Parenting behaviour is culturally sensitive. The aims of this study were (1) to translate the Parental Bonding Instrument into Malay (PBI-M) and (2) to determine its factorial structure and validity among the Malaysian population.
Objective: This case report aims to highlight the importance of parental contribution to the school refusal problem. Methods: We report a case of a 9- year old boy who presented with school refusal behaviour. Results: There was no psychiatry diagnosis made in this patient. Parental issues such as ineffective and inconsistent parenting, and parental marital disharmony contribute significantly to the school refusal behaviour. Conclusion: Parents in particular are important team players in the management of school refusal. Parental issues need to be explored and managed accordingly to ensure good outcome. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 15 (1): January - June 2014: 83-85.
BACKGROUND: To assess the prevalence of parental behaviors and other factors of sleep ecology and to analyze their relationships with sleep outcomes in a large sample of children ages birth to 36months in multiple countries/regions.
METHODS: Parents of 29,287 infants and toddlers (48% boys; Australia, Canada, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, and Vietnam) completed an internet-based expanded version of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire.
RESULTS: Overall, there is a high level of parental involvement in sleep onset and sleep maintenance for young children, with significant differences in parenting behaviors across cultural groups. For predominantly-Caucasian, the most common behavior occurring at bedtime is falling asleep independently in own crib/bed (57%), compared to just 4% of those children living in predominantly-Asian regions. Parental behaviors and sleep ecology, including parental presence at sleep onset, bedtime, and bedtime routine, significantly explain a portion of the variance in sleep patterns. Overall, parental behaviors are more highly predictive of nighttime sleep outcomes in predominantly-Caucasian regions. Finally, parental involvement in sleep onset mediates the relationship between cosleeping and sleep outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the best predictors of nighttime sleep are related to parental behaviors at bedtime and during the night. Furthermore, sleep disruption and decreased total sleep associated with bed sharing and room sharing are mediated by parental presence at bedtime. These findings provide additional support for addressing parental behaviors in behavioral interventions for infant and toddler sleep problems.
The authors investigated the moderating role of father's education on the associations between perceived paternal parenting styles and locus of control among 382 Malaysian adolescents with an average age of 14.27. Data were collected by means of adolescents' self-report using standardized instruments (i.e., parental authority questionnaire and Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale for Children). Results revealed that there were significant negative relationships between fathers' authoritative parenting style (r = -.243, p < .001) and authoritarian parenting style (r = -.130, p < .01) with adolescents' internal locus of control. Furthermore, the findings indicated that father's high level of education moderated the relationship between perceived paternal authoritarian parenting and locus of control (b = -0.147, p < .001). The findings underscore the need to include the role of parents' education when assessing the links between parenting styles and adolescents' locus of control.
Recent statistics from the Social Security Organization (SOCSO) of Malaysia shows Commuting Accident (CA)
increased consistently by 1500 cases per year from 2008 to 2012. This has resulted in the rising of fatality rate,
extensive claims of compensation payment and not to mention loss of valuable talents. However, little is known
about the contributing factors to the occurrences of CA in Malaysia because CA is never considered to be work
related before. This study aims to explore work related factors with occurrence of CA using 5-year statistical data
from SOCSO, Malaysia. Moreover, we also reviewed studies published between 1990s and 2014 to support the
statistical findings. Motorbike is found as the most common vehicle used which involved in CA. Individual factors
concerning workers behaviour is a main risk factor of CA. Family related factors (parenting responsibility), work
burden, workplace support as well as environmental factors such as bad weather and bad road conditions are also
significant contributions of CA. It is very important to develop behavioural intervention strategies and provide proper
training. Hence, more attention should be directed to young individual workers in balancing them with capabilities and
organization performance demand. This may lead to the elimination of the other causes of CA. In conclusion, solutions
to this problem involve not only a particular party to ensure the wellbeing of workers in Malaysia, but all authorities
should play roles in enhancing safety and health matter of workers especially on the occurrence of accident.
There is ample research on aggression amongst children and adolescents that highlights several antecedents of aggression. While researchers have remarked on the relationship between parenting styles and aggression in children, there are few studies that integrate and systemize the available studies on parenting styles and aggression. The present review is an attempt to fill this gap. For this review, relevant studies were first searched, then coded and classified. As a result of thorough review, 34 relevant studies were identified. The review shows that parenting styles have a direct impact on aggression in children. Authoritative parenting styles play a positive role in psychological behavior in children while authoritarian and permissive parenting styles result in aggressive and negative behaviors in children. The current study also suggests that there is room to conduct studies on this topic in developing countries. Future research should be undertaken in developing and under-developed countries and should focus on mixed modes of research and examine the direct influence of parenting styles on aggressive behavior in children in different cultural contexts.
Expectations and satisfactions are two different yet interrelated area. Hence, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of working parent expectation on parenting satisfaction among working parents in Sabah. In addition, this study also examines the differences of the background of respondents in terms of socio-economic status and the level of education towards parenting satisfaction in Sabah. The study employed purposive sampling survey method with questionnaire. It has been distributed to 210 working parents in various sectors around Kota Kinabalu and Beaufort, Sabah. The set of questionnaire used in this study comprising the Parent Comparison Level Index (PCLI) to measure parental expectation and the Parent Satisfaction Scale (PSS) used to measure parenting satisfaction. The data obtained were analyzed using the IBM SPSS version 23 software through simple regression test and one-way ANOVA test according to the objectives of the study. The results of the analysis showed that parental expectations were significantly and positively influencing parenting satisfaction with a contribution of 34.6 percent variance. Whilst, the difference in education level and socio-economic status of parents shows that there is no difference in parenting satisfaction. In conclusion, higher parenting expectation will lead to higher parenting satisfaction. However, parenting satisfaction is not related to the differences in educational background and socioeconomic status of the parents. The implication of this study is toward parents and the aspect involving parenting satisfaction.
The present study investigates the role of parenting styles on effort perseverance with mediating roles of conscientiousness and mindfulness as moderators. For this purpose, 272 Iranian high school girl students were chosen by stratified random sampling. Data were analyzed by Path Analysis and Hierarchical Regression methods. The results showed that maternal control, parental control and maternal responsibility predict effort perseverance through conscientiousness; and paternal responsibility indicates positive and significant relationship with effort perseverance. Furthermore, findings showed that the relationship between conscientiousness and effort perseverance was moderated by mindfulness. Parenting style is an important factor in predicting effort perseverance through conscientiousness. In addition, being mindfulness has an effective role in relation to conscientiousness and effort perseverance.
Drowning contributes to incapacity and early death in many countries. In low- and middle-income countries, children are the most susceptible to fatalities. Over 50 % of the global drowning deaths occur among children aged under 15 years old with children aged between 1 and 4 years of age being most at risk. In Bangladesh, drowning rates are 10 to 20 times more than those in other developing countries. The object of this study is to determine the socio-demographic, environmental and caring hazard issues for child drowning in Bangladesh.
This study investigated the role of parental and peer mediation in young adolescents' engagement in risk-taking in social networking sites (SNSs). A survey conducted in Malaysia with 469 SNS users aged 13-14 revealed that control-based parental mediation can cause boomerang effects, making young adolescents more inclined to taking risks in SNSs. While discussion-based parental mediation was found to be negatively related to young adolescents' befriending strangers in SNSs, it did not reduce privacy risks. Findings also suggested that peer influence could result in undesirable outcomes. In particular, the more young adolescents talked about Internet-related issues with peers, the more likely they were to disclose personally identifiable information on SNSs.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic debilitating illness with onset in early childhood. The objective of this study was to look at the impact of children with ADHD on their parents.
Past research indicates that socioeconomic status (SES) accounts for differences in sensitivity across ethnic groups. However, comparatively little work has been conducted in Asia, with none examining whether ethnicity moderates the relation between SES and sensitivity. We assessed parenting behavior in 293 Singaporean citizen mothers of 6-month olds (153 Chinese, 108 Malay, 32 Indian) via the Maternal Behavioral Q-Sort for video interactions. When entered into the same model, SES (F(1,288) = 17.777, p
Depression is usually discussed as an adult problem; however there is a need to recognize it being a significant problem for children. Rarely is depression focused on how it affects parenting and child outcomes, particularly for young children.Often women are victims of violence, and the devastating effects of depression are significant in such households. However one must not ignore, the effect depression has on parenting, where in these contexts, women themselves, become the perpetrators of violence. When mothers are not well-2 central parental functions are threatened: the ability to foster healthy relationships and to carry out the practical functions of parenting2.When this is not carried out, one sees obvious reductions in young children’s behavioral, cognitive, and social and emotional functioning. Neuroscience is clearly evident that the primary ingredient for healthy early brain development is the quality of the earliest relationships from a baby’s primary caregiver.
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of parental stress and psychological wellbeing
among parents with autistic children and their associations with dimensions of support system. Methods: This is a preliminary cross sectional study which randomly selected parents
with clinically diagnosed autistic children. Those parents who attended psycho-education session on management of autistic children at Health Psychology Unit were randomly selected to enroll in the study. Psychological wellbeing, parental stress and dimensions of support system were assessed by using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) and the Provision Social Relation (PSR), respectively. Results: Of 52 parents with autistic children (34 female and 18 male), about 90.4% of parents had significant parenting stress, and 53.8% of parents showed clinical disturbance in psychological wellbeing. Gender (t=1.67, p=0.02) and occupation (F=4.78, p=0.01) showed statistically significant association with psychological wellbeing. No association found between other socio-demographic factors, parental stress and psychological wellbeing with dimensions of support system among parents with autistic children. Conclusion: Parents with autistic children have high prevalence of stress and psychological disturbances. Interactions of various factors need to be acknowledged and considered in order to reduce the burden of parents with autistic children.
Taking care of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) could be a demanding task for parents. Consequently, parents of children with ASD may experience parenting stress and depression symptoms. This study examined parenting stress and depression symptoms among parents of children and adolescents with ASD. This study also examined the role of child characteristics (e.g., age, child quality of life and problem behavior) on parenting stress and depression symptoms and the effect of parenting stress on parental depression. A total of 78 parents were examined using a questionnaire survey. The result indicated that parents caring a younger age group of children with ASD have higher levels of depression symptoms compared to parents caring for older group of children with ASD. The result also revealed a significant difference in level of depression symptoms between parents with higher levels of parenting stress and parents with lower parenting stress. Only the children age significantly predicts depression symptoms in parents of children with ASD. This indicates that children age is potential to affect mental health among parents of children with ASD.
The prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) cases has been increasing worldwide. There are countless aspects of challenges faced by parents to bring up children with ASD. Parents of children with ASD are often reported to have higher stress in parenting compared to parents with normal children or children with other disabilities such as Down syndrome. Therefore, this study explored the challenges faced by mothers of children with ASD. Mothers whom were selected are the primary guardians and spend a lot of time nurturing these children. This qualitative study involved in-depth interviews with five (5) informants in Selangor. The thematic analysis identified the challenges faced by the mothers of children with ASD, which are the aspects of behavioral, financial and community acceptance. The findings showed that mothers to children with ASD encountered numerous complicated challenges which require the support of all parties to address those challenges. High support and compassionate understanding are really needed from the spouse, normal children, local communities, and government to alleviate their difficulties. Thus, the findings of this study hopefully will help various parties to understand the challenges faced by the mothers of children with ASD. It can also be the guiding principle in designing supportive programs and interventions for children with ASD as well as their parents.
Two studies examined the relationship between culture and alexithymia. In Study 1, mean levels and correlates of alexithymia were examined in 3 cultures: European American (EA), Asian American (AA), and Malaysian college students. Both Asian groups had higher alexithymia levels than the EA group. Somatization was more strongly associated with alexithymia in the Asian groups than in the EA group. Mood and life satisfaction were associated with alexithymia in similar ways across groups. In Study 2, the relations among culture, gender, retrospective reports of parental socialization of emotions, and alexithymia were examined among EA and AA college students. Cultural and gender differences were found in alexithymia and emotion socialization levels. Most important, parental emotion socialization mediated the relations among culture, gender, and alexithymia.
A study was carried out to compare parenting stress between 116 mothers of very low birthweight (VLBW) children and 96 mothers of normal birthweight (NBW) children at 4 y of age, using the Parenting Stress Index (PSI). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with child-domain stress (CDS) and parent-domain stress (PDS). There was a significantly higher proportion (39.7%) of mothers of VLBW children with high CDS scores >90th percentile than mothers of NBW children (20.8%). No significant differences were observed for PDS scores. Lower intelligence quotient (IQ) scores and adverse child behaviour, as evidenced by higher Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores, were significantly associated with higher CDS scores (p < 0.001). Factors associated with higher PDS scores were higher CBCL scores (p < 0.001), mothers who were the primary caregivers (p < 0.001), male sex (p = 0.018) and lower level of maternal education (p = 0.048). These factors remained statistically significant even when physically and cognitively impaired children were excluded from the analysis.