Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 74 in total

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  1. Seleena P, Lee HL, Nazni WA, Rohani A, Kadri MS
    PMID: 9185282
    In an effort to develop a more effective technique in dispersing a microbial control agent, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a truck-mounted ultra low volume (ULV) generator (Scorpion) was used to disperse B. thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) and Bti with malathion. Complete larval and adult mortalities for all tested mosquito species within the first 70-80 feet from the ULV generator were achieved. Beyond that distance less than 50% mortality was achieved as insufficient sprayed particles reached the area. A minimum of 10(3) Bti colony forming units per ml is required to cause 100% larval mortality. The sprayed Bti larvicidal toxins were persistent in the test water 7 days post ULV. The effectiveness of B. thuringiensis jegathesan (Btj), a new mosquitocidal Bt serotype was also evaluated. Similar mortality results as Bti were achieved except that the Btj toxins underwent degradation in the test water, since less than 50% less in larval mortality was observed in 7 days post ULV samples. This ULV method has the potential to disperse Bt and malathion effectively for a simultaneous control of mosquito adults and larvae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pest Control, Biological/methods*
  2. Jamian S, Norhisham A, Ghazali A, Zakaria A, Azhar B
    Insect Sci., 2017 Apr;24(2):285-294.
    PMID: 26712127 DOI: 10.1111/1744-7917.12309
    Integrated pest management (IPM) is widely practiced in commercial oil palm agriculture. This management system is intended to minimize the number of attacks by pest insects such as bagworms on crops, as well as curb economic loss with less dependency on chemical pesticides. One practice in IPM is the use of biological control agents such as predatory insects. In this study, we assessed the response of predatory natural enemies to pest outbreak and water stress, and document the habitat associations of potential pest predators. The abundances of 2 predatory insect species, namely Sycanus dichotomus and Cosmolestes picticeps (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), were compared bagworm outbreak sites and nonoutbreak sites within oil palm plantations. We also examined habitat characteristics that influence the abundances of both predatory species. We found that the abundance of C. picticeps was significantly higher in bagworm outbreak sites than in nonoutbreak sites. There were no significant differences in the abundance of S. dichotomus among outbreak and non-outbreak sites. Both species responded negatively to water stress in oil palm plantations. Concerning the relationship between predatory insect abundance and in situ habitat quality characteristics, our models explained 46.36% of variation for C. picticeps and 23.17% of variation for S. dichotomus. Both species of predatory insects thrived from the planting of multiple beneficial plants in oil palm plantations. The results suggest that C. picticeps can be used as a biological agent to control bagworm populations in oil palm plantations, but S. dichotomus has no or little potential for such ecosystem service.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pest Control, Biological/methods*
  3. Jalinas J, Güerri-Agulló B, Mankin RW, López-Follana R, Lopez-Llorca LV
    J. Econ. Entomol., 2015 Apr;108(2):444-53.
    PMID: 26470155 DOI: 10.1093/jee/tov023
    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) is an economically important pest of palm trees in the subtropics. Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), has been shown to be pathogenic against R. ferrugineus in laboratory and field studies. However, because they remain inside the trunks until adulthood, the slowing of feeding and increases in mortality of internally feeding R. ferrugineus larvae over time after B. bassiana treatment has not been established. To explore the potential of acoustic methods to assess treatment effects, sound impulses produced by untreated, 10(4)-, and 10(6)-conidia ml(-1) B. bassiana-treated larvae in palms were recorded for 23 d, after which the palms were dissected and the larvae examined. Analyses were performed to identify trains of impulses with characteristic patterns (bursts) produced frequently by moving and feeding larvae but only rarely (3-8% of the larval rate) by interfering background noise or tree vibrations. The rates of bursts, the counts of larval impulses per burst, and the rates of impulses in bursts decreased significantly over time in both B. bassiana treatments but not in the control. This supports a hypothesis that larvae had briefer movement and feeding bouts as they became weaker after infection, which reduced the counts of larval impulses per burst, the rates of bursts, and the rates of impulses in bursts. There is considerable potential for use of acoustic methods as tools for nondestructive assessment of effects of biological control treatments against internally feeding insect pests.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pest Control, Biological*
  4. Huger AM
    J. Invertebr. Pathol., 2005 May;89(1):78-84.
    PMID: 16039308
    In view of the increasing and devastating damage by rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) to coconut palms in the middle of last century, many efforts were made to find an efficient natural control factor against this pest, which could not be controlled by pesticides. The basic procedures of these monitoring programmes are outlined together with the final detection of a virus disease in oil palm estates in Malaysia in 1963. In extensive laboratory studies, the virus was isolated and identified as the first non-occluded, rod-shaped insect virus, morphologically resembling the baculoviruses. Infection experiments clarified the pathology, histopathology, and virulence of the virus and demonstrated that the virus was extremely virulent to larvae after peroral application. These findings encouraged the first pilot release of virus in 1967 in coconut plantations of Western Samoa where breeding sites were contaminated with virus. Surprisingly, the virus became established in the Samoan rhinoceros beetle populations and spread autonomously throughout the Western Samoan islands. As a consequence, there was a drastic decline of the beetle populations followed by a conspicuous recovery of the badly damaged coconut stands. This unexpected phenomenon could only be explained after it was shown that the adult beetle itself is a very active virus vector and thus was responsible for the efficient autodissemination of the virus. The functioning of the beetle as a 'flying virus factory' is due to the unique cytopathic process developing in the midgut after peroral virus infection. Pathological details of this process are presented. Because of the long-term persistence of the virus in the populations, rhinoceros beetle control is maintained. Incorporation of virus into integrated control measures and successful virus releases in many other countries are recorded.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pest Control, Biological/history*
  5. Lee YW, Zairi J
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 2006 Mar;22(1):97-101.
    PMID: 16646329
    Susceptibility levels of a few laboratory-cultured and dengue-endemic area field-collected strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) at different storage ages were studied. The susceptibility of laboratory-cultured World Health Organization (WHO) Bora Bora reference, Vector Control Research Unit (VCRU), and Fumakilla Malaysia Berhad (FMB) strains of Ae. aegypti to Bti was examined. The sensitivity to Bti decreased with storage age. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for Bti increased by 2-3 times after 2 years compared to a fresh sample (3-6 months of storage). However, after the 2-year storage period, Bti still provided very good efficacy against all laboratory-cultured susceptible strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The observed 95% lethal concentration values were about 20 times lower than the recommended concentration (6,000 international toxic units (ITU)/liter). Results obtained from the study against the dengue-endemic area field-collected strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus confirmed the effectiveness of the Bti after storage for 2 years (18-24 months). For Ae. aegypti, the Ujung Batu strain was the most susceptible to Bti, whereas the Sungai Nibong strain showed the most tolerance. Susceptibility of laboratory-cultured strains varied; the Air Itam strain of Ae. albopictus was the most susceptible to Bti, whereas the Kampung Serani strain was the most tolerant among the field strains. However, the laboratory strain of Ae. albopictus was more susceptible than all the field strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pest Control, Biological/methods*
  6. Meekes ET, Fransen JJ, van Lenteren JC
    J. Invertebr. Pathol., 2002 Sep;81(1):1-11.
    PMID: 12417207
    Entomopathogenic fungi of the genus Aschersonia are specific for whitefly and scale insects. They can be used as biological control agents against silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii and greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Forty-four isolates of Aschersonia spp. were tested for their ability to sporulate and germinate on semi-artificial media and to infect insect hosts. Seven isolates sporulated poorly (less than 1x10(7) conidia/dry weight) and 10 were not able to infect either of the whitefly species. Several isolates were able to produce capilliconidia. Infection level was not correlated with germination on water agar. After a selection based on spore production and infection, virulence of 31 isolates was evaluated on third instar nymphs of both whitefly species on poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima). Whitefly infection levels varied between 2 and 70%, and infection percentages of B. argentifolii correlated with that of T. vaporariorum. However, mortality was higher for T. vaporariorum than for B. argentifolii, as a result of a higher 'mortality due to unknown causes.' Several isolates, among which unidentified species of Aschersonia originating from Thailand and Malaysia, A. aleyrodis from Colombia, and A. placenta from India showed high spore production on semi-artificial medium and high infection levels of both whitefly species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pest Control, Biological/methods*
  7. Lee HL, Gregorio ER, Khadri MS, Seleena P
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 1996 Dec;12(4):651-5.
    PMID: 9046471
    Evaluation of the effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis (B.t.i.) against mosquito larvae dispersed by ultralow volume (ULV) spraying was conducted in simulated field trials. Effectiveness was measured using 3 different indicators: larval mortality, colony-forming unit enumeration, and droplet analysis. B.t.i. was dispersed with a ULV generator using 2 different flow rates: 0.3 and 0.5 liter/min on 2 different days. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that an output of 0.3 liter/min is effective for controlling Aedes aegypti. although a dosage of 0.5 liter/min can be used when high residual activity is desired. For Culex quinquefasciatus control, both dosages were effective but with low residual activity. For Anopheles maculatus control, only a discharge rate of 0.5 liter/min was effective with low residual activity. B.t.i. application at both dosages penetrated tires well, indicating that B.t.i. ULV application is an effective method for controlling container-inhabiting mosquitoes. Good coverage of target area and penetration were attributed to satisfactory droplet profiles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pest Control, Biological*
  8. Sulaiman I
    J. Med. Entomol., 1992 Jan;29(1):1-4.
    PMID: 1552514
    The susceptibility of three strains of Aedes aegypti (L.) to four strains of Ascogregarina culicis were studied under laboratory conditions. The parasite was found to be pathogenic to the mosquito; although pathogenicity varied among geographical strains of A. culicis and susceptibility varied among geographical strains of Ae. aegypti. In addition to affecting the survival of the mosquito larvae, infection with the parasite was found to shorten larval development time. Selected strains of A. culicis may be useful as a biological control agent against Ae. aegypti.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pest Control, Biological*
  9. Yap HH, Tan HT, Yahaya AM, Baba R, Chong NL
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 1991 Mar;7(1):24-9.
    PMID: 1675256
    Five formulations of Bacillus sphaericus (strain 2362) including aqueous suspension BSP 1, BSP 2, technical powder ABG 6184, corncob granules ABG 6185 (potencies 2 x 10(10), 2 x 10(7), 9.5 x 10(10), 5 x 10(10), 5 x 10(10) spore/g, respectively) and wettable powder ABG 6232 (1,000 BS ITU/mg) were tested against laboratory-cultured late third/early fourth instar larvae of Mansonia uniformis in floating screened cages in small plots at swampy ditches on Penang Island, Malaysia. Mean dosage/response values at 90% mortality levels were 6.93, 95.32, 1.45, 11.92 and 2.86 liters or kg per ha, respectively, for the formulations tested. There were practically no residual effects for the formulations tested with larvae introduced at 48, 96, and 168 h post-treatment. In trials of BSP 1, ABG 6184 and ABG 6185 (1 liter or 1 kg per ha) against immature Mansonia spp. in impounded paddy field ditches, improved efficacy and residual effects were obtained with mean reductions of 93.1, 91.9 and 80.4% at days 3, 7 and 14 posttreatment, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pest Control, Biological*
  10. Sulaiman S, Omar B, Omar S, Jeffery J, Ghauth I, Busparani V
    J. Med. Entomol., 1990 Sep;27(5):851-5.
    PMID: 2231622
    Nine species of parasitoids were found parasitizing the pupae of filth flies breeding in refuse dumps and poultry farms throughout peninsular Malaysia. Spalangia were most common, consisting of Spalangia endius Walker, S. cameroni Perkins, S. gemina Boucek, S. nigroaenea Curtis, and two undescribed species. Other parasitoids collected were Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Rondani, Dirhinus himalayanus Westwood, and an unidentified Hymenoptera. The parasitized fly hosts included Musca domestica L., Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Fannia sp., and Ophyra sp. S. endius was the most common parasitoid attacking M. domestica and C. megacephala at refuse dumps and poultry farms D. himalayanus were found to parasitize only M. domestica pupae collected at poultry farms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pest Control, Biological*
  11. Sulaiman S, Jeffery J, Sohadi AR, Yunus H, Busparani V, Majid R
    Acta Trop, 1990 May;47(4):189-95.
    PMID: 1973019
    There was high mortality in late larval instars of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) from laboratory and field populations in the 24 h after application of three Bactimos formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis H-14. Mortalities were higher and residual effects longer in field populations than in laboratory ones. Briquets were the most effective formulation (mortality 96-100% after five weeks; 76-92% after eight weeks). Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae were tested only against the briquet formulation. In the laboratory, 100% mortality of late instars persisted for six weeks and dropped to 48-88% after eight weeks. In the field, late instars were reduced by 62-87% after 24 h and 69-72% after one week compared to increases in an untreated population of 160% and 176% respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pest Control, Biological*
  12. Cheong WC, Yap HH
    PMID: 4023816
    The pathogenicity of Bacillus sphaericus strain 1593 was tested against laboratory-reared larvae of four local species of mosquitoes of public health importance in Malaysia; Aedes aegypti, Anopheles balabacensis, Mansonia uniformis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The bacteria was shake-cultured at 28 +/- 1 degrees C for three days, using Glucose-Yeast Extract Salts medium. After which, the spores and vegetative cells were harvested and stored at 4 degrees C before use. Conditions for bioassays were mean temperature of 25 +/- 1 degrees C and relative humidity 65 +/- 5.0. Twenty third-instar larvae of each species were assayed in 90 ml of diluted spore solution. Each concentration and a control were replicated three times for each bioassay. Larval mortalities at 24 hours and 48 hours were taken and analyzed through Probit Analysis using a computer (IBM 370). LC50 values after 48 hours of exposure showed an increasing order of larval susceptibility as follows: Ae. aegypti (417.70 x 10(4)), An. balabacensis (45.84 x 10(4)), Ma. uniformis (18.23 x 10(4)) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (4.14 x 10(4) spores/ml). With the ability to kill 90% of the Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae tested with just a concentration of 10(5) spores/ml, B. sphaericus (strain 1593) has shown good potential as a biocontrol agent for this species of mosquito.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pest Control, Biological*
  13. Chang MS, Ho BC, Chan KL
    PMID: 1981631
    The measurement of the ultimate effects of the microbial insecticides on mosquito density is best obtained by assessment of adult populations. The main aims of this study are: (1) to assess the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) FC Skeetal and Bactimos briquettes on the emergence rate of Mansonia bonneae developed from the introduced first-instar stage larvae and (2) to measure the effect of these two formulations of insecticides on Mansonia adult populations emerging from the natural breeding plots. Bti Skeetal and Bactimos briquettes at the lower applied dosages of 2.3 kg/ha and 1 briquette case/20 m2 respectively achieved 39-40% pupation rates and 31.5-34.2% adult emergence rates. At these low applied dosages, there was little or no direct effect on pupation from the surviving larvae and thereafter on the emergence of adults from the pupae. A two-fold increase in dosage, however, produced a drastic decline in the pupation rate and adult emergence rate. The rates dropped to 6.5% (pupation) and 4.3% (adult emergence) of the total larvae for Bactimos briquettes and to merely 1.5% (pupation) and 1.3% (adult emergence) of the total larvae for Skeetal. In studying the effect of Bti on the field populations of Mansonia mosquitos, two plots each were treated with Bactimos at 1 briquette case/10 m2 and Skeetal at 4.6 kg/ha. A wooden pyramid-shaped screened cage was placed on a cluster of host plants for a period of 2 weeks to trap the emerging adult mosquitoes. There were a total of 24 clusters of host plants in each plot.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Matched MeSH terms: Pest Control, Biological*
  14. Gay H
    Ambix, 2012 Jul;59(2):88-108.
    PMID: 23057183
    The use of chemical pesticides increased considerably after World War II, and ecological damage was noticeable by the late 1940s. This paper outlines some ecological problems experienced during the post-war period in the UK, and in parts of what is now Malaysia. Also discussed is the government's response. Although Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring (1962), was important in bringing the problems to a wider public, she was not alone in sounding the alarm. Pressure from the public and from British scientists led, among other things, to the founding of the Natural Environment Research Council in 1965. By the 1970s, environmentalism was an important movement, and funding for ecological and environmental research was forthcoming even during the economic recession. Some of the recipients were ecologists working at Imperial College London. Moved by the political climate, and by the evidence of ecological damage, they carried out research on the biological control of insect pests.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pest Control, Biological/history*; Pest Control, Biological/methods; Pest Control, Biological/standards
  15. Nur AM, Nur AA, Lau WH
    Zootaxa, 2015;3986(2):243-8.
    PMID: 26250185 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3986.2.8
    Here we provide an illustrated key to lepidopteran larvae that occur as pests on rice (Oryza) in Malaysia. We are unaware of a published key for this region for this vital commercial crop, and hence provide one based on easily observable features that could be useful for identification, early detection, and pest management by specialists and non-specialists alike (see discussion in Mukerji & Singh 1951, Sri et al. 2010, Timm et al. 2007, Tillmon et al. 2000, Wagener et al. 2004).
    Matched MeSH terms: Pest Control, Biological
  16. Nyamah MA, Sulaiman S, Omar B
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Aug;28(2):312-9.
    PMID: 22041750
    This study explored the efficacy of Toxorhynchites splendens, predator of Aedes albopictus as a biocontrol agent. There was a negative correlation between Ae. albopictus larval population and Tx. splendens larval population in ovitraps (r=-0.287, R²=0.0821). The correlation is higher between the mean number of Ae. albopictus larvae per ovitrap and the number of Tx. splendens larvae in an ovitrap (r=-0.987, R²=0.9737). Larvae of Tx. splendens were observed to co-exist with larvae of Ae. albopictus and Culex fuscocephala in the ovitraps placed in the study area. The existence of Tx. splendens larvae in the study area coincides with their habit, preferring to breed in bamboo stumps. A total of 480 ovitraps were inspected for 30-week study period and 281 ovitraps were positive with Ae. albopictus larvae respectively. There was a significant difference between numbers of ovitrap positive for Ae. albopictus larvae with number of Tx. splendens larvae in the ovitraps (ANOVA, F((4,475)) 2.655, p<0.05). Of 281 ovitraps positive with Ae. albopictus larvae, 255 ovitraps contained only one Tx. splendens larva each. Only one ovitrap contained four, the most number of Tx. splendens larvae (p< 0.05). Thus, Tx. splendens could be utilised as an alternative for dengue vector control programme.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pest Control, Biological/methods*
  17. Lee YW, Zairi J
    Trop Biomed, 2005 Jun;22(1):5-10.
    PMID: 16880748
    Laboratory efficacy and residual activity of a water dispersible granule formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) at the dosages of 3000, 6000 and 15000 ITU/L were conducted in this study. The study was conducted in two different size containers, earthen jar (45 L) and glass jar (3 L) with or without daily replenishment of 6 L and 0.3 L of water in the earthen and glass jars, respectively. Results indicate that for both earthen jar and glass jar evaluations, Bti at the tested dosages, performed effectively against Aedes aegypti, giving a minimum of 42 days effective killing activity. When the dosage was increased from 3000 ITU/L to 6000 ITU/L or 15000 ITU/L, the effective periods of the Bti increased by an additional one to three weeks. The Bti water dispersible granule provided better larvicidal activity with replenishment of water compared with non-replenishment of water especially for the higher dosage (15000 ITU/L).
    Matched MeSH terms: Pest Control, Biological*
  18. Lee YW, Zairi J, Yap HH, Adanan CR
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 2005 Mar;21(1):84-9.
    PMID: 15825767
    Studies were carried out on the bioefficacy and residual activity of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis H-14 (Bti) (water-dispersible granules of VectoBac ABG 6511 and liquid formulations of VectoBac 12AS) and pyriproxyfen (insect growth regulator, Sumilarv 0.5%) as direct applications for control of larvae of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Two dosages of each Bti formulation (285 and 570 international toxic units [ITU]/liter) and the integration of both Bti formulations and pyriproxyfen were used for residual tests with 45-liter earthen jars for a period of 4 wk. In 1 test series, the treated water was replenished daily with 6 liters of seasoned untreated water. In the 2nd test series, the water in the jars was topped up to the 40-liter level during evaluation. Neither Bti formulation remained effective for a full week. Water-dispersible Bti granules provided effective initial control activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for both test designs (with replenishment and without replenishment of water). The higher dosage (570 ITU/liter) for both Bti formulations was only partially effective at the end of 1 wk after being diluted. After 1 wk, water-dispersible Bti granules provided greater larval mortality than did liquid Bti formulation against both mosquito species when integrated with pyriproxyfen. Pyriproxyfen (79.5 and 159 mg/liter) on its own showed low larvicidal activity but provided very effective control of adult emergence. In this study, integration of Bti (285 and 570 ITU/liter) with pyriproxyfen (79.5 mg/liter) extended the duration of partial larval control somewhat, but live larvae persisted throughout the 4-wk test. The integration effect was more obvious when water-dispersible Bti granules were integrated with pyriproxyfen than when liquid Bti was used. Integration of Bti with pyriproxyfen had a negative effect on adult emergence, which was completely inhibited by pyriproxyfen after day 1. Daily replenishment of water increased Bti activity and provided slightly better larval control. Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti were both completely susceptible to the higher concentration of Bti and pyriproxyfen in both test designs (with replenishment and without replenishment of water).
    Matched MeSH terms: Pest Control, Biological*
  19. Lee YW, Zairi J
    Trop Biomed, 2006 Jun;23(1):37-44.
    PMID: 17041550 MyJurnal
    Studies were carried out on the residual efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 (water dispersible granule, VectoBac ABG 6511) as direct application in the control of Aedes larvae in the field. Field Aedes sp populations in the earthen and glass jars were predetermined before initiation of the trial. On confirmation of the presence of Aedes species in the designated area, Sungai Nibong Kecil, Penang Island, Malaysia, Bti was introduced in the 55L earthen and 3L glass jars). Two test designs were carried out. The first design had treated water replenished daily with 6L of seasoned water and the second design is without the replenishment of water but evaporated water was replenished. Bti was effective in the field for at least 35 days with more than 80% reduction in the Aedes larvae in the treated containers. For earthen jars with daily replenishment of water, 100% reduction was recorded for the first 3 days, while more than 80% reduction was recorded up to day 40. At day 60, Bti still provided an efficacy of 54.32 +/- 4.61 (%) of reduction. Whilst for earthen jars without daily replenishment of water, 100% reduction was recorded for the first 5 days, while more than 80% of reduction was recorded up to day 40. For the glass jars studied, similar efficacy was observed. In jars with daily replenishment of water a better larval control was observed. Percentage of reduction from day 50 to 60 for replenishment of water was between 50 to 70% compared to without replenishment of water with less than 40%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pest Control, Biological/methods*
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