PRESENTATION OF CASE: 49 year old gentleman presented with fever, persistent, unresolving pain and scrotal swelling of two weeks duration. Despite close clinical monitoring, timely ultrasounds of the testis and antibiotics there was an inexorable progression to bilateral testicular ischemia.
DISCUSSION: This is only the second reported case of this nature in published literature. Epididymo-orchitis usually responds well to appropriate antibiotic therapy, although progression to testicular infarction is possible.
CONCLUSION: Clinical presentation of persistent scrotal pain and oedema in cases of epididymo-orchitis should raise strong suspicion of testicular ischemia or infarction. Despite all efforts, progression to bilateral testicular infarction resulting in castration is a possible catastrophic outcome.
Methods: Based on evidence in the literature and expert interviews, 19 statements were formulated for key challenges in the treatment of men with castration-sensitive and -resistant prostate cancer in clinical practice. A modified Delphi process was used to reach consensus among experts in the panel and develop clinical practice recommendations.
Results: The majority of the panel preferred a risk-based stratification and recommended abiraterone or enzalutamide as first-line therapy for symptomatic chemotherapy naïve patients. Abiraterone is preferred over enzalutamide as a first-line treatment in these patients. However, the panel did not support the use of abiraterone in high risk lymph-node positive only (N+M0) or in non-metastatic (N0M0) patients. In select patients, low dose abiraterone with food may be used to optimize clinical outcomes. Androgen receptor gene splice variant status may be a useful guide to therapy. In addition, generic versions of approved therapies may improve access to treatment to a broader patient population. The choice of treatment, as well as sequencing are guided by both patient and disease characteristics, preferences, drug access, cost, and compliance.
Conclusion: Expert recommendations are key to guidance for the optimal management of mPC. Appropriate choice, timing, and sequence of treatment options can help to tailor therapy to maximize outcomes in men with mPC.