METHODS: Caprine islets were isolated and purified. Islets were handpicked and the diameter of the islets was recorded using light microscopy. Viablility of the islets was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Insulin secretion assay was carried out and analyzed by ELISA.
RESULTS: When tested at 48 h after isolation, these small islets were 29.3% more viable compared to the large-sized islets. Large islets showed a high ratio (P
AIM OF THE STUDY: This study is designed to investigate the vasorelaxation effect of G. uralensis from various extracts and to study its pharmacology effect.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The vasorelaxation effect of G. uralensis extracts were evaluated on thoracic aortic rings isolated from Sprague Dawley rats.
RESULTS: Among these three extracts of G. uralensis, 50% ethanolic extract (EFG) showed the strongest vasorelaxation activity. EFG caused the relaxation of the aortic rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine either in the presence or absence of endothelium and pre-contracted with potassium chloride in endothelium-intact aortic ring. Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, methylene blue, or 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one inhibit the vasorelaxation effect of EFG in the presence of endothelium. On the other hand, in the presence of the potassium channel blockers (tetraethylammonium and barium chloride), the vasorelaxation effect of EFG was not affected, but glibenclamide and 4-aminopyridine did inhibit the vasorelaxation effect of EFG. With indomethacin, atropine and propranolol, the vasorelaxation effect by EFG was significantly reduced. EFG was also found to be effective in reducing Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum and the blocking of calcium channels.
CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained suggest that EFG is involved in the NO/sGC/cGMP pathway.
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the vasorelaxant mechanism of VA ethanol extract (VAE) and analyzes its tri-step FTIR spectroscopy fingerprint.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dried VA leaves were extracted with ethanol through maceration and concentrated using rotary evaporator before freeze-dried. The vasorelaxant activity and the underlying mechanisms of VAE using the cumulative concentration (0.01-2.55 mg/mL at 20-min intervals) were evaluated on aortic rings isolated from Sprague Dawley rats in the presence of antagonists.
RESULTS: The tri-step FTIR spectroscopy showed that VAE contains alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins. VAE caused the relaxation of pre-contracted aortic rings in the presence and absence of endothelium with EC50 of 0.057 ± 0.006 and 0.430 ± 0.196 mg/mL, respectively. In the presence of Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (EC50 0.971 ± 0.459 mg/mL), methylene blue (EC50 1.203 ± 0.426 mg/mL), indomethacin (EC50 2.128 ± 1.218 mg/mL), atropine (EC50 0.470 ± 0.325 mg/mL), and propranolol (EC50 0.314 ± 0.032 mg/mL), relaxation stimulated by VAE was significantly reduced. VAE acted on potassium channels, with its vasorelaxation effects significantly reduced by tetraethylammonium, 4-aminopyridine, barium chloride, and glibenclamide (EC50 0.548 ± 0.184, 0.158 ± 0.012, 0.847 ± 0.342, and 0.304 ± 0.075 mg/mL, respectively). VAE was also found to be active in reducing Ca2+ released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and blocking calcium channels.
CONCLUSIONS: The vasorelaxation effect of VAE involves upregulation of NO/cGMP and PGI2 signalling pathways, and modulation of calcium/potassium channels, and muscarinic and β2-adrenergic receptor levels.