RESULTS: During 1980-2014, the FIs of NPK chemical fertilizers in China showed a significant growing trend. After reaching the highest value of 339 kg ha-1 in 2014, FIs were reduced to 303 kg ha-1 in 2019, higher than the 225 kg ha-1 maximum safe usage internationally recognized. Meanwhile, the pattern of change of FAE was one of 'decreasing to increasing', with values of 1 in 1980, 0.66 in 2003, and 0.80 in 2019. FIE basically showed an increasing trend, which could be divided into three stages: the first stage of low efficiency during 1980-2009, the second stage of medium efficiency after 2010, and the third stage of high efficiency after 2018.
CONCLUSION: From 1980 until 2019, a reduction of FAE from 1 to 0.80 with an average of 0.75 was observed in China. FIE was found between 0.65 and 0.85 and had the potential of upgrading by 15-35%. Therefore, China needs to improve the fertilizer use efficiency in order to strive for negative growth of chemical fertilizer intensity and ecological agriculture construction. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.
METHODS: Sixty-five cylindrical block of Fuji IX Fast were prepared using split moulds. The demineralizing solution was an acetate buffered demineralizing solution at pH 403. The remineralizing solution was a buffered solution containing 1.5 mM Ca, 0.9 mM P and 10 ppm F at pH 7. The blocks of Fuji IX Fast were subjected either to two-day alternating cycles of remineralization and demineralization for up to 24 days (test); 6 two-day cycles of demineralizing or remineralizing solution separately, or deionized distilled water alone (controls) or were left untreated (base line control). Mineral profiles of Ca, P, Sr and F within 100 microm of the material surface were assessed following 8, 16 and 24 days of treatment (test); 4, 8 or 12 days (controls) or for baseline control samples, using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA).
RESULTS: There were significant changes in mineral profile in the test specimens in terms of Sr and Ca concentrations. A molecule for molecule exchange of these elements resulted between GIC and eluant solutions. Fluoride loss from the GIC occurredto the level comparable with uptake levels recorded in eluant solutions from previous studies. The ionic exchanges appeared to be the result of dissolution followed by an equilibrium-driven diffusion. These exchanges were superficial though substantial.
CONCLUSIONS: Simulated exposure of Fuji IX to the oral environment resulted in an exchange of Ca from the bathing solutions into Fuji IX to replace any Sr which was lost to the GIC. Fluorine loss from the GIC followed previously described patterns. The possible clinical significance of this exchange was discussed.
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