10.3109/10826084.2012.679840
    This paper focuses on the evaluation of addiction program effectiveness which involves changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) profile. This study was conducted from 2007 until 2010 at a rural methadone maintenance treatment center in Malaysia to assess HRQoL outcomes before and after treatment. Fifty-seven respondents completed the WHOQOL-BREF at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months postintervention. Data were analyzed using nonparametric techniques (SPSS 15). Significant and positive HRQoL impacts were demonstrated. Future studies with larger sample are encouraged. This study was supported by the Ministry of Health Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods*
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