Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 31 in total

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  1. Kaldor JM, Sittitrai W, John TJ, Kitamura T
    AIDS, 1994;8 Suppl 2:S1-2.
    PMID: 7857551
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Islands/epidemiology
  2. Fock KM, Talley N, Goh KL, Sugano K, Katelaris P, Holtmann G, et al.
    Gut, 2016 Sep;65(9):1402-15.
    PMID: 27261337 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2016-311715
    OBJECTIVE: Since the publication of the Asia-Pacific consensus on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in 2008, there has been further scientific advancement in this field. This updated consensus focuses on proton pump inhibitor-refractory reflux disease and Barrett's oesophagus.

    METHODS: A steering committee identified three areas to address: (1) burden of disease and diagnosis of reflux disease; (2) proton pump inhibitor-refractory reflux disease; (3) Barrett's oesophagus. Three working groups formulated draft statements with supporting evidence. Discussions were done via email before a final face-to-face discussion. We used a Delphi consensus process, with a 70% agreement threshold, using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria to categorise the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations.

    RESULTS: A total of 32 statements were proposed and 31 were accepted by consensus. A rise in the prevalence rates of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in Asia was noted, with the majority being non-erosive reflux disease. Overweight and obesity contributed to the rise. Proton pump inhibitor-refractory reflux disease was recognised to be common. A distinction was made between refractory symptoms and refractory reflux disease, with clarification of the roles of endoscopy and functional testing summarised in two algorithms. The definition of Barrett's oesophagus was revised such that a minimum length of 1 cm was required and the presence of intestinal metaplasia no longer necessary. We recommended the use of standardised endoscopic reporting and advocated endoscopic therapy for confirmed dysplasia and early cancer.

    CONCLUSIONS: These guidelines standardise the management of patients with refractory gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's oesophagus in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Islands/epidemiology
  3. Goh KL
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2004 Sep;19 Suppl 3:S22-5.
    PMID: 15324378
    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disease in the West, which now appears to be also increasing in prevalence in the Asian Pacific region. The reasons for this changing epidemiology are two-fold: an increased awareness among doctors and patients, and/or a true increase in the prevalence of the disease. Prevalence rates of reflux esophagitis (RE) of up to 16% and prevalence of GERD symptoms of up to 9% have been reported in the Asian population. However, the frequency of strictures and Barrett's esophagus remain very low. Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) appears to be the most common form of GERD among Asian patients accounting for 50-70% of cases with GERD. Among Asian patients differences can also be discerned among different ethnic groups. For example, in Malaysia where a multiracial society exists, RE is significantly more common among Indians compared to Chinese and Malays whereas NERD is more frequently seen in the Indian and Malays compared to the Chinese. The reasons for these differences are not known but may indicate both genetic factors and environmental factors peculiar to the particular racial group. GERD has also been increasing in the region demonstrating a time-lag phenomenon compared to the West. Differing predisposition to GERD among different ethnic groups would mean that such an increase would be more prominent among certain racial groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Islands/epidemiology
  4. Low WY, Binns C
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2013 Sep;25(5 Suppl):7S-9S.
    PMID: 24092814 DOI: 10.1177/1010539513489501
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Islands/epidemiology
  5. Arima Y, Edelstein ZR, Han HK, Matsui T
    Western Pac Surveill Response J, 2013 May 14;4(2):47-54.
    PMID: 24015372 DOI: 10.5365/WPSAR.2012.3.4.019
    Dengue is an emerging vectorborne infectious disease that is a major public health concern in the Asia and the Pacific. Official dengue surveillance data for 2011 provided by ministries of health were summarized as part of routine activities of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. Based on officially reported surveillance data, dengue continued to show sustained activity in the Western Pacific Region. In 2011, Member States reported a total of 244,855 cases of which 839 died for a case fatality rate of 0.34%. More than 1000 cases were reported each from Cambodia, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Marshall Islands, Singapore and Viet Nam. Cambodia, the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands reported higher activity relative to 2010. There continues to be great variability among the dengue-endemic countries and areas in the Region in the number of cases and serotype distribution. The continued high notification rate and complex dengue epidemiology in the Region highlight the need for information-sharing on a routine and timely basis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Islands/epidemiology
  6. Khoo S, Morris T
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2012 May;24(3):435-49.
    PMID: 22593220 DOI: 10.1177/1010539512446368
    Obesity is a global health concern and has a great impact on countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for obesity, but physical activity levels are declining in much of this region. Increasing physical activity is a priority in many countries. Considerable research has been conducted on physical activity related to obesity in Western countries, but populations in the Asia-Pacific region differ in physical, psychological, social, and cultural ways that warrant local and regional research. The authors reviewed research conducted in the Asia-Pacific region that examined either the impact of physical activity interventions on obesity-related outcomes or the effect of behavior-change interventions on physical activity participation. The number of studies found was limited, and their samples and methods varied too much to draw conclusions. The authors recommend further research in the Asia-Pacific region using systematic protocols to permit sound conclusions to be drawn and promote informed action at local levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Islands/epidemiology
  7. Mahadevan M, Navarro-Locsin G, Tan HK, Yamanaka N, Sonsuwan N, Wang PC, et al.
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2012 May;76(5):623-35.
    PMID: 22404948 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2012.02.031
    The burden of disease due to otitis media (OM) in Asia Pacific countries was reviewed to increase awareness and raise understanding within the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Islands/epidemiology
  8. Ishii H
    Nippon Rinsho, 2006 Jun;64(6):1017-9.
    PMID: 16768103
    In Japan, much attention has been paid to NASH and NAFLD for the past several years and the prevalence of this disease entity has been estimated, and NASH is thought to be present in 10% of those who have fatty liver diseases. Other points out the prevalence of NASH in Japan as 6 to 8 hundred thousand patients. The last two or three decades have seen the evolution of Western-style life of near complete inactivity, energy-dense food choices and liberal fiscal resources to obtain them and other means to avoid physical activity. Moreover, what is increasingly apparent is that NASH and NAFLD is not a Western disease and many population groups in the Asia-Pacific region are particularly prone to type 2 diabetes. Thus, it is not surprising that NASH has increasingly been diagnosed in several regions in Asia including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and India.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Islands/epidemiology
  9. Binns C, Low WY
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Apr;27(3):261-2.
    PMID: 25903275 DOI: 10.1177/1010539515583388
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Islands/epidemiology
  10. Zaini A, Nayan NF
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2002;14(1):44-6.
    PMID: 12597518 DOI: 10.1177/101053950201400110
    WHO's Declaration of the "Health for All" (HFA) goal was pronounced in 1978 in Alma Ata, and it was planned that HFA would be achieved through primary health care programmes and approaches by 2000. However, it is now 2002 and despite the technological advancements in medicine, science, and ICT, Health for All is far from reality. Instead, more and more conflicts are emerging with lethal consequences, such as, bioterrorism, biological agent abuse, global-terrorism, and environmental destruction is occurring at a greater scale that we have witnessed before. We may have the latest technology and knowledge today, but ironically, we are using them to inflict more suffering and pain in the world. In the Asia-Pacific, the past 30 years has seen dramatic advancement and lifestyle changes. We are now paying a high price for such progress in terms of risk factors to the health of the population, such as, ageing diseases, obesity, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and related conditions. The social, political, economic and environmental factors appeared to have deterred and negated WHO's HFA goal to attain basic human rights and health care for all. The HFA will not be achieved in the future if we do not learn from history and start taking measures now.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Islands/epidemiology
  11. Kin F, Navaratnam V
    NIDA Res. Monogr., 1995;148:29-49.
    PMID: 8929883
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Islands/epidemiology
  12. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec., 1993 Dec 10;68(50):371-5.
    PMID: 8305295
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Islands/epidemiology
  13. Mohamed R, Desmond P, Suh DJ, Amarapurkar D, Gane E, Guangbi Y, et al.
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2004 Sep;19(9):958-69.
    PMID: 15304110
    The Asia-Pacific Expert Committee on Hepatitis B Management recently reviewed the impact of hepatitis B in the region and assessed the differences and similarities observed in the practical management of the disease in individual Asia-Pacific countries. Hepatitis B is a major health concern in the Asia-Pacific region, and of all chronically infected carriers worldwide, approximately 75% are found in Asia. The disease poses a considerable burden on healthcare systems, and is likely to remain a cause of substantial morbidity and mortality for several decades. Disease prevention activities, including screening and vaccination programs, have been implemented successfully in some Asia-Pacific countries and similar measures are being established in other parts of the region. The management of hepatitis B in the Asia-Pacific varies throughout the region, with each country confronting different issues related to treatment options, disease monitoring and duration of therapy. The influence of cost, availability of diagnostic equipment, and patient awareness and compliance are of additional concern. Although guidelines such as those developed by the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver have been created to address problems encountered in the management of hepatitis B, many physicians in the region still find it difficult to make satisfactory management decisions because of the treatment choices available. This article examines the different approaches to hepatitis B management in a number of Asia-Pacific countries, and highlights the difficulties that can arise when adhering to treatment guidelines and disease prevention solutions that have proved to be successful in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Islands/epidemiology
  14. Ho LM, Schafferer C, Lee JM, Yeh CY, Hsieh CJ
    BMC Public Health, 2018 Oct 19;18(1):1187.
    PMID: 30340557 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-018-6096-z
    BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 80% of the world's smokers live in low- and middle-income countries. Moreover, more than half of the world's smoking-addicted population resides in the Asia-Pacific region. The reduction of tobacco consumption has thus become one of the major social policies in the region. This study investigates the effects of price increases on cigarette consumption, tobacco tax revenues and reduction in smoking-caused mortality in 22 low-income as well as middle-income countries in the Asia-Pacific region.

    METHODS: Using panel data from the 1999-2015 Euromonitor International, the World Bank and the World Health Organization, we applied fixed effects regression models of panel data to estimate the elasticity of cigarette prices and to simulate the effect of price fluctuations.

    RESULTS: Cigarette price elasticity was the highest for countries with a per capita Gross National Income (GNI) above US$6000 (China and Malaysia), and considerably higher for other economies in the region. The administered simulation shows that with an average annual cigarette price increase of 9.51%, the average annual cigarette consumption would decrease by 3.56%, and the average annual tobacco tax revenue would increase by 16.20%. The number of averted smoking-attributable deaths (SADs) would be the highest in China, followed by Indonesia and India. In total, over 17.96 million lives could be saved by tax increases.

    CONCLUSION: Excise tax increases have a significant effect on the reduction of smoking prevalence and the number of averted smoking-attributable deaths. Middle- and upper-middle income countries would be most affected by high-taxation policies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Islands/epidemiology
  15. Salmasi S, Lee KS, Ming LC, Neoh CF, Elrggal ME, Babar ZD, et al.
    BMC Cancer, 2017 12 28;17(1):903.
    PMID: 29282008 DOI: 10.1186/s12885-017-3888-y
    BACKGROUND: Globally, cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality. High treatment cost, partly owing to higher prices of anti-cancer drugs, presents a significant burden on patients and healthcare systems. The aim of the present study was to survey and compare retail prices of anti-cancer drugs between high, middle and low income countries in the South-East Asia, Western Pacific and Eastern Mediterranean regions.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional survey design was used for the present study. Pricing data from ten counties including one from South-East Asia, two from Western Pacific and seven from Eastern Mediterranean regions were used in this study. Purchasing power parity (PPP)-adjusted mean unit prices for 26 anti-cancer drug presentations (similar pharmaceutical form, strength, and pack size) were used to compare prices of anti-cancer drugs across three regions. A structured form was used to extract relevant data. Data were entered and analysed using Microsoft Excel®.

    RESULTS: Overall, Taiwan had the lowest mean unit prices while Oman had the highest prices. Six (23.1%) and nine (34.6%) drug presentations had a mean unit price below US$100 and between US$100 and US$500 respectively. Eight drug presentations (30.7%) had a mean unit price of more than US$1000 including cabazitaxel with a mean unit price of $17,304.9/vial. There was a direct relationship between income category of the countries and their mean unit price; low-income countries had lower mean unit prices. The average PPP-adjusted unit prices for countries based on their income level were as follows: low middle-income countries (LMICs): US$814.07; high middle income countries (HMICs): US$1150.63; and high income countries (HICs): US$1148.19.

    CONCLUSIONS: There is a great variation in pricing of anticancer drugs in selected countires and within their respective regions. These findings will allow policy makers to compare prices of anti-cancer agents with neighbouring countries and develop policies to ensure accessibility and affordability of anti-cancer drugs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Islands/epidemiology
  16. Dore GJ, Kaldor JM, Ungchusak K, Mertens TE
    Med J Aust, 1996 Nov 4;165(9):494-8.
    PMID: 8937371
    The incidence of new HIV infections in Asia and the Pacific will soon pass that in Africa and is projected to increase into the next century. The AIDS epidemic arising from these infections will have enormous consequences for the health and socioeconomic development of a region encompassing more than half the world's population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Islands/epidemiology
  17. Goh KL, Choi MG, Hsu WP, Chun HJ, Mahachai V, Kachintorn U, et al.
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2014 Dec;29(12):1969-75.
    PMID: 24990817 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.12655
    Data on patient satisfaction with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are scarce in Asia. The perspectives of Asian patients with GERD and their satisfaction with PPI therapy were investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Islands/epidemiology
  18. Khor GL
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2001;10(2):76-80.
    PMID: 11710361
    By 2020, non-communicable diseases including cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are expected to account for seven out of every 10 deaths in the developing countries compared with less than half this value today. As a proportion of total deaths from all-causes, CVD in the Asia Pacific region ranges from less than 20% in countries such as Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia to 20-30% in urban China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea and Malaysia. Countries such as New Zealand, Australia and Singapore have relatively high rates that exceed 30-35%. The latter countries also rank high for coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rate (more than 150 deaths per 100,000). In contrast, death from cerebrovascular disease is higher among East Asian countries including Japan, China and Taiwan (more than 100 per 100,000). It is worth noting that a number of countries in the region with high proportions of deaths from CVD have undergone marked declining rates in recent decades. For example, in Australia, between 1986 and 1996, mortality from CHD in men and women aged 30-69 years declined by 46 and 51%, respectively. In Japan. stroke mortality dropped from a high level of 150 per 100,000 during the 1920s-1940s to the present level of approximately 100 per 100,000. Nonetheless, CVD mortality rate is reportedly on the rise in several countries in the region, including urban China, Malaysia, Korea and Taiwan. In China, CVD mortality increased as a proportion of total deaths from 12.8% in 1957 to 35.8% in 1990. The region is undergoing a rapid pace of urbanization, industrialization and major technological and lifestyle changes. Thus, monitoring the impact of these changes on cardiovascular risks is essential to enable the implementation of appropriate strategies towards countering the rise of CVD mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Islands/epidemiology
  19. Chang YT, Coombs G, Ling T, Balaji V, Rodrigues C, Mikamo H, et al.
    Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents, 2017 Jun;49(6):734-739.
    PMID: 28435019 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2017.01.030
    This study was conducted to investigate the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in the Asia-Pacific region (APR) from 2010-2013. A total of 17 350 isolates were collected from 54 centres in 13 countries in the APR. The three most commonly isolated GNB were Escherichia coli (46.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8%). Overall, the rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae were 38.2% and 24.3%, respectively, and they were highest in China (66.6% and 38.7%, respectively), Thailand (49.8% and 36.5%, respectively) and Vietnam (47.9% and 30.4%, respectively). During 2010-2013, the rates of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates causing community-associated (CA) IAIs (collected <48 h after admission) were 26.0% and 13.5%, respectively, and those causing hospital-associated (HA) IAIs were 48.0% and 30.6%, respectively. Amikacin, ertapenem and imipenem were the most effective agents against ESBL-producing isolates. Piperacillin/tazobactam displayed good in vitro activity (91.4%) against CA ESBL-producing E. coli. For other commonly isolated Enterobacteriaceae, fluoroquinolones, cefepime and carbapenems exhibited better in vitro activities than third-generation cephalosporins. Amikacin possessed high in vitro activity against all GNB isolates (>80%) causing IAIs, except for Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (ACB) complex (30.9% for HA-IAI isolates). All of the antimicrobial agents tested exhibited <45% in vitro activity against ACB complex. Antimicrobial resistance is a persistent threat in the APR and continuous monitoring of evolutionary trends in the susceptibility patterns of GNB causing IAIs in this region is mandatory.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Islands/epidemiology
  20. Sioson MS, Martindale R, Abayadeera A, Abouchaleh N, Aditianingsih D, Bhurayanontachai R, et al.
    Clin Nutr ESPEN, 2018 04;24:156-164.
    PMID: 29576355 DOI: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2017.11.008
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Guidance on managing the nutritional requirements of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been issued by several international bodies. While these guidelines are consulted in ICUs across the Asia-Pacific and Middle East regions, there is little guidance available that is tailored to the unique healthcare environments and demographics across these regions. Furthermore, the lack of consistent data from randomized controlled clinical trials, reliance on expert consensus, and differing recommendations in international guidelines necessitate further expert guidance on regional best practice when providing nutrition therapy for critically ill patients in ICUs in Asia-Pacific and the Middle East.

    METHODS: The Asia-Pacific and Middle East Working Group on Nutrition in the ICU has identified major areas of uncertainty in clinical practice for healthcare professionals providing nutrition therapy in Asia-Pacific and the Middle East and developed a series of consensus statements to guide nutrition therapy in the ICU in these regions.

    RESULTS: Accordingly, consensus statements have been provided on nutrition risk assessment and parenteral and enteral feeding strategies in the ICU, monitoring adequacy of, and tolerance to, nutrition in the ICU and institutional processes for nutrition therapy in the ICU. Furthermore, the Working Group has noted areas requiring additional research, including the most appropriate use of hypocaloric feeding in the ICU.

    CONCLUSIONS: The objective of the Working Group in formulating these statements is to guide healthcare professionals in practicing appropriate clinical nutrition in the ICU, with a focus on improving quality of care, which will translate into improved patient outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pacific Islands/epidemiology
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