Displaying all 8 publications

  1. Binns C, Kyung Lee M, Yun Low W
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2019 11;31(8):737-739.
    PMID: 31852226 DOI: 10.1177/1010539519889542
    Matched MeSH terms: Papua New Guinea/epidemiology
  2. Combs BG, Passey M, Michael A, Pang T, Lightfoot D, Alpers MP
    P N G Med J, 2005 Sep-Dec;48(3-4):158-67.
    PMID: 17212062
    The prevalence of typhoid in the Papua New Guinea (PNG) highlands region increased rapidly in the mid-1980s, and now remains endemic. In this study ribotyping has been used to examine the number and types of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains present during the 1977-1996 period. The ribotyping banding pattern results were based on Cla I and Eco RV digests. The 57 PNG isolates were divided into 11 different ribotypes. Comparison of ribotypes using coefficient of similarity values revealed a diverse group of ribotypes. Several strains appear to be endemic in PNG For instance, ribotypes 1, 2 and 3 were most commonly found among PNG isolates and isolates with these ribotypes have been cultured over a period of at least 11 years (1985-1996). Ribotype 3 was also observed in isolates from Malaysia and Thailand. Also found in PNG were ribotypes 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 16 and 17. The ribotyping suggests that serovar Typhi strains present in PNG include unique strains of serovar Typhi and also strains that are common to other countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Papua New Guinea/epidemiology
  3. Chen PC
    Pac Health Dialog, 2001 Mar;8(1):166-75.
    PMID: 12017819
    Matched MeSH terms: Papua New Guinea/epidemiology
  4. Myzabella N, Fritschi L, Merdith N, El-Zaemey S, Chih H, Reid A
    Int J Occup Environ Med, 2019 10;10(4):159-173.
    PMID: 31586381 DOI: 10.15171/ijoem.2019.1576
    BACKGROUND: The palm oil industry is the largest contributor to global production of oils and fats. Indonesia and Malaysia are the largest producers of palm oil. More than a million workers are employed in this industry, yet there is a lack of information on their occupational health and safety.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify and summarize occupational hazards among oil palm plantation workers.

    METHODS: A search was carried out in June 2018 in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Ovid. Relevant publications were identified by a systematic search of four databases and relevant journals. Publications were included if they examined occupational hazards in oil palm plantation workers.

    RESULTS: 941 publications were identified; of these, 25 studies were found eligible to be included in the final review. Of the 25 studies examined, 19 were conducted in Malaysia, 2 in Costa Rica, and one each in Ghana, Indonesia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, and Cameroon. Oil palm plantation workers were found to be at risk of musculoskeletal conditions, injuries, psychosocial disorders, and infectious diseases such as malaria and leptospirosis. In addition, they have potential exposure to paraquat and other pesticides.

    CONCLUSION: In light of the potential of palm oil for use as a biofuel, this is an industry with strong growth potential. The workers are exposed to various occupational hazards. Further research and interventions are necessary to improve the working conditions of this already vast and growing workforce.

    Matched MeSH terms: Papua New Guinea/epidemiology
  5. Thong KL, Goh YL, Yasin RM, Lau MG, Passey M, Winston G, et al.
    J Clin Microbiol, 2002 Nov;40(11):4156-60.
    PMID: 12409390
    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of XbaI-digested chromosomal DNA was performed on 133 strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi obtained from Papua New Guinea, with the objective of assessing the temporal variation of these strains. Fifty-two strains that were isolated in 1992 and 1994 were of one phage type, D2, and only two predominant PFGE profiles, X1 and X2, were present. Another 81 strains isolated between 1997 and 1999 have shown divergence, with four new phage types, UVS I (n = 63), UVS (n = 5), VNS (n = 4), and D1 (n = 9), and more genetic variability as evidenced by the multiple and new PFGE XbaI profiles (21 profiles; Dice coefficient, F = 0.71 to 0.97). The two profiles X1 and X2 have remained the stable, dominant subtypes since 1992. Cluster analysis based on the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages algorithm identifies two main clusters (at 87% similarity), indicating that the divergence of the PFGE subtypes was probably derived from some genomic mutations of the X1 and X2 subtypes. The majority of isolates were from patients with mild and moderate typhoid fever and had various XbaI profiles. A single isolate from a patient with fatal typhoid fever had a unique X11 profile, while four of six isolates from patients with severe typhoid fever had the X1 pattern. In addition, 12 paired serovar Typhi isolates recovered from the blood and fecal swabs of individual patients exhibited similar PFGE patterns, while in another 11 individuals paired isolates exhibited different PFGE patterns. Three pairs of isolates recovered from three individuals had different phage types and PFGE patterns, indicating infection with multiple strains. The study reiterates the usefulness of PFGE in assessing the genetic diversity of S. enterica serovar Typhi for both long-term epidemiology and in vivo stability and instability within an individual patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Papua New Guinea/epidemiology
  6. Khositseth S, Bruce LJ, Walsh SB, Bawazir WM, Ogle GD, Unwin RJ, et al.
    QJM, 2012 Sep;105(9):861-77.
    PMID: 22919024 DOI: 10.1093/qjmed/hcs139
    Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) caused by mutations of the SLC4A1 gene encoding the erythroid and kidney isoforms of anion exchanger 1 (AE1 or band 3) has a high prevalence in some tropical countries, particularly Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Here the disease is almost invariably recessive and can result from either homozygous or compound heterozygous SLC4A1 mutations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Papua New Guinea/epidemiology
  7. Tessema SK, Utama D, Chesnokov O, Hodder AN, Lin CS, Harrison GLA, et al.
    Infect Immun, 2018 08;86(8).
    PMID: 29784862 DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00485-17
    Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) mediates parasite sequestration to the cerebral microvasculature via binding of DBLβ domains to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) and is associated with severe cerebral malaria. In a cohort of 187 young children from Papua New Guinea (PNG), we examined baseline levels of antibody to the ICAM1-binding PfEMP1 domain, DBLβ3PF11_0521, in comparison to four control antigens, including NTS-DBLα and CIDR1 domains from another group A variant and a group B/C variant. Antibody levels for the group A antigens were strongly associated with age and exposure. Antibody responses to DBLβ3PF11_0521 were associated with a 37% reduced risk of high-density clinical malaria in the follow-up period (adjusted incidence risk ratio [aIRR] = 0.63 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.45 to 0.88; P = 0.007]) and a 25% reduction in risk of low-density clinical malaria (aIRR = 0.75 [95% CI, 0.55 to 1.01; P = 0.06]), while there was no such association for other variants. Children who experienced severe malaria also had significantly lower levels of antibody to DBLβ3PF11_0521 and the other group A domains than those that experienced nonsevere malaria. Furthermore, a subset of PNG DBLβ sequences had ICAM1-binding motifs, formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster, and were similar to sequences from other areas of endemicity. PfEMP1 variants associated with these DBLβ domains were enriched for DC4 and DC13 head structures implicated in endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) binding and severe malaria, suggesting conservation of dual binding specificities. These results provide further support for the development of specific classes of PfEMP1 as vaccine candidates and as biomarkers for protective immunity against clinical P. falciparum malaria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Papua New Guinea/epidemiology
  8. Carta MG, Scano A, Lindert J, Bonanno S, Rinaldi L, Fais S, et al.
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 2020 08;24(15):8226-8231.
    PMID: 32767354 DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202008_22512
    OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the climate has played a role in the COVID-19 outbreak, we compared virus lethality in countries closer to the Equator with others. Lethality in European territories and in territories of some nations with a non-temperate climate was also compared.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lethality was calculated as the rate of deaths in a determinate moment from the outbreak of the pandemic out of the total of identified positives for COVID-19 in a given area/nation, based on the COVID-John Hopkins University website. Lethality of countries located within the 5th parallels North/South on 6 April and 6 May 2020, was compared with that of all the other countries. Lethality in the European areas of The Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom was also compared to the territories of the same nations in areas with a non-temperate climate.

    RESULTS: A lower lethality rate of COVID-19 was found in Equatorial countries both on April 6 (OR=0.72 CI 95% 0.66-0.80) and on May 6 (OR=0.48, CI 95% 0.47-0.51), with a strengthening over time of the protective effect. A trend of higher risk in European vs. non-temperate areas was found on April 6, but a clear difference was evident one month later: France (OR=0.13, CI 95% 0.10-0.18), The Netherlands (OR=0.5, CI 95% 0.3-0.9) and the UK (OR=0.2, CI 95% 0.01-0.51). This result does not seem to be totally related to the differences in age distribution of different sites.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study does not seem to exclude that the lethality of COVID-19 may be climate sensitive. Future studies will have to confirm these clues, due to potential confounding factors, such as pollution, population age, and exposure to malaria.

    Matched MeSH terms: Papua New Guinea/epidemiology
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