Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 33 in total

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  1. Wong TW
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2008 Apr;5(2):77-84.
    PMID: 18393808
    Microwave has received a widespread application in pharmaceuticals and food processing, microbial sterilization, biomedical therapy, scientific and biomedical analysis, as well as, drug synthesis. This paper reviews the basis of application of microwave to prepare pharmaceutical dosage forms such as agglomerates, gel beads, microspheres, nanomatrix, solid dispersion, tablets and film coat. The microwave could induce drying, polymeric crosslinkages as well as drug-polymer interaction, and modify the structure of drug crystallites via its effects of heating and/or electromagnetic field on the dosage forms. The use of microwave opens a new approach to control the physicochemical properties and drug delivery profiles of pharmaceutical dosage forms without the need for excessive heat, lengthy process or toxic reactants. Alternatively, the microwave can be utilized to process excipients prior to their use in the formulation of drug delivery systems. The intended release characteristics of drugs in dosage forms can be met through modifying the physicochemical properties of excipients using the microwave.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage
  2. Chan HK, Hassali MA, Lim CJ, Saleem F, Tan WL
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2015 Jun;40(3):266-72.
    PMID: 25865563 DOI: 10.1111/jcpt.12272
    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that more than 80% of out-of-hospital medication errors among the young children involve liquid formulations. The usefulness of pictorial aids to improve communication of medication instructions has not been extensively investigated for child health. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of pictorial aids used to assist caregivers in the administration of liquid medications.
    METHODS: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ScienceDirect, Scopus and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published up to February 2015. Studies that used pictorial aids with liquid medications and measured at least one of the following outcomes were included: dosing accuracy, comprehension of medication instructions, recall of information and adherence of caregivers. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed methodological quality of studies using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool.
    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Five experimental studies (four hospital based and one community based) with a total of 962 participants were included. A wide range of liquid formulations were studied, including both prescription and over-the-counter medications. The existing findings suggest that pictographic interventions reduced dosing errors, enhanced comprehension and recall of medication instructions and improved adherence of caregivers. Incorporating pictorial aids into verbal medication counselling or text-based instructions was more beneficial than using the single approach alone. Mixed results were identified for the relationship between health literacy of caregivers and effectiveness of pictorial aids.
    WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: The evidence remains limited due to the small number of studies found and variations in methodological quality. This review suggests that pictorial aids might be potential interventions, but more high-quality studies are needed to support the routine use of any pictogram-based materials with liquid medications in the clinical settings.
    KEYWORDS: caregivers; graphics; health literacy; medication adherence; medication errors; paediatrics
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage*
  3. Lim CP, Quek SS, Peh KK
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2003 Feb 05;31(1):159-68.
    PMID: 12560060
    This paper investigates the use of a neural-network-based intelligent learning system for the prediction of drug release profiles. An experimental study in transdermal iontophoresis (TI) is employed to evaluate the applicability of a particular neural network (NN) model, i.e. the Gaussian mixture model (GMM), in modeling and predicting drug release profiles. A number of tests are systematically designed using the face-centered central composite design (CCD) approach to examine the effects of various process variables simultaneously during the iontophoresis process. The GMM is then applied to model and predict the drug release profiles based on the data samples collected from the experiments. The GMM results are compared with those from multiple regression models. In addition, the bootstrap method is used to assess the reliability of the network predictions by estimating confidence intervals associated with the results. The results demonstrate that the combination of the face-centered CCD and GMM can be employed as a useful intelligent tool for the prediction of time-series profiles in pharmaceutical and biomedical experiments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage*
  4. Rehman FU, Shah KU, Shah SU, Khan IU, Khan GM, Khan A
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv, 2017 Nov;14(11):1325-1340.
    PMID: 27485144 DOI: 10.1080/17425247.2016.1218462
    INTRODUCTION: Lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) are the most promising technique to formulate the poorly water soluble drugs. Nanotechnology strongly influences the therapeutic performance of hydrophobic drugs and has become an essential approach in drug delivery research. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) are a vital strategy that combines benefits of LBDDS and nanotechnology. SNEDDS are now preferred to improve the formulation of drugs with poor aqueous solubility. Areas covered: The review in its first part shortly describes the LBDDS, nanoemulsions and clarifies the ambiguity between nanoemulsions and microemulsions. In the second part, the review discusses SNEDDS and elaborates on the current developments and modifications in this area without discussing their associated preparation techniques and excipient properties. Expert opinion: SNEDDS have exhibit the potential to increase the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. The stability of SNEDDS is further increased by solidification. Controlled release and supersaturation can be achieved, and are associated with increased patient compliance and improved drug loads, respectively. Presence of biodegradable ingredients and ease of large-scale manufacturing combined with a lot of 'drug-targeting opportunities' give SNEDDS a clear distinction and prominence over other solubility enhancement techniques.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage
  5. Choudhury H, Gorain B, Chatterjee B, Mandal UK, Sengupta P, Tekade RK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(17):2504-2531.
    PMID: 27908273 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666161201143600
    BACKGROUND: Most of the active pharmaceutical ingredients discovered recently in pharmaceutical field exhibits poor aqueous solubility that pose major problem in their oral administration. The oral administration of these drugs gets further complicated due to their short bioavailability, inconsistent absorption and inter/intra subject variability.

    METHODS: Pharmaceutical emulsion holds a significant place as a primary choice of oral drug delivery system for lipophilic drugs used in pediatric and geriatric patients. Pharmacokinetic studies on nanoemulsion mediated drugs delivery approach indicates practical feasibility in regards to their clinical translation and commercialization.

    RESULTS: This review article is to provide an updated understanding on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features of nanoemulsion delivered via oral, intravenous, topical and nasal route.

    CONCLUSION: The article is of huge interest to formulation scientists working on range of lipophilic drug molecules intended to be administered through oral, intravenous, topical and nasal routes for vivid medical benefits.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage*
  6. Wong TW, Dhanawat M, Rathbone MJ
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv, 2014 Sep;11(9):1419-34.
    PMID: 24960192 DOI: 10.1517/17425247.2014.924499
    Vaginal infection is widespread and > 80% of females encounter such infections during their lives. Topical treatment and prevention of vaginal infection allows direct therapeutic action, reduced drug doses and adverse effects, convenient administration and improved compliance. The advent of nanotechnology results in the use of nanoparticulate vehicle to control drug release, to enhance dosage form mucoadhesive properties and vaginal retention, and to promote mucus and epithelium permeation for both extracellular and intracellular drug delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage*
  7. Heidarpour F, Mohammadabadi MR, Zaidul IS, Maherani B, Saari N, Hamid AA, et al.
    Pharmazie, 2011 May;66(5):319-24.
    PMID: 21699064
    The oral route is considered the most patient-convenient means of drug administration. In recent years there has been a tendency to employ smart carrier systems that enable controlled or timed release of a bioactive material, thereby providing a better dosing pattern and minimizing side effects. Nano-encapsulation systems (nanocarriers) offer important advantages over conventional drug delivery techniques. Nanocarriers can protect the drug from chemical/enzymatic degradation and enhance bioavailability. Prebiotics are ideal ingredients for the nano-encapsulation and oral drug delivery due to their natural ability to protect the encapsulated compound in the upper gasterointestinal (GI) tract. Here the potential of prebiotics for oral delivery of drugs and other bioactives is reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage*
  8. Raja Lope RJ, Boo NY, Rohana J, Cheah FC
    Singapore Med J, 2009 Jan;50(1):68-72.
    PMID: 19224087
    This study aimed to determine the rates of non-adherence to standard steps of medication administration and medication administration errors committed by registered nurses in a neonatal intensive care unit before and after intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage*
  9. Sheshala R, Kok YY, Ng JM, Thakur RR, Dua K
    Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul, 2015;9(3):237-48.
    PMID: 26205681
    Ophthalmic drug delivery system is very interesting and challenging due to the normal physiologically factor of eyes which reduces the bioavailability of ocular products. The development of new ophthalmic dosage forms for existing drugs to improve efficacy and bioavailability, patient compliance and convenience has become one of the main trend in the pharmaceuticals industry. The present review encompasses various conventional and novel ocular drug delivery systems, methods of preparation, characterization and recent research in this area. Furthermore, the information on various commercially available in situ gel preparations and the existing patents of in situ drug delivery systems i.e. in situ gel formation of pectin, in situ gel for therapeutic use, medical uses of in situ formed gels and in situ gelling systems as sustained delivery for front of eye are also covered in this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage*
  10. Wui WT
    PMID: 25966873
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage
  11. Balan S, Hassali MA, Mak VSL
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2017 Nov;13(6):1219-1221.
    PMID: 28576615 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2017.05.013
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage
  12. Patra JK, Das G, Fraceto LF, Campos EVR, Rodriguez-Torres MDP, Acosta-Torres LS, et al.
    J Nanobiotechnology, 2018 Sep 19;16(1):71.
    PMID: 30231877 DOI: 10.1186/s12951-018-0392-8
    Nanomedicine and nano delivery systems are a relatively new but rapidly developing science where materials in the nanoscale range are employed to serve as means of diagnostic tools or to deliver therapeutic agents to specific targeted sites in a controlled manner. Nanotechnology offers multiple benefits in treating chronic human diseases by site-specific, and target-oriented delivery of precise medicines. Recently, there are a number of outstanding applications of the nanomedicine (chemotherapeutic agents, biological agents, immunotherapeutic agents etc.) in the treatment of various diseases. The current review, presents an updated summary of recent advances in the field of nanomedicines and nano based drug delivery systems through comprehensive scrutiny of the discovery and application of nanomaterials in improving both the efficacy of novel and old drugs (e.g., natural products) and selective diagnosis through disease marker molecules. The opportunities and challenges of nanomedicines in drug delivery from synthetic/natural sources to their clinical applications are also discussed. In addition, we have included information regarding the trends and perspectives in nanomedicine area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage
  13. Haque ST, Chowdhury EH
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2018;15(4):485-496.
    PMID: 29165073 DOI: 10.2174/1567201814666171120114034
    BACKGROUND: Delivery of conventional small molecule drugs and currently evolving nucleic acid-based therapeutics, such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and genes, and contrast agents for high resolution imaging, to the target site of action is highly demanding to increase the therapeutic and imaging efficacy while minimizing the off-target effects of the delivered molecules, as well as develop novel therapeutic and imaging approaches.

    METHODS: We have undertaken a structured search for peer-reviewed research and review articles predominantly indexed in PubMed focusing on the organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles with evidence of their potent roles in intracellular delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents in different animal models.

    RESULTS: Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles offer a number of advantages by combining the unique properties of the organic and inorganic counterparts, thus improving the pharmacokinetic behavior and targetability of drugs and contrast agents, and conferring the exclusive optical and magnetic properties for both therapeutic and imaging purposes. Different polymers, lipids, dendrimers, peptides, cell membranes, and small organic molecules are attached via covalent or non-covalent interactions with diverse inorganic nanoparticles of gold, mesoporous silica, magnetic iron oxide, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots for efficient drug delivery and imaging purposes.

    CONCLUSION: We have thus highlighted here the progress made so far in utilizing different organicinorganic hybrid nanoparticles for in vivo delivery of anti-cancer drugs, siRNA, genes and imaging agents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage*
  14. Se Thoe E, Fauzi A, Tang YQ, Chamyuang S, Chia AYY
    Life Sci, 2021 Jul 01;276:119129.
    PMID: 33515559 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119129
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disease which is mainly characterized by progressive impairment in cognition, emotion, language and memory in older population. Considering the impact of AD, formulations of pharmaceutical drugs and cholinesterase inhibitors have been widely propagated, receiving endorsement by FDA as a form of AD treatment. However, these medications were gradually discovered to be ineffective in removing the root of AD pathogenesis but merely targeting the symptoms so as to improve a patient's cognitive outcome. Hence, a search for better disease-modifying alternatives is put into motion. Having a clear understanding of the neuroprotective mechanisms and diverse properties undertaken by specific genes, antibodies and nanoparticles is central towards designing novel therapeutic agents. In this review, we provide a brief introduction on the background of Alzheimer's disease, the biology of blood-brain barrier, along with the potentials and drawbacks associated with current therapeutic treatment avenues pertaining to gene therapy, immunotherapy and nanotherapy for better diagnosis and management of Alzheimer's disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage*
  15. Zainal-Abidin MH, Hayyan M, Ngoh GC, Wong WF, Looi CY
    J Control Release, 2019 12 28;316:168-195.
    PMID: 31669211 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.09.019
    The applications of eutectic systems, including deep eutectic solvents (DESs), in diverse sectors have drawn significant interest from researchers, academicians, engineers, medical scientists, and pharmacists. Eutecticity increases drug dissolution, improves drug penetration, and acts as a synthesis route for drug carriers. To date, DESs have been extensively explored as potential drug delivery systems on account of their unique properties such as tunability and chemical and thermal stability. This review discusses two major topics: first, the application of eutectic mixtures (before and after the introduction of DES) in the field of drug delivery systems, and second, the most promising examples of DES pharmaceutical activity. It also considers future prospects in the medical and biotechnological fields. In addition to the application of DESs in drug delivery systems, they show greatly promising pharmaceutical activities, including anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-cancer activities. Eutecticity is a valid strategy for overcoming many obstacles inherently associated with either introducing new drugs or enhancing drug delivery systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage*
  16. Rehman K, Zulfakar MH
    Drug Dev Ind Pharm, 2014 Apr;40(4):433-40.
    PMID: 23937582 DOI: 10.3109/03639045.2013.828219
    Transdermal drug delivery systems are a constant source of interest because of the benefits that they afford in overcoming many drawbacks associated with other modes of drug delivery (i.e. oral, intravenous). Because of the impermeable nature of the skin, designing a suitable drug delivery vehicle that penetrates the skin barrier is challenging. Gels are semisolid formulations, which have an external solvent phase, may be hydrophobic or hydrophilic in nature, and are immobilized within the spaces of a three-dimensional network structure. Gels have a broad range of applications in food, cosmetics, biotechnology, pharmatechnology, etc. Typically, gels can be distinguished according to the nature of the liquid phase, for example, organogels (oleogels) contain an organic solvent, and hydrogels contain water. Recent studies have reported other types of gels for dermal drug application, such as proniosomal gels, emulgels, bigels and aerogels. This review aims to introduce the latest trends in transdermal drug delivery via traditional hydrogels and organogels and to provide insight into the latest gel types (proniosomal gels, emulgels, bigels and aerogels) as well as recent technologies for topical and transdermal drug delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage*
  17. Patnaik S, Gorain B, Padhi S, Choudhury H, Gabr GA, Md S, et al.
    Eur J Pharm Biopharm, 2021 Apr;161:100-119.
    PMID: 33639254 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2021.02.010
    Potential research outcomes on nanotechnology-based novel drug delivery systems since the past few decades attracted the attention of the researchers to overcome the limitations of conventional deliveries. Apart from possessing enhanced solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs, the targeting potential of the carriers facilitates longer circulation and site-specific delivery of the entrapped therapeutics. The practice of these delivery systems, therefore, helps in maximizing bioavailability, improving pharmacokinetics profile, pharmacodynamics activity and biodistribution of the entrapped drug(s). In addition to focusing on the positive side, evaluation of nanoparticulate systems for toxicity is a crucial parameter for its biomedical applications. Due to the size of nanoparticles, they easily traverse through biological barriers and may be accumulated in the body, where the ingredients incorporated in the formulation development might accumulate and/or produce toxic manifestation, leading to cause severe health hazards. Therefore, the toxic profile of these delivery systems needs to be evaluated at the molecular, cellular, tissue and organ level. This review offers a comprehensive presentation of toxicity aspects of the constituents of nanoparticular based drug delivery systems, which would be beneficial for future researchers to develop nanoparticulate delivery vehicles for the improvement of delivery approaches in a safer way.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage*
  18. Abeer MM, Mohd Amin MC, Martin C
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2014 Aug;66(8):1047-61.
    PMID: 24628270 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.12234
    The field of pharmaceutical technology is expanding rapidly because of the increasing number of drug delivery options. Successful drug delivery is influenced by multiple factors, one of which is the appropriate identification of materials for research and engineering of new drug delivery systems. Bacterial cellulose (BC) is one such biopolymer that fulfils the criteria for consideration as a drug delivery material.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage
  19. Yellepeddi VK, Sheshala R, McMillan H, Gujral C, Jones D, Raghu Raj Singh T
    Drug Discov Today, 2015 Jul;20(7):884-9.
    PMID: 25668579 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2015.01.013
    Punctal plugs (PPs) are miniature medical implants that were initially developed for the treatment of dry eyes. Since their introduction in 1975, many PPs made from different materials and designs have been developed. PPs, albeit generally successful, suffer from drawbacks such as epiphora and suppurative canaliculitis. To overcome these issues intelligent designs of PPs were proposed (e.g. SmartPLUG™ and Form Fit™). PPs are also gaining interest among pharmaceutical scientists for sustaining drug delivery to the eye. This review aims to provide an overview of PPs for dry eye treatment and drug delivery to treat a range of ocular diseases. It also discusses current challenges in using PPs for ocular diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage*
  20. Wong TW
    J Control Release, 2014 Nov 10;193:257-69.
    PMID: 24801250 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.04.045
    Transdermal drug delivery is hindered by the barrier property of the stratum corneum. It limits the route to transport of drugs with a log octanol-water partition coefficient of 1 to 3, molecular weight of less than 500Da and melting point of less than 200°C. Active methods such as iontophoresis, electroporation, sonophoresis, magnetophoresis and laser techniques have been investigated for the past decades on their ability, mechanisms and limitations in modifying the skin microenvironment to promote drug diffusion and partition. Microwave, an electromagnetic wave characterized by frequencies range between 300MHz and 300GHz, has recently been reported as the potential skin permeation enhancer. Microwave has received a widespread application in food, engineering and medical sectors. Its potential use to facilitate transdermal drug transport is still in its infancy stage of evaluation. This review provides an overview and update on active methods utilizing electrical, magnetic, photomechanical and cavitational waves to overcome the skin barrier for transdermal drug administration with insights into mechanisms and future perspectives of the latest microwave technique described.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage*
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