METHODS: The methodological and cross-sectional study design was used to translate, culturally adapt it, and validate PSPSQ 2.0 in Nepalese. The Nepalese version of PSPSQ 2.0 went through the full linguistic validation process and was evaluated in 300 patients visiting different community pharmacies in Kathmandu district, Nepal. Exploratory factor analysis was carried out using principal component analysis with varimax rotation, and Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate the reliability.
RESULTS: Three-hundred patients were recruited in this study. Participants ranged in age from 21 to 83 years; mean age was 53.93 years (SD: 15.21). 62% were females, and 34% educational level was above 12 and university level. Only 7% of the participants were illiterate. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkinwas found to be 0.696, and Bartlett's test of sphericity was significant with a chi-square test value of 3695.415. A principal axis factor analysis conducted on the 20 items with orthogonal rotation (varimax). PSPSQ 2.0 Nepalese version (20 items) had a good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.758). Item-total correlations were reviewed for the items in each of the three domains of PSPSQ 2.0.
CONCLUSION: The PSPSQ 2.0 Nepalese version demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability, which can be used in the Nepalese population for evaluating the satisfaction of patients with pharmacist services in both community pharmacy and research.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Public Health Clinic Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PHC-PSQ) towards pharmacy services was developed using exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's α. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 patients visiting the pharmacy in three randomly selected public health clinics recruited via systematic random sampling. Data was collected using a set of questionnaire including PHC-PSQ. Factors associated with patient satisfaction was analysed using multiple linear regression.
RESULTS: Final PHC-PSQ consisted of three domains (administrative competency, technical competency and convenience of location) and 22 items with 69.9% total variance explained. Cronbach's α for total items was 0.96. Total mean score for patient satisfaction was 7.56 (SD 1.32). Older age and higher education were associated with lower patient satisfaction mean score. Patients who had visited the pharmacy more than once in the past three months, perceived to be in better health status and had a more correct general knowledge of pharmacists expressed higher patient satisfaction mean score.
CONCLUSIONS: PHC-PSQ is a newly developedtool to measure patient satisfaction towards pharmacy services in public health clinics in Malaysia. Patient satisfaction was relatively high. Age, education, frequency of visit, self-perceived health status and general knowledge of pharmacists were factors significantly associated with patient satisfaction.
SETTING: A cross-sectional study on public universities in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
PARTICIPANTS: All participants in this study were international students joining public universities in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
PRIMARY INDEPENDENT VARIABLE: Perceived quality of healthcare services measured on a SERVQUAL scale.
PRIMARY DEPENDENT VARIABLE: Participants' satisfaction of healthcare services assessed using five items.
SECONDARY DEPENDENT VARIABLE: Behavioural intentions measured on six items.
RESULTS: Of the 556 international students, 500 (90%) completed the survey. The study used structural equation modelling (SEM) through the AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structures) software to analyse the data. SEM analyses showed that the perceived quality of healthcare services significantly and directly affected satisfaction, with a value of 89% and an effect size of 0.78. It also had a significant indirect impact on the behavioural intentions (0.78) of international students. The results indicated that participants' satisfaction had a statistically significant impact on their behavioural intentions (0.77).
CONCLUSION: Perceived quality of care is an important driver of international students' satisfaction and their behavioural intention with healthcare services. Such relations of effects among the three investigated factors were also positive and significant.
DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The topic was selected for reasons guided by the Institute of Healthcare Improvement virtual breakthrough series collaborative (VBSC). Subject matter experts came from existing global quality development in collaboration with sales and marketing, and talent management agencies/departments. Patient satisfaction (PS) was measured using the SH Customer Feedback Form. Data were analysed using Friedman's test.
FINDINGS: The in-patient (IP) department PSI repeated measures comparison during VBSC, performed using Friedman's test, showed a statistically significant increase in the PSI, χ2 = 44.00, p<0.001. Post hoc analysis with Wilcoxon signed-rank test was conducted with a Bonferroni correction applied, which resulted in a significant increase between the baseline and action phases ( Z=3.317, p=0.003) between the baseline and continuous improvement phases ( Z=6.633, p<0.001), and between the action and continuous improvement phases ( Z=3.317, p=0.003), suggesting that IP PSI was continuously increasing during all VBSC phases. Like IP PSI, the out-patient department PSI was also continuously increasing during all VBSC phases.
RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: The VBSC was not implemented using a control group. Factors other than the VBSC may have contributed to increased PS.
PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The VBSC was conducted using virtual telecommunication. Although conventional breakthrough series might result in better cohesiveness and commitment, Indonesian geographical barriers forced an alternative strategy, which is much more cost-effective.
ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The VBSC, designed to improve PS, has never been implemented in any Indonesian private hospital group. Other hospital groups might also appreciate knowing about the VBSC to improve their PSI.
DESIGN: Prospective observational study.
SETTING: PICU in a tertiary care pediatric hospital.
PATIENTS: All English-literate parents whose child was admitted to our PICU between February 2014 and February 2015 were eligible after informed consent was obtained. Parents included in this study in previous admission(s) were excluded.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We adapted Empowerment of Parent in the Intensive Care Questionnaire, a validated questionnaire survey specific for measuring parental satisfaction in PICUs. This adapted survey consisted of 31 questions (based on a scale of 1-6) examining five domains as follows: information giving, care and cure, parental participation, organization, and professional attitude. Reliability of Empowerment of Parent in the Intensive Care Questionnaire in our population was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha. We used ordinal logistic regression, controlling for socioeconomic status and educational level, to examine differences in parental perceptions of various ethnicities. We obtained a total of 206 responses (36.5%) from 543 admissions. There were 116 (56%) emergency and 90 (44%) elective admissions. The proportion of respondents were Chinese (126 [61%]), Malay (32 [16%]), Indian (23 [11%]), and "Others" (25 [12%]). Cronbach's alpha for domains of information giving (α = 0.80), care and cure (α = 0.93), parental participation (α = 0.84), organization (α = 0.79), and professional attitude (α = 0.88) were good. In all five domains, our median PICU scores were 6 (interquartile range, 5-6). Compared to other ethnic groups, Malay parents did perceive that domains of "care and cure," "parental participation," and "professional attitude" were less satisfactory.
CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences were found in satisfaction ratings between parents of different ethnicities. Further studies are needed to explore and determine reasons for these differences.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of symptom burden and severity of ESRD patients and correlate the findings with their psychological status.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of dialyzed (N = 87) and nondialyzed (N = 100) patients. The symptom burden and severity were determined using the Dialysis Symptom Index (DSI) and the psychological assessment using Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21).
RESULTS: Symptom severity evaluated using the DSI was comparable in both groups with fatigue as the most common symptom (n = 141, 75.4%), followed by sleep-related, sexual dysfunction, and dry skin problems. The symptom burden for worrying, dry skin and mouth, decreased appetite, numbness, and leg swelling were significant in not dialyzed group (p patients were depressed, 21.8% were stressed, and 15.6% were anxious (p patients showed a positive psychological status trend on DASS-21 assessment. The not dialyzed group consisted of 34% from comprehensive conservative group, 26% of choice-restricted conservative care, and 40% with no definitive future plan.
CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in the prevalence of symptom burden and severity, irrespective of the type of treatment. Psychological disturbances were associated with higher symptom burden and severity and, therefore, should be screened thoroughly to achieve optimal ESRD management.
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