Although some form of temporal bone holder is in use in virtually all ENT postgraduate teaching departments, a paucity of information in the literature may cause problems in selecting the most appropriate model to those responsible for equipping temporal bone laboratories. The bone holder which we describe is based on existing designs but incorporates a built-in irrigation system which offers considerable advantages to the unassisted operator.
The strong international demand for admission into medical schools make medical education a "seller's market", and increasingly a global market. Teaching of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (ORL-HNS) has two primary goals. Firstly, a firm grasp of basic principles, recognition and treatment of common disorders, initial management of ORL-HNS emergencies and indications for specialist referral. Secondly, to provide sufficient exposure to the specialty to assist in career planning. Good communicative skills for optimal patient care are essential in the selection criteria of medical students. Proficiency in English is essential to obtain a disproportion share of opportunities in the new economy. The examination evaluation needs to be standardized between the various medical schools and the recommended lecturer-student ratio is maintained. The Joint National Evaluating Board has a very essential role to play in the maintenance of medical educational standards in Malaysia.
A Health Technology Assessment (HTA) was conducted in 2011 to evaluate whether transnasal oesophagoscopy (TNE) should be made available at otorhinolaryngology (ORL) clinics in the Ministry of Health facilities. The safety, efficacy or effectiveness and economic implication of using transnasal oesophagoscopy (TNE) were reviewed. This review provides a summary of the HTA and an updated literature review as well as how this technology might potentially affect services in the Ministry of Health.
Tinnitus is the conscious perception of a sound without a corresponding external acoustic stimulus, usually described as a phantom perception. One of the major challenges for tinnitus research is to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms triggering and maintaining the symptoms, especially for subjective chronic tinnitus. Our objective was to synthesize the published literature in order to provide a comprehensive update on theoretical and experimental advances and to identify further research and clinical directions. We performed literature searches in three electronic databases, complemented by scanning reference lists from relevant reviews in our included records, citation searching of the included articles using Web of Science, and manual searching of the last 6 months of principal otology journals. One-hundred and thirty-two records were included in the review and the information related to peripheral and central mechanisms of tinnitus pathophysiology was collected in order to update on theories and models. A narrative synthesis examined the main themes arising from this information. Tinnitus pathophysiology is complex and multifactorial, involving the auditory and non-auditory systems. Recent theories assume the necessary involvement of extra-auditory brain regions for tinnitus to reach consciousness. Tinnitus engages multiple active dynamic and overlapping networks. We conclude that advancing knowledge concerning the origin and maintenance of specific tinnitus subtypes origin and maintenance mechanisms is of paramount importance for identifying adequate treatment.
Foreign bodies are a common problem seen in otolaryngological practice. Of the reported foreign bodies, metallic foreign bodies are a rare entity. One of the least common complications of foreign body ingestion is penetration and migration. We describe a case of a migrating metallic foreign body in a 50-year-old woman with a history of accidental ingestion causing odynophagia. In the present case, the foreign body migrated extraluminally into the carotid sheath. Our review of literature revealed that few such cases have been reported.
Leech infestation in otolaryngology is sporadically seen in
remote area of tropical countries, but the cases are usually not
scientifically reported. We are reporting an unusual case of a
land leech removal from external auditory canal (EAC).
The emergence of tissue engineering and stem cell research has created a tremendous response amongst scientist in Malaysia. However, despite the enthusiastic to embark on the research we have to carefully divert the research towards our needs. This is due to our responsibility to address the mounting problem of communicable diseases here and a very limited funding. As commercialization is a key objective the combination of products towards treating or diagnosing communicable and non-communicable diseases in the developing country is another important factor. The discussion here is mainly on the evolution of tissue engineering in Malaysia and taking a model of tissue engineering in otolaryngology.
Maxillary sinuses plain film radiographs of 59 patients were reviewed and reported by both clinicians or Radiologists at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. There was agreement in 52 reports of the plain film radiographs however there was partial differences in about seven cases. This gave an impression that the ENT specialist and the Radiologist were both capable of reporting plain film radiographs of maxillary sinuses, even though the radiologist has no opportunity of doing detail clinical examination of the patient.
The University Science Malaysia, Penang, the third medical school in Malaysia, is following an integrated curriculum. In this curriculum, the students are taught the subject of otolaryngology from the second year of their course unlike the traditional schools where they are taught in the fourth or fifth year. This paper describes how otolaryngology is introduced in this integrated, problem-based curriculum.
The current COVID-19 pandemic has forced many clinical disciplines to evolve to function safely and still provide the necessary care. Otorhinolaryngology (ORL) is a field that has been greatly affected by this highly transmissible viral pathogen. Aerosolizing procedures, proximity examination and other common procedures must be revamped to suit current time. The usual norm ORL procedures need also be altered to incorporate safeguards to protect both patient and healthcare workers. This recommendation for current practices aims to give a practical approach to modify current practices to maintain safety during the pandemic. These recommendations are the consensus amongst ORL practitioners in Hospital Sungai Buloh which is the designated COVID-19 centre for Malaysia’s central region and is currently being practised.
Tonsillectomy is a very common procedure in Otolaryngology practice. Common complications include
bleeding, which can be primary or secondary due to infection of the tonsillar bed. Subcutaneous emphysema
after a tonsillectomy is very rare. We report a 19-year-old girl who developed cervicofacial subcutaneous
emphysema several hours after tonsillectomy with successful conservative treatment outcome.
The presence of a tick in the ear is an uncommon problem encountered by the department of otorhinolaryngology. A tick infestation in the ear can be a traumatising experience for the patient. Here, we report a case of a woman who presented with left facial weakness due to the presence of a tick in the external auditory canal.
The Asia-Pacific region has 60% of the world's population. There is a huge variability in ethnic groups, geography, diseases, and income. The otolaryngology workforce depends on the number of medical graduates, training programs, scope of practice, and available employment. Training has been influenced by the British, Russian, and US training systems, and by local influences and experience. Otolaryngologic diseases are similar to those seen in the United States but with ethnic and regional differences. There are opportunities for humanitarian service but the most sustainable projects will include repetitive visits with transfer of knowledge.
Sino-nasal osteoma is a common benign tumour of paranasal
sinuses and usually asymptomatic. Here, we presented a case of a huge sinonasal osteoma. Despite the large size of the tumour, the only presentation
was epiphora. There were no headache, facial pain or diplopia. Nasal
obstruction only occurred after involvement of the nasal cavity. In diagnosing
aetiology of the epiphora, sino-nasal pathology needed to be ruled out after
excluding ocular causes. Multidisciplinary approach between otolaryngology
(ORL) team and ophthalmology team was essential in managing the case.
The tumour was successfully removed surgically via endoscopic approach;
and dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) was performed to alleviate the epiphora.
Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is an otology emergency and carries significant morbidity if the diagnosis is missed. It can present to any specialty but in our local setting the patient usually presents to primary care as it is easily accessible. We present a case of SSNHL that was initially presented to a primary care centre and the patient was reassured without any investigation being carried out. SSNHL has many causes thus making diagnosis difficult. However, with knowledge of its possible, a diagnosis can be made and appropriate management can be advocated to the patient. Hence, we discuss the three main causes of SSNHL, while emphasizing the immune system-mediated mechanism as the main cause in this case.
Background: Summative assessment in postgraduate examination globally employs multiple measures. A standard-setting method decides on pass or fail based on an arbitrarily defined cut-off point on a test score, which is often content expert’s subjective judgment. Contrary to this a standard-setting strategy primarily practices two approaches, a compensatory approach, which decides on overall performance as a sum of all the test scores and a conjunctive approach that requires passing performance for each instrument. However, the challenge using multiple measures is not due to number of measurement tools but due to logic by which the measures are combined to draw inferences on pass or fail in summative assessment. Conjoint University Board of Examination of Masters’ of Otolaryngology and Head-Neck Surgery (ORL-HNS) in Malaysia also uses multiple measures to reach a passing or failing decision in summative assessment. However, the standard setting strategy of assessment is loosely and variably applied to make ultimate decision on pass or fail. To collect the evidences, the summative assessment program of Masters’ of ORL-HNS in School of Medical Sciences at Universiti Sains Malaysia was analyzed for validity to evaluate the appropriateness of decisions in postgraduate medical education in Malaysia. Methodology: A retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the validity of the conjoint summative assessment results of part II examination of USM candidates during May 2000-May 2011. The Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression tests were used to determine the discriminant and convergent validity of assessment tools. Pearson’s correlation coefficient analyzed the association between assessment tools and the multiple linear regression compared the dominant roles of factor variables in predicting outcomes. Based on outcome of the study, reforms for standard-setting strategy are also recommended towards programming the assessment in a surgical-based discipline. Results: The correlation coefficients of MCQ and essay questions were found not significant (0.16). Long and short cases were shown to have good correlations (0.53). Oral test stood as a component to show fair correlation with written (0.39-0.42) as well as clinical component (0.50-0.66). The predictive values in written tests suggested MCQ predicted by oral (B=0.34, P