Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 97 in total

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  1. Nizamuddin S, Siddiqui MTH, Baloch HA, Mubarak NM, Griffin G, Madapusi S, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2018 Jun;25(18):17529-17539.
    PMID: 29663294 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-1876-7
    The process parameters of microwave hydrothermal carbonization (MHTC) have significant effect on yield of hydrochar. This study discusses the effect of process parameters on hydrochar yield produced from MHTC of rice husk. Results revealed that, over the ranges tested, a lower temperature, lower reaction time, lower biomass to water ratio, and higher particle size produce more hydrochar. Maximum hydrochar yield of 62.8% was obtained at 1000 W, 220 °C, and 5 min. The higher heating value (HHV) was improved significantly from 6.80 MJ/kg of rice husk to 16.10 MJ/kg of hydrochar. Elemental analysis results showed that the carbon content increased and oxygen content decreased in hydrochar from 25.9 to 47.2% and 68.5 to 47.0%, respectively, improving the energy and combustion properties. SEM analysis exhibited modification in structure of rice husk and improvement in porosity after MHTC, which was further confirmed from BET surface analysis. The BET surface area increased from 25.0656 m2/g (rice husk) to 92.6832 m2/g (hydrochar). Thermal stability of hydrochar was improved from 340 °C for rice husk to 370 °C for hydrochar.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/chemistry*
  2. Al-Shorgani NK, Kalil MS, Yusoff WM
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2012 Jun;35(5):817-26.
    PMID: 22147105 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-011-0664-2
    Rice bran (RB) and de-oiled rice bran (DRB) have been treated and used as the carbon source in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. The results showed that pretreated DRB produced more ABE than pretreated RB. Dilute sulfuric acid was the most suitable treatment method among the various pretreatment methods that were applied. The highest ABE obtained was 12.13 g/L, including 7.72 g/L of biobutanol, from sulfuric acid. The enzymatic hydrolysate of DRB (ESADRB), when treated with XAD-4 resin, resulted in an ABE productivity and yield of 0.1 g/L h and 0.44 g/g, respectively. The results also showed that the choice of pretreatment method for RB and DRB is an important factor in butanol production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/chemistry*
  3. Dahlan I, Lee KT, Kamaruddin AH, Mohamed AR
    Environ Sci Technol, 2008 Mar 01;42(5):1499-504.
    PMID: 18441794
    The SO2 sorption capacity (SSC) of sorbents prepared from rice husk ash (RHA) with NaOH as additive was studied in a fixed-bed reactor. The sorbents were prepared using a water hydration method by slurrying RHA, CaO, and NaOH. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on four-variable central composite face centered design (CCFCD) was employed in the synthesis of the sorbents. The correlation between the sorbent SSC (as response) with four independent sorbent preparation variables, i.e. hydration period, RHA/CaO ratio, NaOH amount, and drying temperature, were presented as empirical mathematical models. Among all the variables studied, the amount of NaOH used was found to be the most significant variable affecting the SSC of the sorbents prepared. The SSC for sorbent prepared with the addition of NaOH was found to be significantly higher than sorbents prepared without NaOH. This is probably because NaOH is a deliquescent material, and its existence increases the amount of water collected on the surface of the sorbent, a condition required for sorbent-SO2 reaction to occur at low temperature. The effect of further treatment of RHA at 600 degrees C was also investigated. Although pretreated RHA sorbents demonstrated higher SSC as compared to untreated RHA sorbents, nevertheless, at optimum conditions, sorbents prepared from untreated RHA was found to be more favorable due to practical and economic concerns.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/chemistry*
  4. Ong ST, Lee CK, Zainal Z
    Bioresour Technol, 2007 Nov;98(15):2792-9.
    PMID: 17400446
    Wastewaters from textile industries may contain a variety of dyes that have to be removed before their discharge into waterways. Rice hull, an agricultural by-product, was modified using ethylenediamine to introduce active sites on its surface to enable it to function as a sorbent for both basic and reactive dyes. The sorption characteristics of Basic Blue 3 (BB3) and Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by ethylenediamine modified rice hull (MRH) were studied under various experimental conditions. Sorption was pH and concentration dependent. Simultaneous removal of BB3 and RO16 occurred at pH greater than 4. The kinetics of dye sorption fitted a pseudo-second order rate expression. Increase in agitation rate had no effect on the sorption of BB3 but increased uptake of RO16 on MRH. Decreasing particle size increased the uptake of dyes in binary dye solutions. Equilibrium data could be fitted into both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Maximum sorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir model are 14.68 and 60.24 mg/g for BB3 and RO16, respectively in binary dye solutions. This corresponds to an enhancement of 4.5 and 2.4 fold, respectively, compared to single dye solutions. MRH therefore has the potential of being used as an efficient sorbent for the removal of both dyes in textile wastewaters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/chemistry*
  5. Praveena SM, Omar NA
    Food Chem, 2017 Nov 15;235:203-211.
    PMID: 28554627 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.05.049
    Heavy metal in rice studies has attracted a greater concern worldwide. However, there have been limited studies on marketed rice samples although it represents a vital ingestion portion for a real estimation of human health risk. This study was aimed to determine both total and bioaccessible of trace elements and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Al, Zn, As, Pb and Fe) in 22 varieties of cooked rice using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Both total and bioaccessible of trace elements and heavy metals were digested using closed-nitric acid digestion and Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM) in vitro digestion model, respectively. Human health risks via Health Risk Assessment (HRA) were conducted to understand exposure risks involving adults and children representing Malaysian population. Zinc was the highest while As was the lowest contents for total and in their bioavailable forms. Four clusters were identified: (1) Pb, As, Co, Cd and Cr; (2) Cu and Al; (3) Fe and (4) Zn. For HRA, there was no any risks found from single element exposure. While potential carcinogenic health risks present for both adult and children from single As exposure (Life time Cancer Risk, LCR>1×10(-4)). Total Hazard Quotient values for adult and children were 27.0 and 18.0, respectively while total LCR values for adult and children were 0.0049 and 0.0032, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/chemistry*
  6. Ding L, Zhang B, Tan CP, Fu X, Huang Q
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Sep 15;137:1068-1075.
    PMID: 31260761 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.06.226
    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of limited moisture content and storing temperature on the retrogradation of rice starch. Starch was gelatinized in various moisture contents (30-42%) and rice paste was stored at different temperatures (4 °C, 15 °C, 30 °C, -18/30 °C and 4/30 °C). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that after retrogradation, the crystalline type of rice starch changed from A-type to B + V type. The B-type crystallinity of retrograded rice starch under 30 °C was the highest among the five temperature conditions, and an increase in B-type crystallinity with increasing moisture content was observed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results revealed that rice starch retrogradation consists of recrystallization of amylopectin and amylose, and is mainly attributed to amylopectin. The higher moisture content was favorable for amylopectin recrystallization, whereas the moisture content had little effect on the amylose recrystallization. The optimal temperature for amylopectin and amylose recrystallization was 4 °C and 15 °C, respectively. The amylopectin recrystallization enthalpy of rice starch stored at 4/30 °C was mediated between 4 °C and 30 °C but always higher than that at -18/30 °C. On the whole, after being heated at 42% moisture content and stored at 4 °C, rice starch showed the maximum total retrogradation enthalpy (8.44 J/g).
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/chemistry*
  7. Murtey MD, Seeni A
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 Sep;100(12):4347-4352.
    PMID: 32248531 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10406
    Rice serves as a staple food for one-half of the global population. However, rice production, particularly the rice milling process, results in a substantial amount of paddy waste products (e.g. bran, husk and straw) annually. Because the potentials of bran have been extensively explored in prior studies, the present review focuses exclusively on the phytochemical analysis and pharmacological potentials of husk and straw. This comprehensive review establishes a solid foundation for promoting husk and straw as medicinal substances given their promising pharmacological potentials as bioactive compound sources with therapeutic functions. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/chemistry*
  8. Yavari S, Malakahmad A, Sapari NB
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2016 Sep;23(18):17928-40.
    PMID: 27255313 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-6943-3
    Biochar is the bio-solid material produced by pyrolysis. The biochar properties are controlled by feedstock and pyrolysis variables. In this study, the impacts of these production variables on biochar yield and physicochemical properties including pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), total organic carbon (TOC) content, surface area, and pore volume and size were investigated. Rice husk (RH) and oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were used as biomass. The biochars were produced at temperature range of 300 to 700 °C, heating rate of 3 to 10 °C/min and retention time of 1 to 3 h. The pyrolysis conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) technique to maximize the values of the responses. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the results demonstrated that the data fitted well to the linear and quadratic equations. Temperature was found to be the most effective parameter on the responses followed by retention time and heating rate, sequentially. CEC, TOC, surface area, and pore characteristics were evaluated as biochar properties determining their sorption potential. The optimum conditions for the maximum values of the properties were temperatures of 700 and 493.44 °C and time of 3 and 1 h for RH and EFB biochars, respectively. Heating rate at 3 °C/min was found to be the best rate for both biochars. The structure of EFB biomass was more sensitive to heating than rice husk. The biomass type and the production variables were demonstrated as the direct effective factors on biochar yield and physicochemical properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/chemistry*
  9. Claoston N, Samsuri AW, Ahmad Husni MH, Mohd Amran MS
    Waste Manag Res, 2014 Apr;32(4):331-9.
    PMID: 24643171 DOI: 10.1177/0734242X14525822
    Biochar has received great attention recently due to its potential to improve soil fertility and immobilize contaminants as well as serving as a way of carbon sequestration and therefore a possible carbon sink. In this work, a series of biochars were produced from empty fruit bunch (EFB) and rice husk (RH) by slow pyrolysis at different temperatures (350, 500, and 650°C) and their physicochemical properties were analysed. The results indicate that porosity, ash content, electrical conductivity (EC), and pH value of both EFB and RH biochars were increased with temperature; however, yield, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and H, C, and N content were decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature. The Fourier transform IR spectra were similar for both RH and EFB biochars but the functional groups were more distinct in the EFB biochar spectra. There were reductions in the amount of functional groups as pyrolysis temperature increased especially for the EFB biochar. However, total acidity of the functional groups increased with pyrolysis temperature for both biochars.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/chemistry*
  10. Yeap HY, Faruq G, Zakaria HP, Harikrishna JA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:569268.
    PMID: 24222741 DOI: 10.1155/2013/569268
    Allele Specific Amplification with four primers (External Antisense Primer, External Sense Primer, Internal Nonfragrant Sense Primer, and Internal Fragrant Antisense Primer) and sensory evaluation with leaves and grains were executed to identify aromatic rice genotypes and their F1 individuals derived from different crosses of 2 Malaysian varieties with 4 popular land races and 3 advance lines. Homozygous aromatic (fgr/fgr) F1 individuals demonstrated better aroma scores compared to both heterozygous nonaromatic (FGR/fgr) and homozygous nonaromatic (FGR/FGR) individuals, while, some F1 individuals expressed aroma in both leaf and grain aromatic tests without possessing the fgr allele. Genotypic analysis of F1 individuals for the fgr gene represented homozygous aromatic, heterozygous nonaromatic and homozygous nonaromatic genotypes in the ratio 20:19:3. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis revealed that aroma in F1 individuals was successfully inherited from the parents, but either molecular analysis or sensory evaluation alone could not determine aromatic condition completely. The integration of molecular analysis with sensory methods was observed as rapid and reliable for the screening of aromatic genotypes because molecular analysis could distinguish aromatic homozygous, nonaromatic homozygous and nonaromatic heterozygous individuals, whilst the sensory method facilitated the evaluation of aroma emitted from leaf and grain during flowering to maturity stages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/chemistry
  11. Khandanlou R, Bin Ahmad M, Shameli K, Kalantari K
    Molecules, 2013 Jun 05;18(6):6597-607.
    PMID: 23739066 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18066597
    Small sized magnetite iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) with were successfully synthesized on the surface of rice straw using the quick precipitation method in the absence of any heat treatment. Ferric chloride (FeCl3·6H2O), ferrous chloride (FeCl2·4H2O), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and urea (CH4N2O) were used as Fe3O4-NPs precursors, reducing agent and stabilizer, respectively. The rice straw fibers were dispersed in deionized water, and then urea was added to the suspension, after that ferric and ferrous chloride were added to this mixture and stirred. After the absorption of iron ions on the surface layer of the fibers, the ions were reduced with NaOH by a quick precipitation method. The reaction was carried out under N2 gas. The mean diameter and standard deviation of metal oxide NPs synthesized in rice straw/Fe3O4 nanocomposites (NCs) were 9.93 ± 2.42 nm. The prepared rice straw/Fe3O4-NCS were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXF) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT‒IR). The rice straw/Fe3O4-NCs prepared by this method have magnetic properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/chemistry*
  12. Chan KW, Khong NM, Iqbal S, Ismail M
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(6):7496-507.
    PMID: 22837707 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13067496
    The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wheat and rice flours under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition. After subjecting the wheat and rice flour slurries to simulated gastrointestinal pH condition, both slurries were centrifuged to obtain the crude phenolic extracts for further analyses. Extraction yield, total contents of phenolic and flavonoids were determined as such (untreated) and under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition (treated). 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)) scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS(•+)) scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) and iron chelating activity assays were employed for the determination of antioxidant activity of the tested samples. In almost all of the assays performed, significant improvements in antioxidant properties (p < 0.05) were observed in both flours after treatment, suggesting that wheat and rice flours contain considerably heavy amounts of bound phenolics, and that their antioxidant properties might be improved under gastrointestinal digestive conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/chemistry*
  13. Kausar H, Sariah M, Saud HM, Alam MZ, Ismail MR
    Biodegradation, 2011 Apr;22(2):367-75.
    PMID: 20803236 DOI: 10.1007/s10532-010-9407-3
    Rice straw is produced as a by-product from rice cultivation, which is composed largely of lignocellulosic materials amenable to general biodegradation. Lignocellulolytic actinobacteria can be used as a potential agent for rapid composting of bulky rice straw. Twenty-five actinobacteria isolates were isolated from various in situ and in vitro rice straw compost sources. Isolates A2, A4, A7, A9 and A24 were selected through enzymatic degradation of starch, cellulose and lignin followed by the screening for their adaptability on rice straw powder amended media. The best adapted isolate (A7) was identified as Micromonospora carbonacea. It was able to degrade cellulose, hemicelluloses and carbon significantly (P ≤ 0.05) over the control. C/N ratio was reduced to 18.1 from an initial value of 29.3 in 6 weeks of composting thus having the potential to be used in large scale composting of rice straw.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/chemistry*
  14. Foo KY, Hameed BH
    Adv Colloid Interface Sci, 2009 Nov 30;152(1-2):39-47.
    PMID: 19836724 DOI: 10.1016/j.cis.2009.09.005
    Concern about environmental protection has aroused over the years from a global viewpoint. To date, the ever-increasing importance of biomass as the energy and material resources has lately been accounted by the rising prices for the crude petroleum oil. Rice husk ash, the most appropriate representative of the high ash biomass waste, is currently obtaining sufficient attraction, owning to its wide usefulness and potentiality in environmental conservation. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of the art review of the rice milling industry, its background studies, fundamental properties and industrial applications. Moreover, the key advance on the preparation of novel adsorbents, its major challenges together with the future expectation has been highlighted and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of rice husk ash in the field of adsorption science represents a viable and powerful tool, leading to the superior improvement of pollution control and environmental preservation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/chemistry*
  15. Omar NA, Praveena SM, Aris AZ, Hashim Z
    Food Chem, 2015 Dec 1;188:46-50.
    PMID: 26041162 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.04.087
    Little is known about the bioavailability of heavy metal contamination and its health risks after rice ingestion. This study aimed to determine bioavailability of heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Co, Al, Fe, Zn and Pb) concentrations in cooked rice and human Health Risk Assessment (HRA). The results found Zn was the highest (4.3±0.1 mg/kg), whereas As showed the lowest (0.015±0.001 mg/kg) bioavailability of heavy metal concentration in 22 varieties of cooked rice. For single heavy metal exposure, no potential of non carcinogenic health risks was found, while carcinogenic health risks were found only for As. Combined heavy metal exposures found that total Hazard Quotient (HQtotal) values for adult were higher than the acceptable range (HQTotal<1), whereas total Lifetime Cancer Risk (LCRTotal) values were higher than the acceptable range (LCRTotal values >1×10(-4)) for both adult and children. This study is done to understand that the inclusion of bioavailability heavy metal into HRA produces a more realistic estimation of human heavy metal exposure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/chemistry*
  16. Asmeda R, Noorlaila A, Norziah MH
    Food Chem, 2016 Jan 15;191:45-51.
    PMID: 26258700 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.05.095
    This research was conducted to investigate the effects of different grinding techniques (dry, semi-wet and wet) of milled rice grains on the damaged starch and particle size distribution of flour produced from a new variety, MR263, specifically related to the pasting and thermal profiles. The results indicated that grinding techniques significantly (p<0.05) affected starch damage content and particle size distribution of rice flour. Wet grinding process yields flour with lowest percentage of starch damage (7.37%) and finest average particle size (8.52μm). Pasting and gelatinization temperature was found in the range of 84.45-89.63°C and 59.86-75.31°C, respectively. Dry ground flour attained the lowest pasting and gelatinization temperature as shown by the thermal and pasting profiles. Correlation analysis revealed that percentage of damaged starch granules had a significant, negative relationship with pasting temperature while average particle size distribution had a significant, strong negative relationship with gelatinization temperature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/chemistry*
  17. Oladosu Y, Rafii MY, Abdullah N, Magaji U, Hussin G, Ramli A, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2016;2016:7985167.
    PMID: 27429981 DOI: 10.1155/2016/7985167
    Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/chemistry*
  18. Hasan M, Gopakumar DA, Olaiya NG, Zarlaida F, Alfian A, Aprinasari C, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Aug 01;156:896-905.
    PMID: 32289410 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.04.039
    Biodegradable films composed of starch and chitosan plasticized by palm oil were fabricated via a solvent casting technique. In this study, the influence of the ratio of brown rice starch and chitosan on the mechanical, thermal, antimicrobial, and morphological properties of the films was investigated. Antimicrobial films with a smooth surface and a compact structure of brown rice starch were obtained. The results showed that a higher proportion of chitosan in the polymer blends resulted in a substantial enhancement in the tensile strength (TS) and thermal stability of the film. The TS values for BRS100, BRS30CH70, BRS50CH50, BRS70CH30, and CH100 were 3.7, 15.2, 10.2, 9.3, and 8.8 MPa, respectively, and the elongation at break (EB) values of the BRS100, BRS30CH70, BRS50CH50, BRS70CH30, and CH100 samples were 39.5%, 34.7%, 7.3%, 11.5%, and 6.9%, respectively. The addition of chitosan to the brown rice starch samples resulted in a reduced water uptake of the film. The film with a balanced ratio of brown rice starch and chitosan exhibited excellent water resistance, with its water absorption being the lowest among all of the studied compositions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/chemistry*
  19. Nizamuddin S, Jadhav A, Qureshi SS, Baloch HA, Siddiqui MTH, Mubarak NM, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 04 01;9(1):5445.
    PMID: 30931991 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-41960-1
    Polymer composites are fabricated by incorporating fillers into a polymer matrix. The intent for addition of fillers is to improve the physical, mechanical, chemical and rheological properties of the composite. This study reports on a unique polymer composite using hydrochar, synthesised by microwave-assisted hydrothermal carbonization of rice husk, as filler in polylactide matrix. The polylactide/hydrochar composites were fabricated by incorporating hydrochar in polylactide at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20 wt% by melt processing in a Haake rheomix at 170 °C. Both the neat polylactide and polylactide/hydrochar composite were characterized for mechanical, structural, thermal and rheological properties. The tensile modulus of polylactide/hydrochar composites was improved from 2.63 GPa (neat polylactide) to 3.16 GPa, 3.33 GPa, 3.54 GPa, and 4.24 GPa after blending with hydrochar at 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, respectively. Further, the incorporation of hydrochar had little effect on storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″). The findings of this study reported that addition of hydrochar improves some characteristics of polylactide composites suggesting the potential of hydrochar as filler for polymer/hydrochar composites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/chemistry*
  20. Abdul Hadi N, Marefati A, Matos M, Wiege B, Rayner M
    Carbohydr Polym, 2020 Jul 15;240:116264.
    PMID: 32475554 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116264
    Acetylated, propionylated and butyrylated rice and quinoa starches at different levels of modification and starch concentrations, were used to stabilize oil-in-water starch Pickering emulsions at 10% oil fraction. Short-chain fatty acid modified starch Pickering emulsions (SPEs) were characterized after emulsification and after 50 days of storage. The particle size distribution, microstructure, emulsion index, and stability were evaluated. An increase in starch concentration led to a decrease of emulsion droplet sizes. Quinoa starch has shown the capability of stabilizing Pickering emulsions in both the native and modified forms. The emulsifying capacity of SPEs was improved by increasing the chain length of SCFA. Modified quinoa starch with higher chain lengths (i.e. propionylated and butyrylated), at higher levels of modification, showed higher emulsion index (>71%) and stability over the entire 50 days storage. At optimized formulation, SCFA-starch particles have the potential in stabilizing emulsions for functional foods, pharmaceutical formulations, or industrial food applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/chemistry*
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