Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

  1. Ekeuku SO, Pang KL, Chin KY
    Molecules, 2021 Apr 16;26(8).
    PMID: 33923673 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26082319
    BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis results from excessive bone resorption and reduced bone formation, triggered by sex hormone deficiency, oxidative stress and inflammation. Tanshinones are a class of lipophilic phenanthrene compounds found in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which contribute to its anti-osteoporosis effects. This systematic review aims to provide an overview of the skeletal beneficial effects of tanshinones.

    METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in January 2021 using Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science from the inception of these databases. Original studies reporting the effects of tanshinones on bone through cell cultures, animal models and human clinical trials were considered.

    RESULTS: The literature search found 158 unique articles on this topic, but only 20 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. The available evidence showed that tanshinones promoted osteoblastogenesis and bone formation while reducing osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption.

    CONCLUSIONS: Tanshinones modulates bone remodelling by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and osteoblast apoptosis and stimulating osteoblastogenesis. Therefore, it might complement existing strategies to prevent bone loss.

    Matched MeSH terms: Osteogenesis/drug effects
  2. Primasari DN, Nirwana I, Budi HS, Wardhana AS, Sari AF, Novita N, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2022;2022:6740853.
    PMID: 36561943 DOI: 10.1155/2022/6740853
    OBJECTIVE: Ellagic acid, a phenolic compound with anti-inflammatory potential, can be used to accelerate the bone healing process and affect human health, while hydroxyapatite is the most commonly used bone graft material. Using a combination of the two materials results in reduced inflammation and increased osteogenesis. This study aimed to determine the effects of combining ellagic acid and hydroxyapatite in bone marker remodelling by analysing the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 10 (IL-10), bone morphogenetic 4 protein (BMP-4), and osteopontin (OPN).

    METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats were used in the study. A defect was created in each animal's femur using a low-speed diamond bur. In the control group, the bone was then treated with polyethylene glycol (PEG). In one of the other groups, the bone was treated with hydroxyapatite, and in the other, with ellagic acid-hydroxyapatite. The femur was biopsied 7 days after the procedure and again 14 days after the procedure, and an indirect immunohistochemical (IHC) examination was performed for TNF-α, IL-10, BMP-4, and OPN expression.

    RESULTS: The ellagic acid-hydroxyapatite decreased TNF-α expression in the bone tissue after 7 days and again after 14 days (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Osteogenesis/drug effects
  3. Ibrahim MR, Singh S, Merican AM, Raghavendran HR, Murali MR, Naveen SV, et al.
    BMC Vet Res, 2016 Jun 16;12(1):112.
    PMID: 27307015 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-016-0724-6
    Fracture healing in bone gap is one of the major challenges encountered in Orthopedic Surgery. At present, the treatment includes bone graft, employing either internal or external fixation which has a significant impact on the patient, family and even society. New drugs are emerging in the markets such as anabolic bone-forming agents including teriparatide and strontium ranelate to stimulate bone growth. Based on the mechanism of their actions, we embarked on a study on the healing of a fractured ulna with bone gap in a rabbit model. We segregated ten rabbits into two groups: five rabbits in the test group and five rabbits in the control group. We created a 5 mm bone gap in the ulna bone, removing the periosteum as well. Rabbits in the test group received 450 mg/kg of strontium ranelate via oral administration, daily, for six weeks. The x-rays, CT scans and blood tests were performed every two weeks. At the end of six weeks, the rabbits were sacrificed, and the radius and ulna bones harvested for histopathological examination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osteogenesis/drug effects
  4. Moshiri A, Sharifi AM, Oryan A
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol, 2016 Jul;43(7):659-84.
    PMID: 27061579 DOI: 10.1111/1440-1681.12577
    Simvastatin is a lipid lowering drug whose beneficial role on bone metabolism was discovered in 1999. Several in vivo studies evaluated its role on osteoporosis and fracture healing, however, controversial results are seen in the literature. For this reason, Simvastatin has not been the focus of any clinical trials as yet. This systematic review clears the mechanisms of action of Simvastatin on bone metabolism and focuses on in vivo investigations that have evaluated its role on osteoporosis and fracture repair to find out (i) whether Simvastatin is effective on treatment of osteoporosis and fracture repair, and (ii) which of the many available protocols may have the ability to be translated in the clinical setting. Simvastatin induces osteoinduction by increasing osteoblast activity and differentiation and inhibiting their apoptosis. It also reduces osteoclastogenesis by decreasing both the number and activity of osteoclasts and their differentiation. Controversial results between the in vivo studies are mostly due to the differences in the route of administration, dose, dosage and carrier type. Local delivery of Simvastatin through controlled drug delivery systems with much lower doses and dosages than the systemic route seems to be the most valuable option in fracture healing. However, systemic delivery of Simvastatin with much higher doses and dosages than the clinical ones seems to be effective in managing osteoporosis. Simvastatin, in a particular range of doses and dosages, may be beneficial in managing osteoporosis and fracture injuries. This review showed that Simvastatin is effective in the treatment of osteoporosis and fracture healing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osteogenesis/drug effects
  5. Ekeuku SO, Pang KL, Chin KY
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2021;15:259-275.
    PMID: 33519191 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S287280
    Purpose: Caffeic acid is a metabolite of hydroxycinnamate and phenylpropanoid, which are commonly synthesized by all plant species. It is present in various food sources that are known for their antioxidant properties. As an antioxidant, caffeic acid ameliorates reactive oxygen species, which have been reported to cause bone loss. Some studies have highlighted the effects of caffeic acid against bone resorption.

    Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify relevant studies on the effects of caffeic acid on bone. A comprehensive search was conducted from July to November 2020 using PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. Cellular, animal and human studies reporting the effects of caffeic acid, as a single compound, on bone cells or bone were considered.

    Results: The literature search found 226 articles on this topic, but only 24 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. The results showed that caffeic acid supplementation reduced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption, possibly through its antioxidant potential and increased expression of osteoblast markers. However, some studies showed that caffeic acid did not affect bone resorption in ovariectomized rats and might impair bone mechanical properties in normal rats.

    Conclusion: Caffeic acid potentially regulates the bone remodelling process by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption, as well as osteoblast apoptosis. Thus, it has medicinal values against bone diseases.

    Matched MeSH terms: Osteogenesis/drug effects
  6. Vimalraj S, Rajalakshmi S, Raj Preeth D, Vinoth Kumar S, Deepak T, Gopinath V, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2018 Feb 01;83:187-194.
    PMID: 29208278 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.09.005
    Copper(II) complex of quercetin Cu+Q, mixed ligand complexes, quercetin-Cu(II)-phenanthroline [Cu+Q(PHt)] and quercetin-Cu(II)-neocuproine [Cu+Q(Neo)] have been synthesized and characterized. From the FT-IR spectroscopic studies, it was evident that C-ring of quercetin is involved in the metal chelation in all the three copper complexes. C-ring chelation was further proven by UV-Visible spectra and the presence of Cu(II) from EPR spectroscopic investigations. These complexes were found to have osteogenic and angiogenic properties, observed through in vitro osteoblast differentiation and chick embryo angiogenesis assay. In osteoblast differentiation, quercetin-Cu(II) complexes treatment increased calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) activity at the cellular level and stimulated Runx2 mRNA and protein, ALP mRNA and type 1 collagen mRNA expression at the molecular level. Among the complexes, Q+Cu(PHt) showed more effects on osteoblast differentiation when compared to that of other two copper complexes. Additionally, Q+Cu(Neo) showed more effect compared to Q+Cu. Furthermore, the effect of these complexes on osteoblast differentiation was confirmed by the expression of osteoblast specific microRNA, pre-mir-15b. The chick embryo angiogenesis assay showed that angiogenic parameters such as blood vessel length, size and junctions were stimulated by these complexes. Thus, the present study demonstrated that quercetin copper(II) complexes exhibit as a pharmacological agent for the orthopedic application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osteogenesis/drug effects*
  7. Ekeuku SO, Chin KY
    Molecules, 2021 May 25;26(11).
    PMID: 34070497 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26113156
    Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are two major mechanisms leading to the imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation rate, and subsequently, bone loss. Thus, functional foods and dietary compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory could protect skeletal health. This review aims to examine the current evidence on the skeletal protective effects of propolis, a resin produced by bees, known to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. A literature search was performed using Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science to identify studies on the effects of propolis on bone health. The search string used was (i) propolis AND (ii) (bone OR osteoporosis OR osteoblasts OR osteoclasts OR osteocytes). Eighteen studies were included in the current review. The available experimental studies demonstrated that propolis could prevent bone loss due to periodontitis, dental implantitis, and diabetes in animals. Combined with synthetic and natural grafts, it could also promote fracture healing. Propolis protects bone health by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and promoting osteoblastogenesis, partly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. Despite the promising preclinical results, the skeletal protective effects of propolis are yet to be proven in human studies. This research gap should be bridged before nutraceuticals based on propolis with specific health claims can be developed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osteogenesis/drug effects
  8. Ng MH, Duski S, Tan KK, Yusof MR, Low KC, Rose IM, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:345910.
    PMID: 25165699 DOI: 10.1155/2014/345910
    Calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes have not been used to repair load-bearing bone defects due to their weak mechanical property. In this study, we reevaluated the functional outcomes of combining ceramic block with osteogenic-induced mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma (TEB) to repair critical-sized segmental tibial defect. Comparisons were made with fresh marrow-impregnated ceramic block (MIC) and partially demineralized allogeneic bone block (ALLO). Six New Zealand White female rabbits were used in each study group and three rabbits with no implants were used as negative controls. By Day 90, 4/6 rabbits in TEB group and 2/6 in ALLO and MIC groups resumed normal gait pattern. Union was achieved significantly faster in TEB group with a radiological score of 4.50 ± 0.78 versus ALLO (1.06 ± 0.32), MIC (1.28 ± 0.24), and negative controls (0). Histologically, TEB group scored the highest percentage of new bone (82% ± 5.1%) compared to ALLO (5% ± 2.5%) and MIC (26% ± 5.2%). Biomechanically, TEB-treated tibiae achieved the highest compressive strength (43.50 ± 12.72 MPa) compared to those treated with ALLO (15.15 ± 3.57 MPa) and MIC (23.28 ± 6.14 MPa). In conclusion, TEB can repair critical-sized segmental load-bearing bone defects and restore limb function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osteogenesis/drug effects*
  9. Rufus P, Mohamed N, Shuid AN
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(14):1689-93.
    PMID: 24354584
    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder that affects both men and women worldwide. It causes low bone mass and therefore increases bone susceptibility to fracture when bone undergoes a minor trauma. Lack of estrogen is the principal cause of osteoporosis. Estrogen, calcium, calcitonin, vitamin D and several antioxidants help in the prevention of osteoporosis. In order to effectively treat osteoporosis, there has been an extended research on the biological activities of traditional medicines since synthetic medicines possess several side effects that reduce their efficacy. Therefore, there is a need to develop new treatment alternatives for osteoporosis. This review centres on the scientific researches carried out on the evaluation of Chinese traditional medicines in the treatment of osteoporosis. Various plants like Achyranthes bidentata, Davallia formosana, polygonatum sibiricum, Cibotium barometz, Er-Zhi-Wan, Curculigo orchioides and a combined treatment of Hachimi-jio-gan (Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan) with alendronate proved active in preventing post-menopausal osteoporosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osteogenesis/drug effects
  10. Hadzir SN, Ibrahim SN, Abdul Wahab RM, Zainol Abidin IZ, Senafi S, Ariffin ZZ, et al.
    Cytotherapy, 2014 May;16(5):674-82.
    PMID: 24176546 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2013.07.013
    Suspension mononuclear cells (MNCs) can be differentiated into osteoblasts with the induction of ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of suspension MNCs to differentiate into osteoblasts using ascorbic acid only.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osteogenesis/drug effects
  11. Wong SHM, Lim SS, Tiong TJ, Show PL, Zaid HFM, Loh HS
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Jul 22;21(15).
    PMID: 32708043 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21155202
    An ideal scaffold should be biocompatible, having appropriate microstructure, excellent mechanical strength yet degrades. Chitosan exhibits most of these exceptional properties, but it is always associated with sub-optimal cytocompatibility. This study aimed to incorporate graphene oxide at wt % of 0, 2, 4, and 6 into chitosan matrix via direct blending of chitosan solution and graphene oxide, freezing, and freeze drying. Cell fixation, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, alkaline phosphatase colorimetric assays were conducted to assess cell adhesion, proliferation, and early differentiation of MG63 on chitosan-graphene oxide scaffolds respectively. The presence of alkaline phosphatase, an early osteoblast differentiation marker, was further detected in chitosan-graphene oxide scaffolds using western blot. These results strongly supported that chitosan scaffolds loaded with graphene oxide at 2 wt % mediated cell adhesion, proliferation, and early differentiation due to the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups of graphene oxide. Therefore, chitosan scaffolds loaded with graphene oxide at 2 wt % showed the potential to be developed into functional bone scaffolds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osteogenesis/drug effects*
  12. Sebastian AA, Kannan TP, Norazmi MN, Nurul AA
    J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2018 08;12(8):1856-1866.
    PMID: 29774992 DOI: 10.1002/term.2706
    Stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) represent a promising cell source for bone tissue regeneration. This study evaluated the effects of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) on the osteogenic differentiation of SHED. SHED were cultured in complete alpha minimum essential medium supplemented with osteoinducing reagents and treated with recombinant IL-17A. The cells were quantitatively analysed for proliferative activity by MTS assay, cell markers expression, and apoptotic activity by flow cytometry. For osteogenic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was quantified; mineralization assays were carried out using von Kossa and Alizarin red, and expression of osteogenic markers were analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The results showed that treatment with IL-17A increased proliferative activity in a dose-dependent manner, but reduced the expression of stem cell markers (c-Myc and Nanog) as the days progressed. IL-17A induced osteogenic differentiation in SHED as evidenced by high ALP activity, increased matrix mineralization, and upregulation of the mRNA expression of the osteogenic markers ALP, alpha 1 type 1 collagen (Col1A1), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OCN), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) but downregulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) as well as altering the OPG/RANKL ratio. Findings from our study indicate that IL-17A enhances proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of SHED by regulating OPG/RANKL mechanism thus suggests therapeutic potential of IL-17A in bone regeneration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osteogenesis/drug effects*
  13. Thent ZC, Froemming GRA, Ismail ABM, Fuad SBSA, Muid S
    Life Sci, 2018 Oct 01;210:214-223.
    PMID: 30145154 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2018.08.057
    AIMS: Phytoestrogens and xenoestrogens act as agonists/antagonists in bone formation and differentiation. Strong bones are depending of the ability of osteoblasts to form new tissue and to mineralize the newly formed tissue. Dysfunctional or loss of mineralization leads to weak bone and increased fracture risk. In this study, we reported the effect of different types of phytoestrogens (daidzein, genistein and equol) on mineralization in hFOB 1.19 cells stimulated with bisphenol A (BPA).

    MAIN METHODS: Cell mineralization capacity of phytoestrogens was investigated by evaluating calcium, phosphate content and alkaline phosphatase activity. Bone related markers, osteocalcin and osteonectin, responsible in maintaining mineralization were also measured.

    KEY FINDINGS: BPA is significantly interfering with bone mineralization in hFOB 1.19 cells. However, the enhanced mineralization efficacy of daidzein and genistein (particularly at a dose of 5 and 40 μg/mL, respectively) was evidenced by increasing calcium and phosphate content, higher ALP activity, compared to the untreated BPA group. The quantitative analyses were confirmed through morphological findings. Osteocalcin and osteonectin levels were increased in phytoestrogens-treated cells. These findings revealed the potential effect of phytoestrogens in reverting the demineralization process due to BPA exposure in hFOB 1.19 cells.

    SIGNIFICANCE: We found that osteoblast differentiation and mineralization were maintained following treatment with phytoestrogens under BPA exposure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Osteogenesis/drug effects*
  14. Krishnamurithy G, Mohan S, Yahya NA, Mansor A, Murali MR, Raghavendran HRB, et al.
    PLoS One, 2019;14(3):e0214212.
    PMID: 30917166 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0214212
    It has been demonstrated that nanocrystalline forsterite powder synthesised using urea as a fuel in sol-gel combustion method had produced a pure forsterite (FU) and possessed superior bioactive characteristics such as bone apatite formation and antibacterial properties. In the present study, 3D-scaffold was fabricated using nanocrystalline forsterite powder in polymer sponge method. The FU scaffold was used in investigating the physicochemical, biomechanics, cell attachment, in vitro biocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation properties. For physicochemical characterisation, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectrometer (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) were used. FTIR, EDX, XRD peaks and Raman spectroscopy demonstrated correlating to FU. The XPS confirmed the surface chemistry associating to FU. The BET revealed FU scaffold surface area of 12.67 m2/g and total pore size of 0.03 cm3/g. Compressive strength of the FU scaffold was found to be 27.18 ± 13.4 MPa. The human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) characterisation prior to perform seeding on FU scaffold verified the stromal cell phenotypic and lineage commitments. SEM, confocal images and presto blue viability assay suggested good cell attachment and proliferation of hBMSCs on FU scaffold and comparable to a commercial bone substitutes (cBS). Osteogenic proteins and gene expression from day 7 onward indicated FU scaffold had a significant osteogenic potential (p<0.05), when compared with day 1 as well as between FU and cBS. These findings suggest that FU scaffold has a greater potential for use in orthopaedic and/or orthodontic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osteogenesis/drug effects*
  15. Bashir ES, Kwan AK, Chan CY, Mun Keong K
    J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong), 2016 12;24(3):421-423.
    PMID: 28031519
    Gefitinib inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase and improves survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. We report 2 patients with extensive lytic bony metastasis in the spine and pelvis secondary to advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma who were treated with gefitinib and had remarkable bone formation in the lytic bone lesions in the spine and pelvis. Surgery for stabilisation was avoided.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osteogenesis/drug effects*
  16. Abdul-Majeed S, Mohamed N, Soelaiman IN
    Life Sci, 2015 Mar 15;125:42-8.
    PMID: 25534439 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2014.12.012
    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMGCoA reductase and are commonly used as antihypercholesterolemic agents. Experimental studies clearly demonstrate the beneficial effects of statins on bone. Tocotrienols have also been shown to have anti-osteoporotic effects on the skeletal system. This study was conducted to observe the effect of a combination of delta-tocotrienol and lovastatin on structural bone histomorphometry and bone biomechanical strength in a postmenopausal rat model at clinically tolerable doses, and to compare it with the effect of delta-tocotrienol or lovastatin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osteogenesis/drug effects
  17. Farea M, Husein A, Halim AS, Abdullah NA, Mokhtar KI, Lim CK, et al.
    Arch Oral Biol, 2014 Dec;59(12):1400-11.
    PMID: 25222336 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2014.08.015
    Multipotent stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) represent a promising cell source for tissue regeneration. In the present study we decided to test the inductive effect of chitosan and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) as a scaffold/factor combination on SHED proliferation and osteogenic differentiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osteogenesis/drug effects*
  18. Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(14):1632-41.
    PMID: 24354587
    The Asian population whose soy intake is higher compared to Western populations shows a significantly lower incidence of osteoporotic fracture. Several meta-analyses have revealed that supplementation of soy isoflavones improve bone health status in women. This review examined the current evidence as to whether soy could exhibit similar bone protective effects on the male population. In vivo studies revealed that supplementation of soy protein or soy isoflavones improved bone health in both normal and osteoporotic male rodents. Cell culture studies showed that soy isoflavones influenced osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis through mechanisms such as estrogen receptor binding activity, antiinflammatory activity and anti-parathyroid hormone activity. Soy isoflavones also affected calcium channel signaling and might exhibit direct effects on the osteoblastogenesis modulator, core binding factor 1. However, limited clinical trials involving soy intervention in males generally showed insignificant results. This could be attributed to the short duration of intervention, characteristics of the subjects or method of bone health assessment. More well-planned clinical trials are required to establish possible bone protective effects of soy in men.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osteogenesis/drug effects
  19. Das S, Sakthiswary R
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(14):1667-74.
    PMID: 24354585
    Preventing osteoporotic fractures in millions of individuals may significantly reduce the associated morbidity and health-care expenditures incurred. As such, the search for newer anti-osteoporotic agents has been ongoing for years. Genetic studies have proven that the secreted protein sclerostin is one of the main culprits, which negatively regulates the bone formation. Recently, sclerostin-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (Scl-Ab) in rodent studies have shown positive effects on bone homeostasis. An extensive search of the literature was performed in the BIOSIS, Cinahl, EMBASE, Pub- Med, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases to evaluate the published murine studies on the effects of Scl-Ab on the bone metabolism and histomorphometric parameters. Our systematic review depicts a significant association between Scl-Ab administration and improvement in bone formation, bone density, bone volume and trabecular thickness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osteogenesis/drug effects
  20. Helali AM, Iti FM, Mohamed IN
    Curr Drug Targets, 2013 Dec;14(13):1591-600.
    PMID: 23957815
    Osteoporosis is a pathologic process characterized by low bone mass with skeletal fragility and an increased risk of fracture. It occurs due to an imbalance between bone resorption and formation. Although current antiresorptive therapy halts bone loss, it does not cure the condition as it also inhibits bone formation. Recent preclinical and clinical trials suggest that the inhibition of resorption by cathepsin K inhibitors increases bone formation. Cathepsin K is a papainlike cysteine protease with high potent collagenase activity and predominantly expressed in osteoclasts. While allowing demineralization, cathepsin K inhibitors suppress the degradation of type I collagen (the major organic matrix of bone) and thus enhancing bone formation. Many of these inhibitors have passed preclinical studies and are presently in clinical trials at different stages of advancement. This review explores the promising role of cathepsin K as a novel antiresorptive for the treatment of osteoporosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Osteogenesis/drug effects
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