SUMMARY: Nephrologist-initiated peritoneoscopic PD access programs have had a positive impact on PD penetration. The technique has been associated with a better primary success rate, superior catheter survival, less postoperative pain, shorter hospital stay, and shorter catheter break-in time compared with the conventional surgical technique. The role of interventional nephrologists in peritoneoscope Tenckhoff catheter placement is still perceived to be a relatively new advance, investigational by some, and many nephrologists and surgeons alike remain sceptical of the value of this recent option. Crucial questions often raised are how many procedures one needs to perform before being considered competent and who should be credentialed to perform the procedure or supervise trainees performing it. The evaluation of technical proficiency in a specific operation is difficult and complex. Cumulative summation (CUSUM) analysis is one option for tracking the success and failure of technical skill and examining trends over time. Key Messages: The author's facility has had good outcomes with a nephrologist-initiated peritoneoscopic PD access programme. Quality control of PD catheter insertion can be performed using CUSUM charting to monitor for primary catheter dysfunction, primary leak, and primary peritonitis.
METHODS: A total of 15 PD bags (3 bags for each type of PD solution) containing meropenem and heparin and 24 PD bags (3 bags for each type of PD solution) containing PIP/TZB and heparin were prepared and stored at 4°C for 168 hours. The same bags were stored at 25°C for 3 hours followed by 10 hours at 37°C. An aliquot withdrawn before storage and at defined time points was analyzed for the concentration of meropenem, PIP, TZB, and heparin using high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples were also analysed for particle content, pH and color change, and the anticoagulant activity of heparin.
RESULTS: Meropenem and heparin retained more than 90% of their initial concentration in 4 out of 5 types of PD solutions when stored at 4°C for 168 hours, followed by storage at 25°C for 3 hours and then at 37°C for 10 hours. Piperacillin/tazobactam and heparin were found to be stable in all 8 types of PD solutions when stored under the same conditions. Heparin retained more than 98% of its initial anticoagulant activity throughout the study period. No evidence of particle formation, color change, or pH change was observed at any time under the storage conditions employed in the study.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides clinically important information on the stability of meropenem and PIP/TZB, each in combination with heparin, in different PD solutions. The use of meropenem-heparin admixed in pH-neutral PD solutions for the treatment of PDAP should be avoided, given the observed suboptimal stability of meropenem.