Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 25 in total

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  1. Marcus R, Makarenko I, Mazhnaya A, Zelenev A, Polonsky M, Madden L, et al.
    Drug Alcohol Depend, 2017 10 01;179:213-219.
    PMID: 28806638 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.07.010
    BACKGROUND: Scaling up HIV prevention for people who inject drugs (PWID) using opioid agonist therapies (OAT) in Ukraine has been restricted by individual and structural factors. Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), however, provides new opportunities for treating opioid use disorders (OUDs) in this region, where both HIV incidence and mortality continue to increase.

    METHODS: Survey results from 1613 randomly selected PWID from 5 regions in Ukraine who were currently, previously or never on OAT were analyzed for their preference of pharmacological therapies for treating OUDs. For those preferring XR-NTX, independent correlates of their willingness to initiate XR-NTX were examined.

    RESULTS: Among the 1613 PWID, 449 (27.8%) were interested in initiating XR-NTX. Independent correlates associated with interest in XR-NTX included: being from Mykolaiv (AOR=3.7, 95% CI=2.3-6.1) or Dnipro (AOR=1.8, 95% CI=1.1-2.9); never having been on OAT (AOR=3.4, 95% CI=2.1-5.4); shorter-term injectors (AOR=0.9, 95% CI 0.9-0.98); and inversely for both positive (AOR=0.8, CI=0.8-0.9), and negative attitudes toward OAT (AOR=1.3, CI=1.2-1.4), respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: In the context of Eastern Europe and Central Asia where HIV is concentrated in PWID and where HIV prevention with OAT is under-scaled, new options for treating OUDs are urgently needed.

    FINDINGS: here suggest that XR-NTX could become an option for addiction treatment and HIV prevention especially for PWID who have shorter duration of injection and who harbor negative attitudes to OAT. Decision aids that inform patient preferences with accurate information about the various treatment options are likely to guide patients toward better, patient-centered treatments and improve treatment entry and retention.

    Matched MeSH terms: Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy*
  2. Zahari Z, Lee CS, Ibrahim MA, Musa N, Mohd Yasin MA, Lee YY, et al.
    J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2016;19(1):127-36.
    PMID: 27096697 DOI: 10.18433/J3NS49
    PURPOSE: This study compared pain sensitivity among opioid dependent patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) and opioid naive subjects.

    METHODS: The three hundred participants comprised 152 opioid naive subjects and 148 opioid dependent patients. Opioid naive subjects had not taken any opioids including morphine and methadone to their best knowledge and were presumed so after two consecutive negative urine screenings for drugs. All opioid dependent patients were stabilized in treatment, defined as having been enrolled in the program for more than one month with no change of methadone dosage over the past one month. Excluded from the study were individuals with chronic or ongoing acute pain and individuals with a history of analgesics ingestion within 3 d before the cold pressor test (CPT). Pain tolerance to CPT was evaluated at 0 h, and at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h post-methadone dose.

    RESULTS: Patients exhibited a significantly shorter mean pain tolerance time of 34.17 s (95% CI 24.86, 43.49) versus 61.36 (52.23, 70.48) [p < 0.001] compared with opioid naive subjects. Time-dependent mean pain tolerance was also significantly different when naive subjects were compared to patients (p = 0.016).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed hyperalgesia amongst patients on MMT, as manifested by their quicker hand withdrawal. The complaints of pain in this population should not be underestimated and the pain should be evaluated seriously and managed aggressively.

    Matched MeSH terms: Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy*
  3. Brown SE, Wickersham JA, Pelletier AR, Marcus RM, Erenrich R, Kamarulzaman A, et al.
    J Ethn Subst Abuse, 2016 07 12;16(3):363-379.
    PMID: 27404914 DOI: 10.1080/15332640.2016.1196632
    Fishermen who inject drugs represent an understudied group at high risk for HIV in Malaysia. This study describes fishing, drug use, and attitudes toward medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for opioid use disorders. Thirty-four male ethnic Malay fishermen completed semistructured interviews analyzed by content analysis. Analysis revealed four themes surrounding opioids, which they called ubat ("medicine"): (a) the fishing lifestyle facilitating substance use, (b) previous unsuccessful attempts to quit, (c) categorizing substances as haram or halal, and (d) attitudes toward MAT. Fishermen's environment permits substance use, including injecting drugs on boats. Fishermen expressed more positive attitudes toward methadone and negative attitudes toward buprenorphine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy
  4. Nik Jaafar NR, Mislan N, Abdul Aziz S, Baharudin A, Ibrahim N, Midin M, et al.
    J Sex Med, 2013 Aug;10(8):2069-76.
    PMID: 23445463 DOI: 10.1111/jsm.12105
    INTRODUCTION: While methadone effectively treats opiate dependence, the side effect of erectile dysfunction (ED) may interfere with treatment adherence and benefits.
    AIM:To determine the rate of ED and the associated factors which predict ED in male patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in a Malaysian population.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures were the International Index of Erectile Function-15 (IIEF-15) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).
    METHODS: A total of 108 participants diagnosed with heroin dependence were assessed. We used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders (SCID-I) on subjects who received MMT, and they were assessed using the IIEF-15, the BDI, and measures of other clinical and sociodemographic variables.
    RESULTS: The rate of ED among men on MMT was 68.5% (mild ED, 36.1%; mild to moderate ED, 22.2%; severe ED, 3.7%). The mean age of the participants was 43.45 years. Older age (P = 0.002), concurrent illicit heroin use (P = 0.024), and having an older partner (P = 0.039) were significantly associated with ED. Following multivariate analysis, it was found that older age was the only significant predictor of ED, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.07 (95% CI = 1.02-1.16). Methadone dose and duration of methadone treatment were not significantly associated with ED.
    CONCLUSION: ED was highly prevalent among male patients on MMT. This suggests that there is a need for routine assessment of sexual function in patients on methadone. Among the risk factors, age was the only factor that was significantly associated with ED. The current use of MMT in Malaysia in terms of dosage and duration did not pose a significant risk for ED.
    KEYWORDS: Erectile Dysfunction; Methadone Therapy; Opiate Dependence
    Study site: outpatient clinic for opiate substitution therapy, Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy*
  5. Aziz Z, Chong NJ
    J Subst Abuse Treat, 2015 Jun;53:47-51.
    PMID: 25616750 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2014.12.008
    The aim of this study was to examine opioid-dependent patients' satisfaction with the methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program in Malaysia and identify predictors of satisfaction. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire developed and validated by Rankin Court, New South Wales, Australia. Of 502 patients approached in 11 MMT centers in Malaysia, 425 agreed to participate giving a response rate of 85%. In terms of overall satisfaction, a high percentage of respondents (85%) were satisfied with the MMT services. A logistic regression analysis showed that only "centres" and marital status were associated with overall satisfaction and that being single (OR 3.31; 95% CI 1.52 to 7.20) or married (OR 4.06; 95% CI 1.76 to 9.38) was associated with higher odds of overall satisfaction compared to being divorced or separated. An analysis of the responses pertaining to the most desired changes required at the center found dosing hours, waiting area and staff shortages to be common. The findings acquired from this survey will be useful to attain a clearer perspective on what aspects of the MMT service need to be reviewed for the improvement of service delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy
  6. Lua PL, Talib NS
    Subst Use Misuse, 2012 Aug;47(10):1100-5.
    PMID: 22545914 DOI: 10.3109/10826084.2012.679840
    This paper focuses on the evaluation of addiction program effectiveness which involves changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) profile. This study was conducted from 2007 until 2010 at a rural methadone maintenance treatment center in Malaysia to assess HRQoL outcomes before and after treatment. Fifty-seven respondents completed the WHOQOL-BREF at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months postintervention. Data were analyzed using nonparametric techniques (SPSS 15). Significant and positive HRQoL impacts were demonstrated. Future studies with larger sample are encouraged. This study was supported by the Ministry of Health Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy*
  7. Sharifa Ezat WP, Noor Azimah H, Rushidi R, Raminder K, Ruhani I
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Mar;64(1):65-70.
    PMID: 19852326 MyJurnal
    This paper seeks to determine the client's compliance level towards Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) and identify its associated factors. A cross sectional study was conducted from June to September 2007 where 288 samples were interviewed. The outcomes were divided into good compliance and partial compliance categories. Overall client's compliance level is good at 86.1%. There are significant difference between mean age of groups (t = -2.041, p = 0.04); and significant associations of job's status (chi2 = 9.54, p = 0.008); client's confident score (t = -3.12, p = 0.023), client'ssocial function score (t = -2.308, p = 0.002) and client's social function level (chi2 = 5.43, p = 0.02) with compliance toward program. With multivariate analysis, only client's age, client's confidence score and client's job status were related to compliance status. It was concluded that there is high compliance rate among client's who received the program. Younger clients, low scores on client's confident and social function, and clients with unsteady jobs are at risk not to comply with treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy*
  8. George P, Vicknasingam B, Thurairajasingam S, Ramasamy P, Mohd Yusof H, Yasin MABM, et al.
    Drug Alcohol Rev, 2018 Jan;37(1):147-151.
    PMID: 27859761 DOI: 10.1111/dar.12456
    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Opioid dependence remains the main type of illicit substance used in Malaysia, which has an estimated 187 771 opiate users. There are currently 333 active methadone maintenance treatment centres nationwide. Although methadone has proven to be an effective maintenance therapy, it has clinical concerns which can have an impact on its effectiveness and safety.

    DESIGN, METHODS AND RESULTS: A case series of seven patients from Malaysian private and public hospital settings who had an adverse reaction with methadone is discussed.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Despite methadone being an effective therapy for opioid dependence, there is a need for other alternative effective therapies, such as naltrexone, buprenorphine and the co-formulation of buprenorphine-naloxone, to be made available to physicians in both public and private sectors. There is need for individual treatment consideration to avoid adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, overdosing and in the presence of co-morbidities. An emphasis on safe storage of takeaway methadone is also needed. [George P, Vicknasingam B, Thurairajasingam S, Ramasamy P, Mohd Yusof H, Yasin MABM, Shah ZUBS. Methadone complications amongst opioid-dependent patients in Malaysia: A case series. Drug Alcohol Rev 2018;37:147-151].

    Matched MeSH terms: Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy*
  9. Singh D, Narayanan S, Vicknasingam B, Corazza O, Santacroce R, Roman-Urrestarazu A
    Hum Psychopharmacol, 2017 05;32(3).
    PMID: 28544011 DOI: 10.1002/hup.2582
    OBJECTIVE: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa. Korth) is an indigenous medicinal plant of Southeast Asia. This review paper aims to describe the trends of kratom use in Southeast Asia.

    DESIGN: A literature review search was conducted through ScienceDirect, Scopus, ProMed and Google Scholar. Twenty-five articles illustrating kratom use in humans in Southeast Asia were reviewed.

    RESULTS: Kratom has long been used by rural populations in Southeast Asia as a remedy for common ailments, to fight fatigue from hard manual work, as a drink during social interaction among men, and in village religious functions. Studies based on self-reports suggest that prolonged kratom use does not result in serious health risks or impair social functioning. Two recent trends have also emerged: (a) Kratom is reportedly being used to ease withdrawal from opioid dependence in rural settings; whereas (b) in urban areas, adulterated kratom cocktails are being consumed by younger people to induce euphoria.

    CONCLUSIONS: Legal sanctions appear to have preceded serious scientific investigations into the claimed benefits of ketum. More objective-controlled trials and experiments on humans need to be conducted to validate self-report claims by kratom users in the community.

    Matched MeSH terms: Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy
  10. Ismail I, Wahab S, Sidi H, Das S, Lin LJ, Razali R
    Curr Drug Targets, 2019;20(2):166-172.
    PMID: 28443503 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170425154120
    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a naturally existing plant found in South-East Asia, is traditionally used as a herb to help elevate a person's energy and also to treat numerous medical ailments. Other than the analgesic property, kratom has been used as an agent to overcome opioid withdrawal as it contains natural alkaloids, i.e. mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and MGM-9, which has agonist affinity on the opioid receptors, including mu (µ) and kappa (κ). The role of neural reward pathways linked to µ-opioid receptors and both dopaminergic and gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons that express µ-opioid receptors were deliberated. However, kratom has been reported to be abused together with other illicit substances with high risk of potential addiction. There are also anecdotes of adverse effects and toxicity of kratom, i.e. tremor, fatigue, seizure, and death. Different countries have distinctive regulation and policy on the plantation and use of this plant when most of the countries banned the use of it because of its addiction problems and side effects. The aim of this review is to highlight on the potential use of kratom, unique 'herbs" as a substitution therapy for chronic pain and opioid addiction, based on the neurobiological perspective of pain and the underlying mechanism of actions of drug addiction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy*
  11. Yee A, Loh HS, Danaee M, Riahi S, Ng CG, Sulaiman AH
    J Sex Med, 2018 02;15(2):159-166.
    PMID: 29275046 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2017.12.004
    BACKGROUND: Methadone has been recognized as an effective maintenance treatment for opioid dependence. However, its use is associated with several complications, including sexual dysfunction in men.

    AIM: To assess plasma testosterone and sexual function in Southeast Asian men on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) or buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT).

    METHODS: 76 sexually active men on MMT (mean age = 43.30 ± 10.32 years) and 31 men on BMT (mean age = 41.87 ± 9.76 years) from a Southeast Asian community were evaluated using plasma total testosterone (TT) and prolactin levels, body mass index, social demographics, substance use measures, and depression severity scale.

    OUTCOMES: Prevalence and associated factors of TT level lower than the reference range in men on MMT or BMT.

    RESULTS: More than 1 third of men (40.8%, n = 31) on MMT had TT levels lower than the reference range, whereas 1 fourth of men (22.6%, n = 7) on BMT did. At univariate analysis, MMT vs BMT (β = 0.298, adjusted R2 = 0.08, P = .02) and body mass index (β = -0.23, adjusted R2 = 0.12, P = .02) were associated with changes in TT after stepwise regression. There were no significant associations with age; Opiate Treatment Index Q scores for alcohol, heroin, stimulant, tobacco, or cannabis use and social functioning domain; education levels; hepatitis C status; and severity of depression. Prolactin level did not differ between the MMT and BMT groups.

    CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The sex hormonal assay should be used regularly to check men on MMT.

    STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: This is the first study conducted in the Southeast Asian community. Our study was limited by the lack of a healthy group as the reference for serum levels of testosterone and prolactin.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings showed that plasma testosterone levels are lower in MMT than in BMT users. Hence, men who are receiving MMT should be screened for hypogonadism routinely in the clinical setting. Yee A, Loh HS, Danaee M, et al. Plasma Testosterone and Sexual Function in Southeast Asian Men Receiving Methadone and Buprenorphine Maintenance Treatment. J Sex Med 2018;15:159-166.

    Matched MeSH terms: Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy
  12. Zahari Z, Lee CS, Ibrahim MA, Musa N, Mohd Yasin MA, Lee YY, et al.
    Drug Alcohol Depend, 2016 08 01;165:143-50.
    PMID: 27289271 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.05.028
    BACKGROUND: CYP2B6 polymorphisms contribute to inter-individual variations in pharmacokinetics of methadone. Increased pain sensitivity is frequently reported by opioid dependent patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). It is possible, therefore, that genetic polymorphisms in CYP2B6, which affects the metabolism of methadone, influence pain sensitivity among patients on MMT. This study investigated CYP2B6 polymorphisms and pain sensitivity in this group.

    METHODS: The cold pressor pain responses of 148 opioid dependent patients receiving MMT were evaluated using the cold pressor test (CPT). DNA was extracted from whole blood and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-genotyping.

    RESULTS: Of the 148 subjects, 77 (52.0%) were carriers of CYP2B6*6 allele. CYP2B6*6 allele carriers had shorter cold pain threshold and pain tolerance times than non-carriers of CYP2B6*6 allele (21.05s vs 33.69s, p=0.036 and 27.15s vs 44.51s, p=0.020, respectively). Pain intensity scores of the CYP2B6*6 allele carriers was 67.55, whereas that of the CYP2B6*6 allele non-carriers was 64.86 (p=0.352).

    CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that the CYP2B6*6 allele is associated with a lower pain threshold and lower pain tolerance among males with opioid dependence on MMT. The CYP2B6*6 allele may provide a mechanistic explanation for clinical observations of heightened pain sensitivity among opioid dependent patients receiving MMT.

    Matched MeSH terms: Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy
  13. Bojko MJ, Mazhnaya A, Marcus R, Makarenko I, Islam Z, Filippovych S, et al.
    J Subst Abuse Treat, 2016 07;66:37-47.
    PMID: 27211995 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2016.03.003
    Opioid agonist therapies (OAT) to treat opioid addiction in people who inject drugs (PWID) began in Ukraine in 2004. Scale-up of OAT, however, has been hampered by both low enrollment and high attrition. To better understand the factors influencing OAT retention among PWID in Ukraine, qualitative data from 199 PWIDs were collected during 25 focus groups conducted in five Ukrainian cities from February to April 2013. The experiences of PWID who were currently or previously on OAT or currently trying to access OAT were analyzed to identify entry and retention barriers encountered. Transcribed data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Individual beliefs about OAT, particularly misaligned treatment goals between clients and providers, influenced PWID's treatment seeking behaviors. Multiple programmatic and structural issues, including inconvenient hours and treatment site locations, complicated dosing regimens, inflexible medication dispensing guidelines, and mistreatment by clinic and medical staff also strongly influenced OAT retention. Findings suggest the need for both programmatic and policy-level structural changes such as revising legal regulations covering OAT dispensing, formalizing prescription dosing policies and making OAT more available through other sites, including primary care settings as a way to improve treatment retention. Quality improvement interventions that target treatment settings could also be deployed to overcome healthcare delivery barriers. Additional patient education and medical professional development around establishing realistic treatment goals as well as community awareness campaigns that address the myths and fears associated with OAT can be leveraged to overcome individual, family and community-level barriers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy*
  14. Teoh Bing Fei J, Yee A, Habil MH
    Am J Addict, 2016 Jan;25(1):49-55.
    PMID: 26692463 DOI: 10.1111/ajad.12317
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Co-occurring psychiatric disorders are among the difficulties faced by patients with opioid dependence on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). This study aims to assess the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity among patients on MMT, the factors predicting psychiatric comorbidity and to examine the association between psychiatric comorbidity and quality of life.
    METHODS: A total of 225 male patients on MMT in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia were assessed for psychiatric comorbidity and substance use disorders using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and Opiate Treatment Index (OTI). Their quality of life was assessed using World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of a current and lifetime non-substance use Axis I psychiatric disorder was 14.2% and 15.6% respectively, while 14.7% fulfilled the criteria for antisocial personality disorder. 80.9% had comorbid substance dependence, predominantly nicotine dependence. Factors significantly associated with a non-substance use Axis I psychiatric disorder on multivariate analysis were use of psychiatric medications, antisocial personality disorder and poorer physical health. Patients with a non-substance use Axis I psychiatric disorder had a significantly poorer quality of life in all domains namely physical health, psychological, social relationships, environment as well as combined quality of life and general health after controlling for possible confounders.
    CONCLUSION: Psychiatric comorbidity among patients on MMT negatively impacts quality of life.
    SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: The detection of psychiatric disorders and provision of appropriate treatment is needed to improve the quality of life of patients on MMT.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy*
  15. Copenhaver M, Shrestha R, Wickersham JA, Weikum D, Altice FL
    J Subst Abuse Treat, 2016 Apr;63:61-5.
    PMID: 26879859 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2016.01.002
    The present study examines the factor structure of the existing Neuropsychological Impairment Scale (NIS) through the use of exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The NIS is a brief, self-report measure originally designed to assess neurocognitive impairment (NCI) by having patients rate a range of items that may influence cognitive functioning. Stabilized patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT; N=339) in New Haven, CT who reported drug- or sex-related HIV risk behaviors in the past 6 months were administered the full 95-item NIS. An EFA was then conducted using principal axis factoring and orthogonal varimax rotation. The EFA resulted in retaining 57 items, with a 9-factor solution that explained 54.8% of the overall variance. The revised 9-factor measure--now referred to as the Brief Inventory of Neuro-cognitive Impairment (BINI)--showed a diverse set of factors with excellent to good reliability (i.e., F1 α=0.97 to F9 α=0.73). This EFA suggests the potential utility of using the BINI in the context of addiction treatment. Further research should examine the utility of this tool within other clinical care settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy
  16. Vicknasingam B, Dazali MN, Singh D, Schottenfeld RS, Chawarski MC
    Drug Alcohol Depend, 2015 Jul 1;152:164-9.
    PMID: 25935736 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.04.007
    Medication assisted treatment with buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nx), including prescribing and dispensing practices of general practitioners (GPs) in Malaysia and their patients' experiences with this treatment have not been systematically examined. The current study surveyed GPs providing Bup/Nx treatment and patients receiving office-based Bup/Nx treatment in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy*
  17. Yee A, Loh HS, Hisham Hashim HM, Ng CG
    J Sex Med, 2014 Jan;11(1):22-32.
    PMID: 24344738 DOI: 10.1111/jsm.12352
    INTRODUCTION: For many years, methadone has been recognized as an effective maintenance treatment for opioid dependence. However, of the many adverse events reported, sexual dysfunction is one of the most common side effects.

    AIM: We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among male patients on methadone and buprenorphine treatments.

    METHODS: Relevant studies published from inception until December 2012 were identified by searching PubMed, OVID, and Embase. Studies were selected using prior defined criteria. Heterogeneity, publication bias, and odds ratio were assessed thoroughly.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To examine the prevalence and odds ratio of sexual dysfunctions among the methadone and buprenorphine groups.

    RESULTS: A total of 1,570 participants from 16 eligible studies were identified in this meta-analysis. The studies provided prevalence estimates for sexual dysfunction among methadone users with a meta-analytical pooled prevalence of 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-0.65). Only four studies compared sexual dysfunction between the two groups, with a significantly higher combined odds ratio in the methadone group (OR = 4.01, 95% CI, 1.52-10.55, P = 0.0049).

    CONCLUSIONS: Evidence showed that the prevalence of sexual dysfunction was higher among the users of methadone compared with buprenorphine. Patients with sexual difficulty while on methadone treatment were advised to switch to buprenorphine.

    Matched MeSH terms: Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy*
  18. Yee A, Loh HS, Ng CG, Sulaiman AH
    Am J Mens Health, 2018 07;12(4):1016-1022.
    PMID: 29493379 DOI: 10.1177/1557988318759197
    Low sexual desire (SD) is not life threatening, but its negative impact on the quality of life and intimacy of a relationship among the patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is significant. This cross-sectional study involved 183 men on MMT who were interviewed and who completed the Malay version of the SDI-2 (SDI-2-BM), the Malay version of the self-rated Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-BM) and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF Scale (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaires. Findings showed 32.8% ( n = 60) participants had low SD. Those who were older, had sexual partners, and were smokers achieved lower scores in both dyadic SD (≤24) and solitary SD (≤6), and suffered lower quality of life in their social relationship. MMT is very cost-effective in rehabilitating opioid dependence; however, as clinicians, we need to address and manage the issues of low SD and depression among patients on MMT, especially the older men.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy*
  19. Springer SA, Di Paola A, Barbour R, Azar MM, Altice FL
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2018 09 01;79(1):92-100.
    PMID: 29781884 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001759
    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) would improve or maintain viral suppression (VS) among incarcerated individuals with HIV and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) transitioning to the community.

    DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among incarcerated individuals with HIV and AUDs transitioning to the community from 2010 through 2016.

    METHODS: Eligible participants (N = 100) were randomized 2:1 to receive 6 monthly injections of XR-NTX (n = 67) or placebo (n = 33) starting at release and continued for 6 months. The primary and secondary outcomes were the proportion that maintained or improved VS at <200 and <50 copies per milliliter from baseline to 6 months, respectively, using an intention-to-treat analysis.

    RESULTS: Participants allocated to XR-NTX improved VS from baseline to 6 months for <200 copies per milliliter (48.0%-64.2%, P = 0.024) and for <50 copies per milliliter (31.0%-56.7%, P = 0.001), whereas the placebo group did not (<200 copies/mL: 64%-42.4%, P = 0.070; <50 copies/mL: 42.0%-30.3%, P = 0.292). XR-NTX participants were more likely to achieve VS than the placebo group at 6 months (<200 copies/mL: 64.2% vs. 42.4%; P = 0.041; <50 copies/mL: 56.7% vs. 30.3%; P = 0.015). XR-NTX independently predicted VS [<200 copies/mL: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01 to 7.09, P = 0.047; <50 copies/mL: aOR = 4.54; 95% CI = 1.43 to 14.43, P = 0.009] as did receipt of ≥3 injections (<200 copies/mL: aOR = 3.26; 95% CI = 1.26 to 8.47, P = 0.010; <50 copies/mL: aOR = 6.34; 95% CI = 2.08 to 19.29, P = 0.001). Reductions in alcohol consumption (aOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.98, P = 0.033) and white race (aOR = 5.37, 95% CI = 1.08 to 27.72, P = 0.040) also predicted VS at <50 copies per milliliter.

    CONCLUSIONS: XR-NTX improves or maintains VS after release to the community for incarcerated people living with HIV and AUDs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy*
  20. Ali N, Aziz SA, Nordin S, Mi NC, Abdullah N, Paranthaman V, et al.
    Subst Use Misuse, 2018 01 28;53(2):239-248.
    PMID: 29116878 DOI: 10.1080/10826084.2017.1385630
    BACKGROUND: Opioid misuse and dependence is a global issue with a huge negative impact. In Malaysia, heroin is still the main illicit drug used, and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been used since 2005.
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of MMT.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 103 treatment centers between October and December 2014 using a set of standard questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics 20.
    RESULTS: There were 3254 respondents (93.6% response rate); of these 17.5% (n = 570) transferred to another treatment center, 8.6% (n = 280) died, 29.2% (n = 950) defaulted, and 7.6% (n = 247) were terminated for various reasons. Hence, 1233 (37%) respondents' baseline and follow-up data were further analyzed. Respondents had a mean age of 39.2 years old and were mainly male, Malay, Muslim, married (51.1%, n = 617), and currently employed. Few showed viral seroconversion after they started MMT (HIV: 0.5%, n = 6; Hepatitis B: 0.3%, n = 4; Hepatitis C: 2.7%, n = 29). There were significant reductions in opioid use, HIV risk-taking score (p < 0.01), social functioning (p < 0.01), crime (p < 0.01), and health (p < 0.01). However, there were significant improvements in quality of life in the physical, psychological, social, and environmental domains. Factors associated with change were being married, employed, consuming alcohol, and high criminality at baseline. Lower methadone dosage was significantly associated with improvements in the physical, psychological, and environmental domains.
    Conclusion/Importance: The MMT program was found to be successful; hence, it should be expanded.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy*
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