Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 157 in total

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  1. Shamaruddin N, Tan ETT, Shin TY, Razali RM, Siva R
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2021;23(7):41-49.
    PMID: 34375517 DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2021038812
    Black jelly mushroom (Auricularia polytricha) is a well-known Chinese traditional food that has therapeutic effects. This study evaluated the effects of different cooking methods (boiling, steaming, microwaving, and stir-frying) on the physicochemical characteristics (i.e., total phenolic content, antioxidants, α,α-diphenyl-β-picryl-hydrazyl [DPPH] free radical scavenging, and ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP]) along with color, texture, moisture, and sensory properties of black jelly mushrooms. Lightness (L*) was significantly lower for the stir-frying method (29.93) compared to the control (34.62). Stir-fried mushrooms had significantly lower firmness force (texture) and moisture content (80.13 N and 61.98%, respectively) compared to the control (2000.37 N and 86.52%). The steaming method contributed significantly higher total phenolic content (11.23 mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and antioxidant activity measured using the FRAP (33.54 mg Trolox equivalents/g) and DPPH (90.41% inhibition) assays compared to the respective controls.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/analysis
  2. Lawal AA, Hassan MA, Ahmad Farid MA, Tengku Yasim-Anuar TA, Samsudin MH, Mohd Yusoff MZ, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Jan 15;269:116197.
    PMID: 33316496 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116197
    In order to meet the growing demand for adsorbents to treat wastewater effectively, there has been increased interest in using sustainable biomass feedstocks. In this present study, the dermal tissue of oil palm frond was pyrolyzed with superheated steam at 500 °C to produce nanoporous biochar as bioadsorbent. The effect of operating conditions was investigated to understand the adsorption mechanism and to enhance the adsorption of phenol and tannic acid. The biochar had a microporous structure with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 422 m2/g containing low polar groups. The adsorption capacity of 62.89 mg/g for phenol and 67.41 mg/g for tannic acid were obtained using 3 g/L biochar dosage after 8 h of treatment at solution pH of 6.5 and temperature of 45 °C. The Freundlich model had the best fit to the isotherm data of phenol (R2 of 0.9863), while the Langmuir model best elucidated the isotherm data of tannic acid (R2 of 0.9632). These indicated that the biochar-phenol interface was associated with a heterogeneous multilayer sorption mechanism, while the biochar-tannic acid interface had a nonspecific monolayer sorption mechanism. The residual concentration of 26.3 mg/L phenol and 23.1 mg/L tannic acid was achieved when treated from 260 mg/L three times consecutively with 1 g/L biochar dosage, compared to a reduction to 72.3 mg/L phenol and 69.9 mg/L tannic acid using 3 g/L biochar dosage in a single treatment. The biochar exhibited effective adsorption of phenol and tannic acid, making it possible to treat effluents that contain varieties of phenolic compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/analysis
  3. Meng CC, Jalil AM, Ismail A
    Molecules, 2009;14(1):200-9.
    PMID: 19127248 DOI: 10.3390/molecules14010200
    Chocolate contains a wide range of antioxidants that includes soluble phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, catechin, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidins), insoluble polymeric phenolics and methylxanthines. The objective of this study was to determine phenolic and theobromine contents in dark (DC), milk (MC), and white (WC) chocolates commonly found in the Malaysian marketplace. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined by means of a spectrometric assay, while catechin, epicatechin and theobromine were quantified using a reverse-phase HPLC method. Dark chocolates exhibited the highest phenolics and flavonoids contents, followed by milk and white chocolates. Catechin and epicatechin were major flavonoids detected in dark chocolates. Theobromine was detected in dark and milk chocolates, but not in white chocolates. A high correlation (r= 0.93) between total phenolic and flavonoid contents, indicating that the major phenolic compounds in dark chocolates belong to the flavonoid class. When nutrition and health promotion are of concern, dark chocolates would be recommended over milk and white chocolates owing to their higher contents of antioxidant phenolic compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/analysis*
  4. Tan BL, Mustafa AM
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2004;16(1):54-63.
    PMID: 18839869
    Alkylphenols and most pesticides, especially organochlorine pesticides are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and they usually mimic the female hormone, estrogen. Using these chemicals in our environment would eventually lead us to consume them somehow in the food web. Several rivers in the State of Selangor, Malaysia were selected to monitor the level of alkylphenols and pesticides contamination for several months. The compounds were extracted from the water samples using liquid-liquid extraction method with dichloromethane and ethyl acetate as the extracting solvents. The alkylphenols and pesticides were analyzed by selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode using the quadrapole detector in Shimadzu QP-5000 gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GCMS). Recovery of most alkylphenols and pesticides were in the range of 50% to 120%. Trace amounts of the compounds were detected in the river water samples, mainly in the range of parts per trillion. This technique of monitoring the levels of endocrine-disruptors in river water is consistent and cost effective.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/analysis*
  5. Al-Maqtari QA, Al-Ansi W, Mahdi AA, Al-Gheethi AAS, Mushtaq BS, Al-Adeeb A, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 May;28(20):25479-25492.
    PMID: 33462691 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-12346-6
    Artemisia arborescens, Artemisia abyssinica, Pulicaria jaubertii, and Pulicaria petiolaris are fragrant herbs traditionally used in medication and as a food seasoning. To date, there are no studies on the use of supercritical fluids extraction with carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2) on these plants. This study evaluates and compares total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity by DPPH• and ABTS•+, antibacterial, and anti-biofilm activities of SFE-CO2 extracts. Extraction was done by SFE-CO2 with 10% ethanol as a co-solvent. A. abyssinica extract had the highest extraction yield (8.9% ± 0.41). The GC/MS analysis of volatile compounds identified 307, 265, 213, and 201compounds in A. abyssinica, A. arborescens, P. jaubertii, and P. petiolaris, respectively. The P. jaubertii extract had the highest TPC (662.46 ± 50.93 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry extract), antioxidant activity (58.98% ± 0.20), and antioxidant capacity (71.78 ± 1.84 mg Trolox equivalent/g dry extract). The A. abyssinica and P. jaubertii extracts had significantly higher antimicrobial activity and were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria. B. subtilis was the most sensitive bacterium. P. aeruginosa was the most resistant bacterium. P. jaubertii extract had the optimum MIC and MBC (0.4 mg/ml) against B. subtilis. All SFE-CO2 extracts were effective as an anti-biofilm formation for all tested bacteria at 1/2 MIC. Meanwhile, P. jaubertii and P. petiolaris extracts were effective anti-biofilm for most tested bacteria at 1/16 MIC. Overall, the results indicated that the SFE-CO2 extracts of these plants are good sources of TPC, antioxidants, and antibacterial, and they have promising applications in the industrial fields.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/analysis
  6. Li S, Tao Y, Li D, Wen G, Zhou J, Manickam S, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2021 Aug;276:130090.
    PMID: 33740651 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130090
    In this study, 4 Lactobacillus plantarum strains and 5 Lactobacillus fermentum strains adapting well to the unfavorable fruit system were isolated under different fruit environments. The fermentation ability of these autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains in blueberry juice, and the influence of microbial metabolism on juice composition were explored. After 48 h of fermentation, the viable cell counts exceeded 10.0 log CFU/mL, malic acid content decreased from 511.47 ± 10.50 mg/L to below 146.38 ± 3.79 mg/L, and lactic acid content increased from 0 mg/L to above 2184.90 ± 335.80 mg/L. Moreover, the metabolism of these strains exerted a profound influence on the phenolic composition of juice. Total phenolic content in blueberry juice increased by 6.1-81.2% under lactic acid fermentation, and the antioxidant capacity in vitro enhanced by at least 34.0%. Anthocyanin content showed a declining trend, while the profile of non-anthocyaninic phenolics exhibited complex changes. The increments of rutin, myricetin and gallic acid contents through 48 h lactic acid fermentation exceeded 136%, 71% and 38%, respectively. Instead, the contents of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and caffeic acid decreased with fermentation. Overall, Lactobacillus plantarum LSJ-TY-HYB-T9 and LSJ-TY-HYB-T7, and Lactobacillus fermentum LSJ-TY-HYB-C22 and LSJ-TY-HYB-L16 could be the suitable strains to produce fermented fruit juices, including blueberry in practical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/analysis
  7. Amirul Alam M, Juraimi AS, Rafii MY, Hamid AA, Aslani F, Alam MZ
    Food Chem, 2015 Feb 15;169:439-47.
    PMID: 25236249 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.08.019
    Dry matter (DM), total phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoid contents, and antioxidant activity of 12 purslane accessions were investigated against five levels of salinity (0, 8, 16, 24 and 32dSm(-1)). In untreated plants, the DM contents ranged between 8.0-23.4g/pot; total phenolics contents (TPC) between 0.96-9.12mgGAEg(-1)DW; total flavonoid contents (TFC) between 0.15-1.44mgREg(-1)DW; and total carotenoid contents (TCC) between 0.52BCEg(-1)DW. While FRAP activity ranged from 8.64-104.21mgTEg(-1)DW (about 12-fold) and DPPH activity between 2.50-3.30mgmL(-1) IC50 value. Different levels of salinity treatment resulted in 8-35% increases in TPC; about 35% increase in TFC; and 18-35% increases in FRAP activity. Purslane accessions Ac4, Ac5, Ac6 and Ac8 possessed potentials for salinity-induced augmented production of bioactive compounds which in turn can be harnessed for possible human health benefits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/analysis
  8. Althunibat OY, Ridzwan BH, Taher M, Daud JM, Jauhari Arief Ichwan S, Qaralleh H
    Acta. Biol. Hung., 2013 Mar;64(1):10-20.
    PMID: 23567827 DOI: 10.1556/ABiol.64.2013.1.2
    Sea cucumbers are marine invertebrates of the phylum of Echinodermata that have been used in Asian traditional medicine since ancient times. This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of aqueous and organic extracts from two sea cucumber species, Holothuria edulis Lesson (Holothuriidae) and Stichopus horrens Selenka (Stichopodidae). Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by DPPH· and β-carotene bleaching assays, while MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays were used to demonstrate the cytotoxic effects of the extracts against two human cancer cell lines, non-small cell lung cancer cells (A549) and esophageal cancer cells (TE1). The results showed that both aqueous and organic extracts of H. edulis were able to scavenge DPH radical (IC50 at 2.04 mg/ml and 8.73 mg/ml, respectively). Aqueous and organic extracts of S. horrens inhibited 79.62% and 46.66% of β-carotene oxidation by linoleate free radical. On the other hand, the organic extract of S. horrens exhibited the highest cytotoxic effects against A549 and TE1 cancer cells giving IC50 at 15.5 and 4.0 μg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, the present study revealed that H. edulis and S. horrens contain promising levels of antioxidant and cytotoxic natural products that might be used for cancer prevention and treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/analysis
  9. Hossain MA, Shah MD, Gnanaraj C, Iqbal M
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2011 Sep;4(9):717-21.
    PMID: 21967695 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60180-6
    OBJECTIVE: To detect the in vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plant Tetrastigma from Sabah.

    METHODS: The dry powder leaves of Tetrastigma were extracted with different organic solvent such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous methanol. The total phenolic and total flavonoids contents of the essential oil and various organic extracts such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous ethanol were determined by Folin - Ciocalteu method and the assayed antioxidant activity was determined in vitro models such as antioxidant capacity by radical scavenging activity using α, α-diphenyl- β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method.

    RESULTS: The total phenolic contents of the essential oil and different extracts as gallic acid equivalents were found to be highest in methanol extract (386.22 mg/g) followed by ethyl acetate (190.89 mg/g), chloroform (175.89 mg/g), hexane (173.44 mg/g), and butanol extract (131.72 mg/g) and the phenolic contents not detected in essential oil. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil and different extracts as ascorbic acid standard was in the order of methanol extract > ethyl acetate extract >chloroform> butanol > hexane extract also the antioxidant activity was not detected in essential oil.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings show that the extent of antioxidant activity of the essential oil and all extracts are in accordance with the amount of phenolics present in that extract. Leaves of Tetrastigma being rich in phenolics may provide a good source of antioxidant.

    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/analysis*
  10. Alam N, Hossain M, Khalil MI, Moniruzzaman M, Sulaiman SA, Gan SH
    PMID: 21854608 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-65
    Withania somnifera is an important medicinal plant traditionally used in the treatment of many diseases. The present study was carried out to characterize the phenolic acids, flavonoids and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activities in methanolic extracts of W. somnifera fruits, roots and leaves (WSFEt, WSREt and WSLEt).
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/analysis
  11. Qader SW, Abdulla MA, Chua LS, Najim N, Zain MM, Hamdan S
    Molecules, 2011 Apr 21;16(4):3433-43.
    PMID: 21512451 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16043433
    Aqueous and ethanol extracts of different traditional Malaysian plants (Polygonum minus, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Momordica charantia and Strobilanthes crispus) were evaluated for their antioxidant properties, total phenolic content and cytotoxic activity. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that ethanol extracts contain high antioxidant activities compared to aqueous extracts. The findings exhibited a strong correlation between antioxidant activity and the total phenol contents. In addition, all the plant extracts showed non-toxic effects against a normal human lung fibroblast cell line (Hs888Lu). Although traditionally aqueous extracts are used, we determined that ethanol extracts usually achieved better activity in the assays.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/analysis
  12. Ariffin F, Heong Chew S, Bhupinder K, Karim AA, Huda N
    J Sci Food Agric, 2011 Dec;91(15):2731-9.
    PMID: 21987075 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4454
    C. asiatica was exposed to various fermentations: no fermentation (0 min), partial fermentation (120 min) and full fermentation (24 h). Total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of C. asiatica infusions were studied as a function of water temperature (60, 80 or 100 °C), the brewing stage (one, two or three) and the brewing time (1, 3, 5, 10, 15 or 20 min). The optimum brewing procedure was adopted to study the antioxidant properties and phenolic compounds in C. asiatica infusions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/analysis
  13. Osman H, Rahim AA, Isa NM, Bakhir NM
    Molecules, 2009;14(3):970-8.
    PMID: 19305354 DOI: 10.3390/molecules14030970
    The antioxidant activity of fresh and dried plant extracts of Paederia foetida and Syzygium aqueum were studied using beta-carotene bleaching and the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation assay. The percentage of antioxidant activity for all extract samples using both assays was between 58 and 80%. The fresh samples of both plants had higher antioxidant activity than the dried samples. The results of the beta-carotene bleaching assay were correlated (R(2) = 0.9849) with those of the ABTS assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/analysis*
  14. Lee SY, Mediani A, Maulidiani M, Khatib A, Ismail IS, Zawawi N, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2018 Jan;98(1):240-252.
    PMID: 28580581 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8462
    BACKGROUND: Neptunia oleracea is a plant consumed as a vegetable and which has been used as a folk remedy for several diseases. Herein, two regression models (partial least squares, PLS; and random forest, RF) in a metabolomics approach were compared and applied to the evaluation of the relationship between phenolics and bioactivities of N. oleracea. In addition, the effects of different extraction conditions on the phenolic constituents were assessed by pattern recognition analysis.

    RESULTS: Comparison of the PLS and RF showed that RF exhibited poorer generalization and hence poorer predictive performance. Both the regression coefficient of PLS and the variable importance of RF revealed that quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, caffeic acid and vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside were significant towards the tested bioactivities. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) results showed that sonication and absolute ethanol are the preferable extraction method and ethanol ratio, respectively, to produce N. oleracea extracts with high phenolic levels and therefore high DPPH scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

    CONCLUSION: Both PLS and RF are useful regression models in metabolomics studies. This work provides insight into the performance of different multivariate data analysis tools and the effects of different extraction conditions on the extraction of desired phenolics from plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/analysis*
  15. Daud MNH, Wibowo A, Abdullah N, Ahmad R
    Food Chem, 2018 Nov 15;266:200-214.
    PMID: 30381177 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.05.120
    We have previously reported on the antioxidant potential of Artocarpus heterophyllus J33 (AhJ33) variety fruit waste from different extraction methods. In the study, the rind maceration extract (RDM) exhibited the highest phenolic and polyphenolic contents and strongest antioxidant potential measured by the DPPH assay (R2 = 0.99). In this paper, we now report on the bioassay-guided fractionation of the active ethyl acetate (EtOAC) fraction of RDM and its TOF-LCMS analysis. Seven sub-fractions resulting from the chromatographic separation of the EtOAC fraction showed radical scavenging activities between 80 and 94% inhibition. Subsequent LCMS analysis led to the identification of fifteen compounds comprising 5 phenolics and 10 non-phenolic compounds, 11 of which are reported for the first time from AhJ33 variety. Most of the identified compounds have been reported to possess antioxidant activity in many previous studies. This indicates that AhJ33 is a promising source of antioxidants for the development of food and nutraceutical products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/analysis; Polyphenols/analysis*
  16. Zawawi N, Chong PJ, Mohd Tom NN, Saiful Anuar NS, Mohammad SM, Ismail N, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Jul 21;26(15).
    PMID: 34361551 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26154399
    Honey is a well-known natural sweetener and is rich in natural antioxidants that prevent the occurrence of oxidative stress, which is responsible for many human diseases. Some of the biochemical compounds in honey that contribute to this property are vitamins and phenolic compounds such as phenolic acids and flavonoids. However, the extent to which these molecules contribute towards the antioxidant capacity in vitro is inconsistently reported, especially with the different analytical methods used, as well as other extrinsic factors that influence these molecules' availability. Therefore, by reviewing recently published works correlating the vitamin, total phenolic, and flavonoid content in honey with its antioxidant activities in vitro, this paper will establish a relationship between these parameters. Based on the literature, vitamins do not contribute to honey's antioxidant capacity; however, the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids has an impact on honey's antioxidant activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/analysis*
  17. Myint S, Daud WR, Mohamad AB, Kadhum AA
    J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl, 1996 Apr 26;679(1-2):193-5.
    PMID: 8998560
    An ethanolic extract of cloves was analyzed by gas chromatography directly to identify eugenol and other major phenolic compounds without previous separation of other components. Separation was performed on a fused-silica capillary column of 30 m x 0.53 mm I.D., 0.53 microns film thickness. The detector was a flame ionization detector. Helium gas at a flow-rate of 3 ml/min was used as a carrier gas. The analysis were performed with linear temperature programming. Nine components were detected and special attention was given to the major phenolic compound, eugenol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/analysis
  18. Ahmed IA, Mikail MA, Bin Ibrahim M, Bin Hazali N, Rasad MS, Ghani RA, et al.
    Food Chem, 2015 Apr 1;172:778-87.
    PMID: 25442620 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.09.122
    Baccaurea angulata is an underutilised tropical fruit of Borneo Island of Malaysia. The effect of solvents was examined on yield, total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC), total carotene content (TCC), free radical scavenging activities and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities. The results indicated that the pulp (edible portion) had the highest yield, while methanol extracts were significantly (p < 0.01) found to contain higher TPC, TFC and TCC than phosphate buffered saline (PBS) extracts for all the fruits parts. The methanol extracts also showed remarkable antiradical activity and significant lipid peroxidation inhibition activities, with their IC50 results highly comparable to that of commercial blueberry. The variations in the results among the extracts suggest different interactions, such as negative or antagonistic (interference), additive and synergistic effect interactions. The study indicated that B. angulata like other underutilised tropical fruits contained remarkable primary antioxidants. Thus, the fruit has the potential to be sources of antioxidant components.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/analysis*
  19. Tan JB, Lim YY
    Food Chem, 2015 Apr 1;172:814-22.
    PMID: 25442625 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.09.141
    Natural product research is an active branch of science, driven by the increased value placed on individual health and well-being. Many naturally-occurring phytochemicals in plants, fruits and vegetables have been reported to exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial activity; often touted as being beneficial for human health. In vitro screening is a common practice in many research laboratories as a means of rapidly assessing these properties. However, the methods used by many are not necessarily optimal; a result of poor standardization, redundant assays and/or outdated methodology. This review primarily aims to give a better understanding in the selection of in vitro assays, with emphasis placed on some common assays such as the total phenolic content assay, free radical scavenging activity, disc-diffusion and broth microdilution. This includes a discussion on the reasons for choosing a particular assay, its strengths and weaknesses, ways to improve the accuracy of results and alternative assays.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/analysis
  20. Raoov M, Mohamad S, bin Abas MR, Surikumaran H
    Talanta, 2014 Dec;130:155-63.
    PMID: 25159393 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2014.06.067
    Cyclodextrin-ionic liquid polymer (βCD-BIMOTs-TDI) is a new class of macroporous material and has great potential to be used as an SPE adsorbent material for extraction of phenols in river water samples. Six phenols, as model analytes, were extracted on a βCD-BIMOTs-TDI SPE cartridge, and then, eluted with 2 mL of methanol containing 1% acetic acid. The optimum experimental condition was 15 mL of sample volume (sample at pH 6) and 2 mL of methanol containing 1% acetic acid as an eluent solvent. The eluent concentration was determined by using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). Under optimized condition, high sensitivity (detection limits 0.23-0.35 µg/L) and good recoveries (87-116%) were achieved with satisfactory relative standard deviation (RSD) (0.1-1.7%). The developed βCD-BIMOTs-TDI-SPE was then compared with other adsorbents, and the obtained results showed that the βCD-BIMOTs-TDI exhibited higher extraction recovery due to the unique structure and properties. Finally, the βCD-BIMOTs-TDI was applied as a solid phase extraction sorbent for phenols determination under optimized condition, in river and tap waters, prior to the GC-FID separation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/analysis*
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