Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 122 in total

  1. Neves RF, Jones DB, Lopes MC, Blanco F, García G, Ratnavelu K, et al.
    J Chem Phys, 2015 May 21;142(19):194305.
    PMID: 26001459 DOI: 10.1063/1.4921313
    We report on measurements of integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of a series of composite vibrational modes and electronic-states in phenol, where the energy range of those experiments was 15-250 eV. There are currently no other results against which we can directly compare those measured data. We also report results from our independent atom model with screened additivity rule correction computations, namely, for the inelastic ICS (all discrete electronic states and neutral dissociation) and the total ionisation ICS. In addition, for the relevant dipole-allowed excited electronic states, we also report f-scaled Born-level and energy-corrected and f-scaled Born-level (BEf-scaled) ICS. Where possible, our measured and calculated ICSs are compared against one another with the general level of accord between them being satisfactory to within the measurement uncertainties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/chemistry*
  2. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A
    Molecules, 2010 Jun 14;15(6):4324-33.
    PMID: 20657444 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15064324
    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a well known and widely used herb, especially in Asia, which contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this study, the antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from the leaves, stems and rhizomes of two Zingiber officinale varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) were assessed in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. The antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of the leaves as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the total amounts of phenolics and flavonoids were higher than those of the rhizomes and stems. On the other hand, the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity of the rhizomes was higher than that of the leaves. At low concentration the values of the leaves' inhibition activity in both varieties were significantly higher than or comparable to those of the young rhizomes. Halia Bara had higher antioxidant activities as well as total contents of phenolic and flavonoid in comparison with Halia Bentong. This study validated the medicinal potential of the leaves and young rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Halia Bara) and the positive relationship between total phenolics content and antioxidant activities in Zingiber officinale.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/chemistry*
  3. Sunasee S, Wong KT, Lee G, Pichiah S, Ibrahim S, Park C, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Jun;24(18):15488-15499.
    PMID: 28512708 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-9124-0
    In this study, bisphenol A (BPA) removal by sonophotocatalysis coupled with commercially available titanium dioxide (TiO2, P25) was assessed in batch tests using energy-based advanced oxidation combining ultrasound (US) and ultraviolet (UV). The kinetics of BPA removal were systematically evaluated by changing operational parameters, such as US frequency and power, mechanical stirring speed, and temperature, but also comparison of single and coupled systems under the optimum US conditions (35 kHz, 50 W, 300 rpm stirring speed, and 20 °C). The combination of US/UV/P25 exhibited the highest BPA removal rate (28.0 × 10-3 min-1). In terms of the synergy index, the synergistic effect of sonophotocatalysis was found to be 2.2. This indicated that sonophotocatalysis has a considerably higher removal efficiency than sonocatalysis or photocatalysis. The removal of BPA was further investigated to identify BPA byproducts and intermediates using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Five main intermediates were formed during sonophotocatalytic degradation, and complete removal of BPA and its intermediates was obtained after 3 h of operation. The degradation pathway of BPA by sonophotocatalysis was also elucidated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/chemistry*
  4. Mohamed Mahzir KA, Abd Gani SS, Hasanah Zaidan U, Halmi MIE
    Molecules, 2018 Mar 22;23(4).
    PMID: 29565312 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23040724
    In this study, the optimal conditions for the extraction of antioxidants from the Buah Mahkota Dewa fruit (Phaleria macrocarpa) was determined by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimisation was applied using a Central Composite Design (CCD) to investigate the effect of three independent variables, namely extraction temperature (°C), extraction time (minutes) and extraction solvent to-feed ratio (% v/v) on four responses: free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric ion reducing power assay (FRAP), total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). The optimal conditions for the antioxidants extraction were found to be 64 °C extraction temperature, 66 min extraction time and 75% v/v solvent to-feed ratio giving the highest percentage yields of DPPH, FRAP, TPC and TFC of 86.85%, 7.47%, 292.86 mg/g and 3.22 mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the data were subjected to Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the results showed that the polynomial equations for all models were significant, did not show lack of fit, and presented adjusted determination coefficients (R²) above 99%, proving that the yield of phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidants activities obtained experimentally were close to the predicted values and the suitability of the model employed in RSM to optimise the extraction conditions. Hence, in this study, the fruit from P. macrocarpa could be considered to have strong antioxidant ability and can be used in various cosmeceutical or medicinal applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/chemistry*
  5. Mengting Z, Kurniawan TA, Yanping Y, Avtar R, Othman MHD
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2020 Mar;108:110420.
    PMID: 31924000 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.110420
    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a refractory pollutant presents in water body that possesses serious threats to living organisms. To deal with it, we investigate and evaluate the effectiveness of GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6 composite as a novel photocatalyst for BPA removal from aqueous solutions under UV-vis irradiation. To enhance its removal for BPA, the surface of BiOI/Bi2WO6 is modified with graphene oxide (GO). This composite is named as 'GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6'. Changes in its physico-chemical properties after surface modification with GO are characterized by XRD, FTIR, FESEM-EDS, XPS, PL, and BET methods. Optimized conditions of BPA degradation by the composite are determined under identical conditions. Photodegradation pathways of BPA and its removal mechanisms by the same composite are presented. It is obvious that the GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6 has demonstrated its potential as a promising photocatalyst for BPA removal under UV-vis irradiation. About 81% of BPA removal is attained by the GO@BiOI/Bi2WO6 under optimized conditions (10 mg/L of BPA, 0.5 g/L of dose, pH 7 and 5 h of reaction time). The oxidation by-products of BPA degradation include p-hydroquinone or 4-(1-hydroxy-1-methyl-ethyl)-phenol. In spite of its performance, the treated effluents are still unable to meet the maximum discharge limit of <1 mg/L set by national legislation. Therefore, subsequent biological processes are essential to maximize its biodegradation in the wastewater samples before their discharge into waterbody.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/chemistry*
  6. Zulkifli SA, Abd Gani SS, Zaidan UH, Halmi MIE
    Molecules, 2020 Feb 12;25(4).
    PMID: 32059460 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25040787
    The present study was conducted to optimize extraction process for defatted pitaya seed extract (DPSE) adopting response surface methodology (RSM). A five-level central composite design was used to optimize total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothizoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) activities. The independent variables included extraction time (30-60 min), extraction temperature (40-80 °C) and ethanol concentration (60%-80%). Results showed that the quadratic polynomial equations for all models were significant at (p < 0.05), with non-significant lack of fit at p > 0.05 and R2 of more than 0.90. The optimized extraction parameters were established as follows: extraction time of 45 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 80%. Under these conditions, the recovery of TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activity based on FRAP and ABTS were 128.58 ± 1.61 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample, 9.805 ± 0.69 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g sample, 1.23 ± 0.03 mM Fe2+/g sample, and 91.62% ± 0.15, respectively. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) analysis identified seven chemical compounds with flavonoids constituting major composition of the DPSE.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/chemistry*
  7. Li R, Ru Y, Wang Z, He X, Kong KW, Zheng T, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Jul 24;26(15).
    PMID: 34361630 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26154472
    In this study, we aimed to investigate the chemical components and biological activities of Musella lasiocarpa, a special flower that is edible and has functional properties. The crude methanol extract and its four fractions (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous fractions) were tested for their total antioxidant capacity, followed by their α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Among the samples, the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were found in the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction (224.99 mg GAE/g DE) and crude methanol extract (187.81 mg QE/g DE), respectively. The EtOAc fraction of Musella lasiocarpa exhibited the strongest DPPH· scavenging ability, ABTS·+ scavenging ability, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 values of 22.17, 12.10, and 125.66 μg/mL, respectively. The EtOAc fraction also showed the strongest ferric reducing antioxidant power (1513.89 mg FeSO4/g DE) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity ability (524.11 mg Trolox/g DE), which were higher than those of the control BHT. In contrast, the aqueous fraction demonstrated the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 10.11 μg/mL), and the best xanthine oxidase inhibitory ability (IC50 = 5.23 μg/mL) was observed from the crude methanol extract as compared with allopurinol (24.85 μg/mL). The HPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS analyses further revealed an impressive arsenal of compounds, including phenolic acids, fatty acids, esters, terpenoids, and flavonoids, in the most biologically active EtOAc fraction. Taken together, this is the first report indicating the potential of Musella lasiocarpa as an excellent natural source of antioxidants with possible therapeutic, nutraceutical, and functional food applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/chemistry*
  8. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:523120.
    PMID: 25147852 DOI: 10.1155/2014/523120
    Response surface methodology was applied to optimization of the conditions for reflux extraction of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) in order to achieve a high content of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), and high antioxidant capacity (AC) in the extracts. Central composite experimental design with three factors and three levels was employed to consider the effects of the operation parameters, including the methanol concentration (MC, 40%-80%), extraction temperature (ET, 40-70°C), and liquid-to-solid ratio (LS ratio, 20-40 mL/g) on the properties of the extracts. Response surface plots showed that increasing these operation parameters induced the responses significantly. The TF content and AC could be maximized when the extraction conditions (MC, ET, and LS ratio) were 78.8%, 69.5°C, and 32.4 mL/g, respectively, whereas the TP content was optimal when these variables were 75.1%, 70°C, and 31.8 mL/g, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the experimental TF and TP content and AC were 1.78, 6.601 mg/g DW, and 87.38%, respectively. The optimized model was validated by a comparison of the predicted and experimental values. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with the predicted values, indicating the suitability of the model for optimizing the conditions for the reflux extraction of Pandan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/chemistry*
  9. Yap HY, Aziz AA, Fung SY, Ng ST, Tan CS, Tan NH
    Int J Med Sci, 2014;11(6):602-7.
    PMID: 24782649 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.8341
    The Lignosus is a genus of fungi that have useful medicinal properties. In Southeast Asia, three species of Lignosus (locally known collectively as Tiger milk mushrooms) have been reported including L. tigris, L. rhinocerotis, and L. cameronensis. All three have been used as important medicinal mushrooms by the natives of Peninsular Malaysia. In this work, the nutritional composition and antioxidant activities of the wild type and a cultivated strain of L. tigris sclerotial extracts were investigated. The sclerotia are rich in carbohydrates with moderate amount of protein and low fat content. Free radical scavenging activities of L. tigris sclerotial extracts correlate with their phenolic content, which ranges from 6.25 to 45.42 mg GAE/g extract. The FRAP values ranged from 0.002 to 0.041 mmol/min/g extract, while the DPPH(•), ABTS(•+), and superoxide anion (SOA) scavenging activities ranged from 0.18 to 2.53, 0.01 to 0.36, and -4.53 to 10.05 mmol Trolox equivalents/g extract, respectively. L. tigris cultivar shows good prospect to be developed into functional food due to its good nutritional value and potent SOA scavenging activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/chemistry
  10. Chan KW, Khong NM, Iqbal S, Ismail M
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(6):7496-507.
    PMID: 22837707 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13067496
    The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wheat and rice flours under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition. After subjecting the wheat and rice flour slurries to simulated gastrointestinal pH condition, both slurries were centrifuged to obtain the crude phenolic extracts for further analyses. Extraction yield, total contents of phenolic and flavonoids were determined as such (untreated) and under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition (treated). 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)) scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS(•+)) scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) and iron chelating activity assays were employed for the determination of antioxidant activity of the tested samples. In almost all of the assays performed, significant improvements in antioxidant properties (p < 0.05) were observed in both flours after treatment, suggesting that wheat and rice flours contain considerably heavy amounts of bound phenolics, and that their antioxidant properties might be improved under gastrointestinal digestive conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/chemistry
  11. Mohamed M, Sirajudeen K, Swamy M, Yaacob NS, Sulaiman SA
    Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med, 2009 Oct 15;7(1):59-63.
    PMID: 21304614
    Honey has been used since ancient times for its nutritional as well as curative properties. Tualang honey is collected from wild honey bees' hives on Tualang trees found in the Malaysian rain forest. It has been used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases, where its therapeutic value has partly been related to its antioxidant properties. This study therefore assessed the colour intensity, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and antiradical activity of gamma irradiated Tualang Honey. The colour intensity at ABS₄₅₀ was 489.5 ± 1.7 mAU, total phenolic content was 251.7 ± 7.9 mg (gallic acid) /Kg honey, total antioxidant activity by FRAP assay was 322.1 ± 9.7 (µM Fe(II)) and the antiradical activity by DPPH assay was 41.30 ± 0.78 (% inhibition). The data confirms that the antioxidant properties of gamma irradiated Tualang honey are similar to other types of honeys reported in the literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/chemistry
  12. Alahmadi SM, Mohamad S, Maah MJ
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(10):13726-36.
    PMID: 23202977 DOI: 10.3390/ijms131013726
    This work reports a new method to covalently attach calix[4]arene derivatives onto MCM-41, using a diisocyanate as a linker. The modified mesoporous silicates were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis. The FTIR spectra and TGA analysis verified that the calix[4]arene derivates are covalently attached to the mesoporous silica. The preservation of the MCM-41 channel system was checked by X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/chemistry
  13. Goh TB, Koh RY, Yam MF, Azhar ME, Mordi MN, Mansor SM
    Food Chem, 2015 Sep 15;183:208-16.
    PMID: 25863630 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.044
    Various 6-methoxytetrahydro-β-carboline derivatives, namely BEN (6-methoxy-1-phenyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), ANI (6-methoxy-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole), ACE (6-methoxy-1-methyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) and VAN (2-methoxy-4-(6-methoxy-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-1-l)phenol), were prepared via the Maillard reaction using food flavours and 5-methoxytryptamine in aqueous medium and were investigated for their in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxicity properties. These derivatives were found to exhibit moderate antioxidant properties, based on a combination of DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. The results suggested that the Maillard reaction could be used to generate β-carboline antioxidants. It was beneficial that VAN showed the highest antioxidant activity but the least cytotoxic activities on non-tumourous cell lines of NIH/3T3, CCD18-Co and B98-5 using MTT assay. ACE, ANI and BEN showed mild toxicity at effective antioxidative concentrations derived from DPPH and ABTS assays. Furthermore, they are safer compared to 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin and betulinic acid on NIH/3T3, CCD18-Co and B98-5 cells. In conclusion, the antioxidant and cytotoxicity properties of 6-methoxytetrahydro-β-carbolines were demonstrated for the first time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/chemistry*
  14. Tao Y, Han Y, Liu W, Peng L, Wang Y, Kadam S, et al.
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2019 Apr;52:193-204.
    PMID: 30514598 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2018.11.018
    In this work, sonication (20-kHz) was conducted to assist the biosorption of phenolics from blueberry pomace extracts by brewery waste yeast biomass. The adsorption capacity of yeast increased markedly under ultrasonic fields. After sonication at 394.2 W/L and 40 °C for 120 min, the adsorption capacity was increased by 62.7% compared with that under reciprocating shaking. An artificial neural network was used to model and visualize the effects of different parameters on yeast biosorption capacity. Both biosorption time and acoustic energy density had positive influences on yeast biosorption capacity, whereas no clear influence of temperature on biosorption process was observed. Regarding the mechanism of ultrasound-enhanced biosorption process, the amino and carboxyl groups in yeast were considered to be associated with the yeast biosorption property. Meanwhile, ultrasound promoted the decline of the structure order of yeast cells induced by phenolic uptake. The interactions between yeast cells and phenolics were also affected by the structures of phenolics. Moreover, the mass transfer process was simulated by a surface diffusional model considering the ultrasound-induced yeast cell disruption. The modeling results showed that the external mass transfer coefficient in liquid phase and the surface diffusion coefficient under sonication at 394.2 W/L and 40 °C were 128.5% and 74.3% higher than that under reciprocating shaking, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/chemistry*
  15. Lim PF, Leong KH, Sim LC, Abd Aziz A, Saravanan P
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Feb;26(4):3455-3464.
    PMID: 30515688 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-3821-1
    In this work, a sunlight-sensitive photocatalyst of nanocubic-like titanium dioxide (TiO2) and N-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) is developed through a simple hydrothermal and physical mixing method. The successful amalgamation composite photocatalyst characteristics were comprehensively scrutinized through various physical and chemical analyses. A complete removal of bisphenol A (BPA) is attained by a synthesized composite after 30 min of sunlight irradiation as compared to pure TiO2. This clearly proved the unique contribution of N-GQDs that enhanced the ability of light harvesting especially under visible light and near-infrared region. This superior characteristic enables it to maximize the absorbance in the entire solar spectrum. However, the increase of N-GQDs weight percentage has created massive oxygen vacancies that suppress the generation of active radicals. This resulted in a longer duration for a complete removal of BPA as compared to lower weight percentage of N-GQDs. Hence, this finding can offer a new insight in developing effective sunlight-sensitive photocatalysts for various complex organic pollutants degradation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/chemistry*
  16. Al Balawi AN, Yusof NA, Kamaruzaman S, Mohammad F, Wasoh H, Al Abbosh KF, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2019;2019:7064073.
    PMID: 30868072 DOI: 10.1155/2019/7064073
    The present study has synthesized poly(4,4'-cyclohexylidene bisphenol oxalate) by the condensation of oxalyl chloride with 4,4'-cyclohexylidene bisphenol, where its efficacy was tested for the solid-phase extraction of DNA. The synthesized polymer in the form of a white powder was characterized by FTIR, TGA-DTG, SEM, and BET analysis. The study utilized solid-phase application of the resulting polymer to extract DNA. The analysis of results provided the information that the extraction efficiency is a strong dependent of polymer amount and binding buffer type. Among the three types of buffers tested, the GuHCl buffer produced the most satisfactory results in terms of yield and efficiency of extraction. Moreover, the absorbance ratio of A260/A280 in all of the samples varied from 1.682 to 1.491, thereby confirming the capability of poly(4,4'-cyclohexylidene bisphenol oxalate) to elute pure DNA. The results demonstrated an increased DNA binding capacity with respect to increased percentage of the polymer. The study has concluded that poly(bisphenol Z oxalate) can be applied as one of the potential candidates for the high efficiency extraction of DNA by means of a simple, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly approach compared to the other traditional solid-phase methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/chemistry
  17. Shori AB, Muniandy P, Baba AS
    Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric, 2021;12(1):36-44.
    PMID: 33231153 DOI: 10.2174/2212798411999201123205022
    BACKGROUND: Green, white, and black tea water extracts are rich in phenolic compounds.

    OBJECTIVE: The changes in phenolic compound profiles of green, white, and black tea (GT, WT, & BT respectively) water extracts and their respective yogurt were investigated.

    METHODS: Three types of yogurt with tea water extracts were prepared, and the phenolic compound profiles were analyzed using the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method.

    RESULTS: The present data found that flavonol glycosides such as kaempferol-3-rutinoside and quercetin-rhamnosylgalactoside or rutinoside were present in WT extract, whereas catechin derivatives such as gallocatechin (GC) and epigallocatechin (EGC) were present in GT extract. Moreover, theaflavin-3-O-gallate was observed in BT extract. Many of the catechin and its derivatives detected in the tea extracts were not identified in the tea yogurt samples. However, new phenolic compounds were present in GT-yogurt (i.e., kaempferol-3-rutinoside and quinic acid conjugate) but absent in GT extract.

    CONCLUSION: GT, WT, & BT extracts could be used to enriched-yogurt with phenolic compounds, which may have antioxidant properties.

    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/chemistry*
  18. Ng WJ, Sit NW, Ooi PA, Ee KY, Lim TM
    Molecules, 2021 Dec 16;26(24).
    PMID: 34946710 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26247628
    Stingless bee honey, specifically honeydew honey, is generally valued for its better health benefits than those of most blossom types. However, scientific studies about the differentiation of stingless bee honey based on honeydew and blossom origins are very limited. In this study, 13C NMR spectroscopy was employed to quantify the seven major sugar tautomers in stingless bee honey samples, and the major sugar compositions of both honeydew and blossom types were found not significantly different. However, several physicochemical properties of honeydew honey including moisture content, free acidity, electrical conductivity, ash content, acetic acid, diastase, hydrogen peroxide, and mineral elements levels were significantly higher; while total soluble solid, proline, and hydroxymethylfurfural were significantly lower than blossom honey. Greater antioxidant capacity in honeydew honey was proven with higher total phenolic compounds, ABTS, DPPH, superoxide radical scavenging activities, peroxyl radical inhibition, iron chelation, and ferric reducing power. Using principal component analysis (PCA), two clusters of stingless bee honey from the honeydew and blossom origin were observed. PCA also revealed that the differentiation between honeydew and blossom origin of stingless bee honey is possible with certain physicochemical and antioxidant parameters. The combination of NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics are suggested to be useful to determine the authenticity and botanical origin of stingless bee honey.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/chemistry*
  19. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A
    Molecules, 2016 Jun 17;21(6).
    PMID: 27322227 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21060780
    The effects of different drying methods (freeze drying, vacuum oven drying, and shade drying) on the phytochemical constituents associated with the antioxidant activities of Z. officinale var. rubrum Theilade were evaluated to determine the optimal drying process for these rhizomes. Total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Individual phenolic acids and flavonoids, 6- and 8-gingerol and shogaol were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were used for the evaluation of antioxidant activities. The highest reduction in moisture content was observed after freeze drying (82.97%), followed by vacuum oven drying (80.43%) and shade drying (72.65%). The highest TPC, TFC, and 6- and 8-shogaol contents were observed in samples dried by the vacuum oven drying method compared to other drying methods. The highest content of 6- and 8-gingerol was observed after freeze drying, followed by vacuum oven drying and shade drying methods. Fresh samples had the highest PPO activity and lowest content of flavonoid and phenolic acid compounds compared to dried samples. Rhizomes dried by the vacuum oven drying method represent the highest DPPH (52.9%) and FRAP activities (566.5 μM of Fe (II)/g DM), followed by freeze drying (48.3% and 527.1 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) and shade drying methods (37.64% and 471.8 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) with IC50 values of 27.2, 29.1, and 34.8 μg/mL, respectively. Negative and significant correlations were observed between PPO and antioxidant activity of rhizomes. Vacuum oven dried rhizomes can be utilized as an ingredient for the development of value-added food products as they contain high contents of phytochemicals with valuable antioxidant potential.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/chemistry
  20. Tisa F, Raman AA, Daud WM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:348974.
    PMID: 25309949 DOI: 10.1155/2014/348974
    Simulation of fluidized bed reactor (FBR) was accomplished for treating wastewater using Fenton reaction, which is an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The simulation was performed to determine characteristics of FBR performance, concentration profile of the contaminants, and various prominent hydrodynamic properties (e.g., Reynolds number, velocity, and pressure) in the reactor. Simulation was implemented for 2.8 L working volume using hydrodynamic correlations, continuous equation, and simplified kinetic information for phenols degradation as a model. The simulation shows that, by using Fe(3+) and Fe(2+) mixtures as catalyst, TOC degradation up to 45% was achieved for contaminant range of 40-90 mg/L within 60 min. The concentration profiles and hydrodynamic characteristics were also generated. A subsequent scale-up study was also conducted using similitude method. The analysis shows that up to 10 L working volume, the models developed are applicable. The study proves that, using appropriate modeling and simulation, data can be predicted for designing and operating FBR for wastewater treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/chemistry*
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