METHODS: TC-16 was screened for phytochemicals. Phenolic and flavonoid contents of TC-16 and its individual ingredients were determined, followed by assessment of antioxidant properties using in vitro assays including 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and β-carotene bleaching (BCB) assays. Interactions among the herbs were also investigated by calculating the difference in antioxidant activity and combination index.
RESULTS: Alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and glycosides were present in TC-16. TC-16 possessed the highest phenolic (46.14 ± 1.40 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (132.69 ± 1.43 mg CE/g) contents following C. longa. Synergistic antioxidant activity among the herbs was evident in ORAC and BCB assays which uses mainly hydrogen atom transfer-based antioxidant mechanisms.
CONCLUSIONS: TC-16 demonstrated roles in combating free radicals. In a PHF, synergistic interaction among the herbs is observed in some but not all mechanisms. Mechanisms showing synergistic interactions should be highlighted to maximise the beneficial property of the PHF.
OBJECTIVE: The changes in phenolic compound profiles of green, white, and black tea (GT, WT, & BT respectively) water extracts and their respective yogurt were investigated.
METHODS: Three types of yogurt with tea water extracts were prepared, and the phenolic compound profiles were analyzed using the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method.
RESULTS: The present data found that flavonol glycosides such as kaempferol-3-rutinoside and quercetin-rhamnosylgalactoside or rutinoside were present in WT extract, whereas catechin derivatives such as gallocatechin (GC) and epigallocatechin (EGC) were present in GT extract. Moreover, theaflavin-3-O-gallate was observed in BT extract. Many of the catechin and its derivatives detected in the tea extracts were not identified in the tea yogurt samples. However, new phenolic compounds were present in GT-yogurt (i.e., kaempferol-3-rutinoside and quinic acid conjugate) but absent in GT extract.
CONCLUSION: GT, WT, & BT extracts could be used to enriched-yogurt with phenolic compounds, which may have antioxidant properties.
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