Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 43 in total

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  1. Ng YS, Jayakumar NS, Hashim MA
    J. Hazard. Mater., 2010 Dec 15;184(1-3):255-60.
    PMID: 20832168 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.08.030
    The percentage removal of phenol from aqueous solution by emulsion liquid membrane and emulsion leakage was investigated experimentally for various parameters such as membrane:internal phase ratio, membrane:external phase ratio, emulsification speed, emulsification time, carrier concentration, surfactant concentration and internal agent concentration. These parameters strongly influence the percentage removal of phenol and emulsion leakage. Under optimum membrane properties, the percentage removal of phenol was as high as 98.33%, with emulsion leakage of 1.25%. It was also found that the necessity of carrier for enhancing phenol removal was strongly dependent on the internal agent concentration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/isolation & purification*
  2. Aung HH, Chia LS, Goh NK, Chia TF, Ahmed AA, Pare PW, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2002 Aug;73(5):445-7.
    PMID: 12165348
    Plumbagin, isoshinanolone, epishinanolone, shinanolone, quercetin and kaempferol were isolated from the leaves of Nepenthes gracilis. Spectral data of shinanolone are presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/isolation & purification*
  3. Wong YH, Lau HW, Tan CP, Long K, Nyam KL
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:789346.
    PMID: 24592184 DOI: 10.1155/2014/789346
    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/isolation & purification*
  4. Alam N, Hossain M, Khalil MI, Moniruzzaman M, Sulaiman SA, Gan SH
    PMID: 21854608 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-65
    Withania somnifera is an important medicinal plant traditionally used in the treatment of many diseases. The present study was carried out to characterize the phenolic acids, flavonoids and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activities in methanolic extracts of W. somnifera fruits, roots and leaves (WSFEt, WSREt and WSLEt).
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/isolation & purification
  5. Hameed BH, Rahman AA
    J. Hazard. Mater., 2008 Dec 30;160(2-3):576-81.
    PMID: 18434009 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.03.028
    Activated carbon derived from rattan sawdust (ACR) was evaluated for its ability to remove phenol from an aqueous solution in a batch process. Equilibrium studies were conducted in the range of 25-200mg/L initial phenol concentrations, 3-10 solution pH and at temperature of 30 degrees C. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. Equilibrium data fitted well to the Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 149.25mg/g. The dimensionless separation factor RL revealed the favorable nature of the isotherm of the phenol-activated carbon system. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model best described the adsorption process. The results proved that the prepared activated carbon was an effective adsorbent for removal of phenol from aqueous solution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/isolation & purification*
  6. Eseyin OA, Sattar MA, Rathore HA, Aigbe F, Afzal S, Ahmad A, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2018 Jan;31(1):45-50.
    PMID: 29348083
    Telfairia occidentalis possesses high antioxidant activity. However, the antioxidant components of the plant have not yet been identified. This study was undertaken to identify the phenolics in the leaf of the plant. Extract and fractions of the leaf of the plant were analysed using the HPLC and GCMS. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid (22.19μg/mg), catechin (29.17μg/mg), caffeic acid (9.17μg/mg), ferulic acid (0.94μg/mg), sinapic acid (1.91 μg/mg) and 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (43.86 μg/mg) in the aqueous extract. Phenolics fraction contained gallic acid (0.88 μg/mg), catechin (2.70μg/mg), caffeic acid (7.92μg/mg), ferulic acid (2.72μg/mg), benzoic acid (6.36μg/mg), p-coumaric acid (1.48μg/mg), quercetin (12.00μg/mg). Only caffeic acid (2.50μg/mg), ferulic acid (0.44μg/mg) and quercetin (8.50μg/mg) were detected in the flavonoid fraction. While GCMS analysis showed the presence of methylparaben; ethylparaben; benzoic acid; 4-hydroxy-2-methoxy-3,5,6-trimethyl-, methyl ester; 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy; phenol, 5-methoxy-2-(methoxymethyl)-; phenol, 5-methoxy-2, 3- dimethyl; and phenol, 2-(2-benzothiazolyl)-. This study is the first to reveal the identity of some phenolics components of the leaf of Telfairia occidentalis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/isolation & purification*
  7. Tan BL, Mustafa AM
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2003;15(2):118-23.
    PMID: 15038686
    Bisphenol A is the monomer used in the manufacture of polycarbonate. Bisphenol A is also known to mimic the female hormone estrogen. In this study, the possibility of the leaching of bisphenol A from polycarbonate babies' bottles and feeding teats was investigated. Bisphenol A was extracted from water samples exposed to the bottles and teats using liquid-liquid extraction. Bisphenol A was analysed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer with quadrapole detector in selected ion monitoring mode. Mean leaching of bisphenol A from 100 used babies' bottles when filled with water at 25 degrees C and 80 degrees C were 0.71 +/- 1.65 ng/cm2 (mean +/- standard deviation) and 3.37 +/- 5.68 ng/cm2 respectively. Mean leaching of bisphenol A from 30 new babies' bottles when filled with water at 25 degrees C and 80 degrees C were 0.03 +/- 0.02 ng/cm2 and 0.18 degrees 0.30 ng/cm2 respectively. Bisphenol A was observed to have leached from babies' feeding teats into 37 degrees C water ranged from non-detectable to 22.86 ng/g. The technique employed in this study is fast, reliable and economical.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/isolation & purification*
  8. Raoov M, Mohamad S, bin Abas MR, Surikumaran H
    Talanta, 2014 Dec;130:155-63.
    PMID: 25159393 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2014.06.067
    Cyclodextrin-ionic liquid polymer (βCD-BIMOTs-TDI) is a new class of macroporous material and has great potential to be used as an SPE adsorbent material for extraction of phenols in river water samples. Six phenols, as model analytes, were extracted on a βCD-BIMOTs-TDI SPE cartridge, and then, eluted with 2 mL of methanol containing 1% acetic acid. The optimum experimental condition was 15 mL of sample volume (sample at pH 6) and 2 mL of methanol containing 1% acetic acid as an eluent solvent. The eluent concentration was determined by using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). Under optimized condition, high sensitivity (detection limits 0.23-0.35 µg/L) and good recoveries (87-116%) were achieved with satisfactory relative standard deviation (RSD) (0.1-1.7%). The developed βCD-BIMOTs-TDI-SPE was then compared with other adsorbents, and the obtained results showed that the βCD-BIMOTs-TDI exhibited higher extraction recovery due to the unique structure and properties. Finally, the βCD-BIMOTs-TDI was applied as a solid phase extraction sorbent for phenols determination under optimized condition, in river and tap waters, prior to the GC-FID separation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/isolation & purification*
  9. Tisa F, Raman AA, Daud WM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:348974.
    PMID: 25309949 DOI: 10.1155/2014/348974
    Simulation of fluidized bed reactor (FBR) was accomplished for treating wastewater using Fenton reaction, which is an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The simulation was performed to determine characteristics of FBR performance, concentration profile of the contaminants, and various prominent hydrodynamic properties (e.g., Reynolds number, velocity, and pressure) in the reactor. Simulation was implemented for 2.8 L working volume using hydrodynamic correlations, continuous equation, and simplified kinetic information for phenols degradation as a model. The simulation shows that, by using Fe(3+) and Fe(2+) mixtures as catalyst, TOC degradation up to 45% was achieved for contaminant range of 40-90 mg/L within 60 min. The concentration profiles and hydrodynamic characteristics were also generated. A subsequent scale-up study was also conducted using similitude method. The analysis shows that up to 10 L working volume, the models developed are applicable. The study proves that, using appropriate modeling and simulation, data can be predicted for designing and operating FBR for wastewater treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/isolation & purification
  10. Gođevac D, Stanković J, Novaković M, Anđelković B, Dajić-Stevanović Z, Petrović M, et al.
    J. Nat. Prod., 2015 Sep 25;78(9):2198-204.
    PMID: 26290401 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00273
    From the aerial parts of Atriplex littoralis, three new flavonoid glycosides named atriplexins I-III (1-3), a known flavonoid glycoside, spinacetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), arbutin (5), and 4-hydroxybenzyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (6) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC) and HRESITOF MS data. The compounds were tested for in vitro protective effects on chromosome aberrations in peripheral human lymphocytes using a cytochalasin-B-blocked micronucleus (MN) assay in a concentration range of 0.8-7.4 μM of final culture solution. Chromosomal damage was induced by 2 Gy of γ-radiation on binucleated human lymphocytes, and the effects of the compounds were tested 2 to 19 h after irradiation. The frequency of micronuclei (MNi) was scored in binucleated cells, and the nuclear proliferation index was calculated. The highest prevention of in vitro biochemical and cytogenetic damage of human lymphocytes induced by γ-radiation was exhibited by 3 (reduction of MN frequency by 31%), followed by 4 and 6.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/isolation & purification*
  11. Khoo HE, Azlan A, Ismail A, Abas F
    Molecules, 2012 Aug 14;17(8):9754-73.
    PMID: 22893021 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17089754
    Solid phase extraction (SPE) using Sep-Pak® cartridges is one of the techniques used for fractionation of antioxidant compounds in waste of dabai oil extraction (defatted dabai parts). The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in crude extracts and several SPE fractions from methanolic extract of defatted dabai pulp and peel. Based on SPE, Sep-Pak® cyanopropyl and C₁₈ cartridges were used to fractionate the antioxidant-rich crude extracts into water and methanolic fractions. Analyzed using LC-MS, flavonoids, anthocyanins, saponin derivatives and other unknown antioxidative compounds were detected in the defatted dabai crude extracts and their SPE fractions. Anthocyanins were the major phenolic compounds identified in the defatted dabai peel and detected in most of the SPE fractions. Methanolic fractions of defatted dabai parts embraced higher total phenolics and antioxidant capacity than water fractions. This finding also revealed the crude extracts of defatted dabai peel have the most significant antioxidant properties compared to the methanolic and water fractions studied. The crude extract of defatted dabai parts remain as the most potent antioxidant as it contains mixture of flavonoids, anthocyanins and other potential antioxidants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/isolation & purification
  12. Kho YS, Vikineswary S, Abdullah N, Kuppusamy UR, Oh HI
    J Med Food, 2009 Feb;12(1):167-74.
    PMID: 19298211 DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2007.0568
    Auricularia auricula-judae is currently grown in Malaysia. In the present study, the methanolic extracts from fruit bodies (fresh, oven-dried, and freeze-dried) and mycelium of A. auricula-judae were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The total phenolic content in the extracts were also measured. The extract of freeze-dried fruit bodies of A. auricula-judae had potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity with a 50% effective concentration of 2.87 mg/mL, whereas the FRAP value of A. auricula-judae mycelium was 5.22 micromol of FeSO(4).7H(2)O equivalents/g of mycelium sample. Further, a positive correlation (R(2) = 0.7668) between FRAP level of A. auricula-judae extracts and the total phenolic contents was observed. Thus the method of processing of fresh fruit bodies had an effect on the antioxidant potential of A. auricula-judae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/isolation & purification
  13. Zakaria SM, Kamal SMM, Harun MR, Omar R, Siajam SI
    Molecules, 2017 Jul 03;22(7).
    PMID: 28671617 DOI: 10.3390/molecules22071105
    Chlorella sp. microalgae is a potential source of antioxidants and natural bioactive compounds used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, a subcritical water (SW) technology was applied to determine the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Chlorella sp. This study focused on maximizing the recovery of Chlorella sp. phenolic content and antioxidant activity measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay as a function of extraction temperature (100-250 °C), time (5-20 min) and microalgae concentration (5-20 wt. %) using response surface methodology. The optimal operating conditions for the extraction process were found to be 5 min at 163 °C with 20 wt. % microalgae concentration, which resulted in products with 58.73 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g phenolic content and 68.5% inhibition of the DPPH radical. Under optimized conditions, the experimental values were in close agreement with values predicted by the model. The phenolic content was highly correlated (R² = 0.935) with the antioxidant capacity. Results indicated that extraction by SW technology was effective and that Chlorella sp. could be a useful source of natural antioxidants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/isolation & purification
  14. Alam MZ, Muyibi SA, Mansor MF, Wahid R
    J Environ Sci (China), 2006;18(3):446-52.
    PMID: 17294638
    The study was attempted to produce activated carbons from palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge. The adsorption capacity of the activated carbons produced was evaluated in aqueous solution of phenol. Two types of activation were followed, namely, thermal activation at 300, 500 and 800 degrees C, and physical activation at 15 degrees C (boiling treatment). A control (raw POME sludge) was used to compare the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons produced. The results indicated that the activation temperature of 800 degrees C showed maximum absorption capacity by the activated carbon (POME 800) in aqueous solution of phenol. Batch adsorption studies showed an equilibrium time of 6 h for the activated carbon of POME 800. It was observed that the adsorption capacity was higher at lower values of pH (2-3) and higher value of initial concentration of phenol (200-300 mg/L). The equilibrium data were fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The adsorption of phenol onto the activated carbon POME 800 was studied in terms of pseudo- first and second order kinetics to predict the rate constant and equilibrium capacity with the effect of initial phenol concentrations. The rate of adsorption was found to be better correlation for the pseudo-second order kinetics compared to the first order kinetics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/isolation & purification
  15. Abdul Karim N', Wan Ibrahim WA, Sanagi MM, Abdul Keyon AS
    Electrophoresis, 2016 10;37(20):2649-2656.
    PMID: 27434368 DOI: 10.1002/elps.201600207
    Online preconcentration using electrokinetic supercharging (EKS) was proposed to enhance the sensitivity of separation for endocrine disrupting chemical (methylparaben (MP)) and phenolic pollutants (2-nitrophenol (NP) and 4-chlorophenol (CP)) in water sample. Important EKS and separation conditions such as the concentration of BGE; the choice of terminating electrolyte (TE); and the injection time of leading electrolyte (LE), sample, and TE were optimized. The optimum EKS-CE conditions were as follows: BGE comprising of 12 mM sodium tetraborate pH 10.1, 100 mM sodium chloride as LE hydrodynamically injected at 50 mbar for 30 s, electrokinetic injection (EKI) of sample at -3 kV for 200 s, and 100 mM CHES as TE hydrodynamically injected at 50 mbar for 40 s. The separation was conducted at negative polarity mode and UV detection at 214 nm. Under these conditions, the sensitivity of analytes was enhanced from 100- to 737-fold as compared to normal CZE with hydrodynamic injection, giving LOD of 4.89, 5.29, and 53 μg/L for MP, NP and CP, respectively. The LODs were adequate for the analysis of NP and CP in environmental water sample having concentration at or lower than their maximum admissible concentration limit (240 and 2000 μg/L for NP and CP). The LOD of MP can be suitable for the analysis of MP exists at mid-microgram per liter level, even though the LOD was slightly higher than the concentration usually found in water samples (from ng/L to 1 μg/L). The method repeatabilities (%RSD) were in the range of 1.07-2.39% (migration time) and 8.28-14.0% (peak area).
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/isolation & purification*
  16. Lee KM, Lim PE
    Chemosphere, 2005 Jan;58(4):407-16.
    PMID: 15620732
    The role of bioregeneration process in renewing the adsorbent surface for further adsorption of organics during simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes has been well recognized. The extent of bioregeneration of powdered activated carbon (PAC) as an adsorbent loaded with phenol, p-methylphenol, p-ethylphenol and p-isopropylphenol, respectively, in the simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes were quantitatively determined using oxygen uptake as a measure of substrate consumption. Bioregeneration phenomenon was also evaluated in the simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes under sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operation to treat synthetic wastewater containing 1200 mg l(-1) phenol and p-methylphenol, respectively. The SBR systems were operated with FILL, REACT, SETTLE, DRAW and IDLE periods in the ratio of 4:6:1:0.75:0.25 for a cycle time of 12 h. The results show that the percentage of desorption from loaded PAC decreased in the order phenol>p-methylphenol>p-ethylphenol>p-isopropylphenol. For the treatment of phenol and p-methylphenol in the SBR reactors, respectively, the simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes were able to produce a consistent effluent quality of COD < or = 100 mg l(-1) when the applied PAC dosage was 0.115 and 0.143 g PAC per cycle, respectively. When no further PAC was added, the treatment performance deteriorated to that of the case without PAC addition after 68 and 48 cycles of SBR operation, respectively, for phenol and p-methylphenol. This observation is consistent with the greater extent of bioregeneration for phenol-loaded PAC as compared to p-methylphenol-loaded PAC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/isolation & purification*
  17. Lee KM, Lim PE
    Water Sci. Technol., 2003;47(10):41-7.
    PMID: 12862215
    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of the activated rice husk to be used as an alternative adsorbent to powdered activated carbon (PAC) in the simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation processes under sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operation to treat synthetic wastewater containing phenol, p-methylphenol, p-ethylphenol and p-isopropylphenol. The rice husk (PRH) was activated by pyrolysis at 600 degrees C for 5 hours in a nitrogen atmosphere. Using the Langmuir model, the limiting adsorption capacities of PRH for the phenols were found to vary from 0.015-0.05 of those of PAC. The SBR reactors with and without adsorbent addition were operated with fill, react, settle, draw and idle periods in the ratio of 4:6:1:0.76:0.25 for a cycle time of 12 hours. For phenolic wastewater containing, 1,200 mg/L phenol, 1,200 mg/L p-methylphenol, 800 mg/L p-ethylphenol and 660 mg/L p-isopropylphenol, it was found that the biodegradation process alone was unable to produce effluent of quality which would satisfy the discharge standards of COD < or = 100 mg/L and phenol concentration < or = 1 mg/L. The addition of PAC in the ratio of PAC/phenolic compound at 0.095 g/g for phenol, 0.119 g/g for p-methylpheol, 0.179 g/g for p-ethylphenol and 0.220 g/g for p-isopropylphenol, can improve the effluent quality to satisfy the discharge standards. Equivalent treatment performance was achieved with the use of PRH at dosages of 2-3 times higher than those of PAC for all the phenolic wastewater studied. The increased adsorption capacity of PRH shown in the treatment indicates bioregeneration of the adsorbed surface during the treatment process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/isolation & purification*
  18. Jalal TK, Ahmed IA, Mikail M, Momand L, Draman S, Isa ML, et al.
    Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 2015 Apr;175(7):3231-43.
    PMID: 25649443 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-015-1499-0
    Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) pulp, peel and whole fruit were extracted with various solvents such as hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol. The antioxidant activity of these extracts were examined using the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test. IC50 was 55 ± 5.89 μg/ml for the pulp part of methanol extract. In the β-carotene bleaching assay, the antioxidant activity was 90.02 ± 1.51 % for the positive control (Trolox) and 88.34 ± 1.31 % for the pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the crude extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure; methanol pulp part demonstrated the highest phenol content value of 781 ± 52.97 mg GAE/g of dry sample. While the total flavonoid content was determined using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, the highest value of 6213.33 ± 142.22 mg QE/g was indicated by pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was tested using disc diffusion method against pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans. Methanol extract of pulp part was recorded to have the highest zone of inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and MBC/minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) for the extracts were also determined using the microdilution method ranging from 4000 to 63 μg/ml against pathogenic microbes. The MBC/MFC values varied from 250 to 4000 μg/ml. A correlation between antioxidant activity assays, antimicrobial activity and phenolic content was established. The results shows that the various parts of A. altilis fruit extracts promising antioxidant activities have potential bioactivities due to high content of phenolic compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/isolation & purification
  19. Tisa F, Davoody M, Abdul Raman AA, Daud WM
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(4):e0119933.
    PMID: 25849556 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119933
    The efficiency of phenol degradation via Fenton reaction using mixture of heterogeneous goethite catalyst with homogeneous ferrous ion was analyzed as a function of three independent variables, initial concentration of phenol (60 to 100 mg /L), weight ratio of initial concentration of phenol to that of H2O2 (1: 6 to 1: 14) and, weight ratio of initial concentration of goethite catalyst to that of H2O2 (1: 0.3 to 1: 0.7). More than 90 % of phenol removal and more than 40% of TOC removal were achieved within 60 minutes of reaction. Two separate models were developed using artificial neural networks to predict degradation percentage by a combination of Fe3+ and Fe2+ catalyst. Five operational parameters were employed as inputs while phenol degradation and TOC removal were considered as outputs of the developed models. Satisfactory agreement was observed between testing data and the predicted values (R2Phenol = 0.9214 and R2TOC= 0.9082).
    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/isolation & purification
  20. Chew YL, Lim YY, Stanslas J, Ee GC, Goh JK
    PMID: 25371595
    BACKGROUND: Flowers of Bauhinia kockiana were investigated for their anticancer properties.

    METHODS: Gallic acid (1), and methyl gallate (2), were isolated via bioassay-directed isolation, and they exhibited anticancer properties towards several cancer cell lines, examined using MTT cell viability assay. Pyrogallol (3) was examined against the same cancer cell lines to deduce the bioactive functional group of the phenolic compounds.

    RESULTS: The results showed that the phenolic compounds could exhibit moderate to weak cytotoxicity towards certain cell lines (GI50 30 - 86 µM), but were inactive towards DU145 prostate cancer cell (GI50 > 100 µM).

    CONCLUSION: It was observed that pyrogallol moiety was one of the essential functional structures of the phenolic compounds in exhibiting anticancer activity. Also, the carboxyl group of compound 1 was also important in anticancer activity. Examination of the PC-3 cells treated with compound 1 using fluorescence microscopy showed that PC-3 cells were killed by apoptosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Phenols/isolation & purification
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