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  1. Basavaprabhu A, Mahalingam S, Deepak M, Satish R
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Apr;67(2):214-6.
    PMID: 22822648
    CNS toxoplasmosis presenting as hydrocephalus is a very rare entity. We present three cases of HIV positive patients whose brain imaging revealed hydrocephalus and who improved with anti toxoplasma medication along with intravenous steroids and did not require any CSF shunting procedures. The mechanism of hydrocephalus in CNS toxoplasmosis is usually due to compression of CSF outflow pathway by ring enhancing lesions but even in their absence hydrocephalus can be rarely seen due to ventriculitis. Hence in HIV positive patients with unexplained hydrocephalus CNS toxoplasmosis should be considered and such patients if started on treatment early have a good prognosis without requiring neurosurgical intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy
  2. Nor-Hayati S, Sahlawati M, Suresh-Kumar C, Lee KC
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Feb;67(1):66-70.
    PMID: 22582551 MyJurnal
    Penicillium marneffei is a dimorphic fungus which commonly causes a life threatening systemic fungal infection in an immunocompromised host. It has been recognized as an AIDS defining illness in Malaysia since the beginning of the HIV pandemic. The presence of various non specific clinical presentations, especially the characteristic umbilicated papular rashes with central necrosis which lead to significant ill health in immunocompromised patients should alarm clinicians to the possibility of Penicillium marneffei infection and prompt investigations accordingly. Simple investigations like blood culture and fungal staining of the skin scrapping can confirm the diagnosis in the majority of cases. Early treatment with appropriate systemic antifungal for a definite duration will significantly decrease the mortality rate from penicilliosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy*
  3. Shekhar KC, Ng KP, Rokiah I
    Med J Malaysia, 1993 Sep;48(3):355-60.
    PMID: 8183153
    An AIDS patient with multiple opportunistic infections (Candida, Pneumocystis carinii and Isospora belli) was identified at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The patient presented with profuse diarrhoea associated with lethargy, anorexia and weight loss. Routine stool examination showed Isospora belli oocysts. The infection responded to treatment with trimethroprim-sulfamethoxazole but relapse occurred 8 weeks later. This represents the first documented case of isosporiasis to occur in an AIDS patient in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy
  4. Kong NC, Shaariah W, Morad Z, Suleiman AB, Wong YH
    Aust N Z J Med, 1990 Oct;20(5):645-9.
    PMID: 2285381
    Cryptococcosis is a known opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed hosts. We report our experience of all cases presenting to our Department between December 1975 and September 1988. Eight post-renal transplant patients and three systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients were affected. All were receiving treatment with steroids, in association with either azathioprine or cyclosporin. The diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis was initially based on a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cryptococcal antigen, by latex agglutination test, and subsequently confirmed by cultures. Common clinical presentations, in descending order of frequency, included headaches, fever, mental confusion, epilepsy and papilloedema. Meningism was not a prominent feature. CT brain scans were obtained in eight patients and one showed a focal lesion and one showed cerebral atrophy. Four patients also had an abnormal chest X-ray (CXR) and one had disseminated cryptococcosis. Amphotericin and 5-fluorocytosine were the mainstay of therapy, although ketoconazole alone was subsequently used in three selected patients with cure. Four early deaths occurred in patients with delayed diagnosis and treatment, usually in association with other severe concurrent infections. We conclude that awareness of cryptococcosis is essential in immunocompromised hosts presenting with headache with, or without, mental confusion or fever.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy
  5. Ng KP, Soo-Hoo TS, Na SL, Gan GG, Sangkar JV, Teh AKH
    Med J Malaysia, 2003 Oct;58(4):608-12.
    PMID: 15190640
    Scopulariopsis brevicaulis is a soil fungus normally associated with onychomycosis. It causes subcutaneous infection in immunocompromised patients and is rarely isolated from blood. A case of systemic Scopulariopsis brevicaulis infection was reported in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia. The patient developed persistent fever that did not respond to wide spectrum antibiotics and amphotericin B. Scopulariopsis brevicaulis was the only pathogen isolated from blood cultures. The fever subsided with itraconazole and there was no recurrence of fungal infection with prolonged maintenance of oral itraconazole.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy*
  6. Ngeow WC, Chai WL, Ramli R, Rahman RA
    Singapore Dent J, 2006 Dec;28(1):19-21.
    PMID: 17378338
    Head and neck cancer is becoming a more recognizable pathology to the general population and dentists. The modes of treatment include surgery and/or radiation therapy. Where possible, pretreatment dental assessment shall be provided for these patients before they undergo radiation therapy. There are occasions, however, whereby head and neck cancer patients are not prepared optimally for radiation therapy. Because of this, they succumb to complicated oral adverse effects after radiation therapy. The last part of this series reviews the opportunistic infections that can occur to the perioral structure. Their management is briefly discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy*
  7. Puthucheary SD, Sangkar V, Hafeez A, Karunakaran R, Raja NS, Hassan HH
    PMID: 16771229
    Rhodococcus equi, a recognized pathogen in horses, is emerging as a human opportunistic pathogen, especially in immunocompromized hosts. We describe four immunocompromized patients who had serious R. equi infections with an overall mortality of 75%. The natural habitat of R. equi is soil, particularly soil contaminated with animal manure. Necrotizing pneumonia is the commonest form of infection but extrapulmonary infections, such as wound infections and subcutaneous abscess, have also been described in humans. R. equi is cultured easily in ordinary non-selective media. Large, smooth, irregular colonies appear within 48 hours. It is a facultative, intracellular, nonmotile, non-spore forming, gram-positive coccobacillus, which is weakly acid-fast staining and bears a similarity to diphtheroids. It forms a salmon-colored pigment usually after 48 hours incubation. A particular characteristic of this organism is that it undergoes synergistic hemolysis with some bacteria on sheep blood agar. R. equi may be misidentified as diphtheroids, Mycobacterium species, or Nocardia. In vitro R. equi is usually susceptible to erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, aminoglycosides, rifampin, imipenem and meropenem. The organism can be difficult to eradicate, making treatment challenging. Increased awareness of the infection may help with early diagnosis and timely treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy
  8. Yap FB, Thevarajah S, Asmah J
    Dermatol. Online J., 2010;16(7):2.
    PMID: 20673530
    Penicilliosis is a systemic fungal infection caused by Penicillium marneffei. The infection is most commonly seen in Southeast Asia, Southern China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. It is rarely seen among individuals of African descent. Here, we report a case of penicilliosis in an African man from Namibia who was studying in Malaysia. He presented with multiple umbilicated papules associated with cough, fever, loss of appetite, and weight. He also had urethral discharge and admitted to unprotected sexual intercourse with multiple partners. Histopathological examination of a skin papule showed the presence of multiple 2 to 4 microm intracellular yeast cells. Culture of the papule revealed Penicillium marneffei. The serology for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was positive. This case illustrates the need to recognize penicilliosis in any individuals staying or travelling to Southeast Asia and the need to look for underlying HIV infection in adults with umbilicated papules.
    Matched MeSH terms: AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy
  9. Mohd Tap R, Sabaratnam P, Ramli NY, Hashim R, Mohd Fuat AR, Ng PP, et al.
    Mycopathologia, 2016 Apr;181(3-4):285-90.
    PMID: 26493614 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-015-9958-2
    Trichosporon species are opportunistic yeasts which can cause infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. This is a report of Trichosporon ovoides that caused subcutaneous infection in a patient with underlying ischemic heart disease. The identification of fungal isolate was confirmed by PCR sequencing of ITS and large subunit regions in rRNA gene. In vitro susceptibility study showed that the isolate was susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole and voriconazole, and resistant to caspofungin, anidulafungin and itraconazole. The lesion improved after treatment with oral fluconazole and topical miconazole.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy*
  10. Pakianathan MR, Kamarulzaman A, Ismail R, McMillan A, Scott GR
    AIDS, 1999 Sep 10;13(13):1787-8.
    PMID: 10509585
    Matched MeSH terms: AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy
  11. Nissapatorn V, Kuppusamy I, Anuar AK, Quek KF, Latt HM
    PMID: 19238668
    A total of 290 HIV/AIDS patients were recruited into this retrospective study, which was carried out at the National Tuberculosis Center (NTBC), Kuala Lumpur. The age range was 18 to 75 years with a mean age of 36.10 (SD +/- 7.44) years. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 31:1. In this study, the majority of patients were male (96.9%), Malay (47.2%), single (66.9%), unemployed (81%), and smoked (61.4%). The main risk marker identified was injecting drug use (74.5%). The most common clinical manifestations were cough, fever, sputum, lymphadenopathy, and chest infiltrations. More than half of the patients (85.9%) were diagnosed with localized tuberculosis (pulmonary) and the others (14.1%) had extra-pulmonary or disseminated tuberculosis. At the time of this study, the majority of the patients (16.9%) had CD4 cell counts of less than 200 cell/mm3, with a median of 221 cell/mm3. Clinical outcomes demonstrated that among those who survived, 11.0% and 20.7% of the patients had completed treatment either > or = 6 or > or = 9 months, respectively, whereas 54.8% of patients were lost to follow-up, including 0.7% for MDR-TB. Diagnostic criteria for tuberculosis in this study were mainly clinical symptoms/signs and chest x-ray findings (31.0%).
    Matched MeSH terms: AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy
  12. Chung PY
    FEMS Microbiol Lett, 2016 10;363(20).
    PMID: 27664057
    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that commonly causes nosocomial infections in the urinary tract, respiratory tract, lung, wound sites and blood in individuals with debilitating diseases. Klebsiella pneumoniae is still a cause of severe pneumonia in alcoholics in Africa and Asia, and the predominant primary pathogen of primary liver abscess in Taiwan and Southeast Asia, particularly in Asian and Hispanic patients, and individuals with diabetes mellitus. In the United States and Europe, K. pneumoniae infections are most frequently associated with nosocomial infections. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of K. pneumoniae worldwide has become a cause of concern where extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemase-producing strains have been isolated with increasing frequency. The pathogen's ability to form biofilms on inserted devices such as urinary catheter has been proposed as one of the important mechanisms in nosocomially acquired and persistent infections, adding to the increased resistance to currently used antibiotics. In this review, infections caused by K. pneumoniae, antibiotic resistance and formation of biofilm will be discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy
  13. Qin Y, Huang X, Chen H, Liu X, Li Y, Hou J, et al.
    BMC Infect Dis, 2020 Jul 29;20(1):551.
    PMID: 32727383 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-020-05260-8
    BACKGROUND: Talaromyces marneffei (TM) is a dimorphic fungus mainly prevalent in Southeast Asian countries, which often causes disseminated life-threatening infection. TM infection often occurs in HIV/AIDS patients even in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. However, there has as yet, not been a systematic analysis of the prevalence of TM infection in HIV-infected populations in Asia.

    METHODS: In this study, we searched Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and WanFang from inception to 21 November 2018 for studies reporting TM infection in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Our meta-analysis included studies investigating the prevalence of TM infection in PLWHA. Reviews, duplicate studies, and animal studies were excluded. A random effects model was used to estimate pooled prevalence, and meta-regression analysis was conducted to explore potential factors for heterogeneity.

    RESULTS: 159,064 patients with HIV infection in 33 eligible studies were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of TM infection in PLWHA was 3.6%. Vietnam had the highest prevalence (6.4%), followed by Thailand (3.9%), China (3.3%), India (3.2%) and Malaysia (2.1%). In China, TM infection was most prevalent in South China (15.0%), while the burden in Southwest China was not very heavy (0.3%). CD4+ T-cell counts below 200 cells/mm3 contributed to the increased risk of TM infection in PLWHA (OR 12.68, 95%CI: 9.58-16.77). However, access to ART did not significantly decrease the risk of TM infection in PLWHA.

    CONCLUSIONS: The burden of TM infection in Asia is heavy, and varies from region to region. PLWHA in lower latitude areas are more likely to suffer from TM infection. Optimization of diagnostic tools and universal screening for TM in vulnerable people to ensure early case detection and prompt antifungal treatment should be considered.

    Matched MeSH terms: AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy*
  14. Norsarwany M, Abdelrahman Z, Rahmah N, Ariffin N, Norsyahida A, Madihah B, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2012 Sep;29(3):479-88.
    PMID: 23018511
    Strongyloidiasis is an infection caused by the intestinal nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Infected healthy individuals are usually asymptomatic, however it is potentially fatal in immunocompromised hosts due to its capacity to cause an overwhelming hyperinfection. Strongyloidiasis could be missed during routine screening because of low and intermittent larval output in stool and variable manifestations of the symptoms. We present two cases of strongyloidiasis occurring in children with solid organ malignancies suspected to have the infection based on their clinical conditions and treatment history for cancer. Both patients were diagnosed by molecular and serological tests and were successfully treated. Thus, strongyloidiasis in patients undergoing intensive treatment for malignancies should be suspected, properly investigated and treated accordingly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy
  15. Mohammad Z, Naing NN
    PMID: 15272757
    To characterize the demographic profiles, clinical features, radiological patterns and outcomes of treatment of HIV-infected TB patients, a descriptive study was carried out on 149 HIV-infected TB cases diagnosed from 1998 through 2001 at Kota Bharu Hospital, Kelantan, Malaysia. The majority of the patients were males (94.6%), single (45.0%), ethnic Malay (94.0%) with a mean age of 34 years (standard deviation 7.8, range 18-76). The most common HIV transmission category was through injecting drug use (73.8%) and being the inmates or former inhabitants of drug rehabilitation centers and prisons were the commonest high-risk groups. One hundred and seventeen patients were diagnosed as having pulmonary TB, while about 20% were extra-pulmonary in type with 9 cases of milliary TB. The majority (45%) presented with cough symptoms while only 51% had a positive sputum smear. Fifty-five percent were found to have pulmonary lesions on chest x-ray, such as localized, milliary or diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, or opacities. Eight (5.4%) had pleural lesions while another 8 cases had hilar or mediastinal lymph node lesions. Overall, fifty-eight (38.9%) patients had died by the completion of data collection. The median weeks or survival from the time of starting TB treatment was 13.5 (range 1-56) and the majority of them (74%) died without completing the 6-month regime of treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy
  16. Pasayan MKU, S Mationg ML, Boettiger D, Lam W, Zhang F, Ku SW, et al.
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 2019 04 01;80(4):436-443.
    PMID: 30550488 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001933
    BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium complex prophylaxis is recommended for patients with advanced HIV infection. With the decrease in incidence of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection and the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the benefits of macrolide prophylaxis were investigated. This study examined the impact of macrolide prophylaxis on AIDS-defining conditions and HIV-associated mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected patients on ART.

    METHODS: Patients from TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (September 2015 data transfer) aged 18 years and older with a CD4 count <50 cells/mm at ART initiation were included. The effect of macrolide prophylaxis on HIV-associated mortality or AIDS-defining conditions (as a combined outcome) and HIV-associated mortality alone were evaluated using competing risk regression. Sensitivity analysis was conducted in patients with a CD4 <100 cells/mm at ART initiation.

    RESULTS: Of 1345 eligible patients, 10.6% received macrolide prophylaxis. The rate of the combined outcome was 7.35 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.04 to 8.95] per 100 patient-years, whereas the rate of HIV-associated mortality was 3.14 (95% CI: 2.35 to 4.19) per 100 patient-years. Macrolide use was associated with a significantly decreased risk of HIV-associated mortality (hazard ratio 0.10, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.80, P = 0.031) but not with the combined outcome (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% CI: 0.32 to 2.229, P = 0.764). Sensitivity analyses showed consistent results among patients with a CD4 <100 cells/mm at ART initiation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Macrolide prophylaxis is associated with improved survival among Asian HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cell counts and on ART. This study suggests the increased usage and coverage of macrolide prophylaxis among people living with HIV in Asia.

    Matched MeSH terms: AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy
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