Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 41 in total

  1. Yuan C, Wu F, Wu Q, Fornara DA, Heděnec P, Peng Y, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2023 Jun 25;879:163059.
    PMID: 36963687 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.163059
    Vegetation restoration is a widely used, effective, and sustainable method to improve soil quality in post-mining lands. Here we aimed to assess global patterns and driving factors of potential vegetation restoration effects on soil carbon, nutrients, and enzymatic activities. We synthesized 4838 paired observations extracted from 175 publications to evaluate the effects that vegetation restoration might have on the concentrations of soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, as well as enzymatic activities. We found that (1) vegetation restoration had consistent positive effects on the concentrations of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, ammonia, nitrate, total phosphorus, and available phosphorus on average by 85.4, 70.3, 75.7, 54.6, 58.6, 34.7, and 60.4 %, respectively. Restoration also increased the activities of catalase, alkaline phosphatase, sucrase, and urease by 63.3, 104.8, 125.5, and 124.6 %, respectively; (2) restoration effects did not vary among different vegetation types (i.e., grass, tree, shrub and their combinations) or leaf type (broadleaved, coniferous, and mixed), but were affected by mine type; and (3) latitude, climate, vegetation species richness, restoration year, and initial soil properties are important moderator variables, but their effects varied among different soil variables. Our global scale study shows how vegetation restoration can improve soil quality in post-mining lands by increasing soil carbon, nutrients, and enzymatic activities. This information is crucial to better understand the role of vegetation cover in promoting the ecological restoration of degraded mining lands.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phosphorus/analysis
  2. Ch'ng HY, Ahmed OH, Majid NM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:506356.
    PMID: 25032229 DOI: 10.1155/2014/506356
    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phosphorus/analysis*
  3. Chai X, Li X, Hii KS, Zhang Q, Deng Q, Wan L, et al.
    Mar Environ Res, 2021 Jul;169:105398.
    PMID: 34171592 DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2021.105398
    Coastal eutrophication is one of the pivotal factors driving occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs), whose underlying mechanism remained unclear. To better understand the nutrient regime triggering HABs and their formation process, the phytoplankton composition and its response to varying nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), physio-chemical parameters in water and sediment in Johor Strait in March 2019 were analyzed. Surface and sub-surface HABs were observed with the main causative species of Skeletonema, Chaetoceros and Karlodinium. The ecophysiological responses of Skeletonema to the low ambient N/P ratio such as secreting alkaline phosphatase, regulating cell morphology (volume; surface area/volume ratio) might play an important role in dominating the community. Anaerobic sediment iron-bound P release and simultaneous N removal by denitrification and anammox, shaped the stoichiometry of N and P in water column. The decrease of N/P ratio might shift the phytoplankton community into the dominance of HABs causative diatoms and dinoflagellates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phosphorus/analysis
  4. Jhonson P, Goh HW, Chan DJC, Juiani SF, Zakaria NA
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2023 Feb;30(9):24562-24574.
    PMID: 36336739 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-022-23605-5
    Bioretention systems are among the most popular stormwater best management practices (BMPs) for urban runoff treatment. Studies on plant performance using bioretention systems have been conducted, especially in developed countries with a temperate climate, such as the USA and Australia. However, these results might not be applicable in developing countries with tropical climates due to the different rainfall regimes and the strength of runoff pollutants. Thus, this study focuses on the performance of tropical plants in treating urban runoff polluted with greywater using a bioretention system. Ten different tropical plant species were triplicated and planted in 30 mesocosms with two control mesocosms without vegetation. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the performance of plants, which were then ranked based on their performance in removing pollutants using the total score obtained for each water quality test. Results showed that vetiver topped the table with 86.4% of total nitrogen (TN) removal, 93.5% of total phosphorus (TP) removal, 89.8% of biological oxygen demand (BOD) removal, 90% of total suspended solids (TSS) removal, and 92.5% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal followed by blue porterweed, Hibiscus, golden trumpet, and tall sedge which can be recommended to be employed in future bioretention studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phosphorus/analysis
  5. Chow MF, Yusop Z
    Water Sci Technol, 2014;69(2):244-52.
    PMID: 24473291 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2013.574
    The characteristics of urban stormwater pollution in the tropics are still poorly understood. This issue is crucial to the tropical environment because its rainfall and runoff generation processes are so different from temperate regions. In this regard, a stormwater monitoring program was carried out at three urban catchments (e.g. residential, commercial and industrial) in the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 51 storm events were collected at these three catchments. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand (COD), oil and grease, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to interpret the stormwater quality data for pattern recognition and identification of possible sources. The most likely sources of stormwater pollutants at the residential catchment were from surface soil and leachate of fertilizer from domestic lawns and gardens, whereas the most likely sources for the commercial catchment were from discharges of food waste and washing detergent. In the industrial catchment, the major sources of pollutants were discharges from workshops and factories. The PCA factors further revealed that COD and NH3-N were the major pollutants influencing the runoff quality in all three catchments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phosphorus/analysis
  6. Poh SC, Ng NCW, Suratman S, Mathew D, Mohd Tahir N
    Environ Monit Assess, 2018 Dec 04;191(1):3.
    PMID: 30515582 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-018-7128-y
    The objective of this study was to identify the spatial and temporal variabilities of selected nutrients in the Setiu Wetlands Lagoon (SWL), Malaysia. Water samples were collected quarterly at ten monitoring sites. This study presents results from a 10-year field investigation (2003 to 2010 and 2014 to 2015) of water quality in the SWL. For the spatial pattern, four clusters were identified with hierarchical cluster analysis. Analysis of the temporal trend shows that the high total suspended solid loading in 2010 was due to large-scale land clearing upstream of the SWL. The enrichment of ammonium after 2010 could plausibly be due to land-based aquaculture diffuse discharges. In 2005-2007, expansion of oil palm plantations within the Setiu catchment had doubled the phosphorus concentration in the SWL. The natural and anthropogenic alterations of the lagoon inlets profoundly influenced the spatial distribution patterns of nutrients in the SWL. These results suggest that intense anthropogenic disturbances close to the SWL accounted for the water quality deterioration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phosphorus/analysis
  7. Pandion K, Arunachalam KD, Dowlath MJH, Chinnapan S, Chang SW, Chang W, et al.
    Environ Monit Assess, 2022 Nov 19;195(1):126.
    PMID: 36401680 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-022-10568-w
    The current study focused on the monitoring of pollution loads in the Kalpakkam coastal zone of India in terms of physico-chemical characteristics of sediment. The investigation took place at 12 sampling points around the Kalpakkam coastal zone for one year beginning from 2019. The seasonal change of nutrients in the sediment, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, total organic carbon, and particles size distribution, was calculated. Throughout the study period, the pH (7.55 to 8.99), EC (0.99 to 4.98 dS/m), nitrogen (21.74 to 58.12 kg/ha), phosphorus (7.5 to 12.9 kg/ha), potassium (218 to 399 kg/ha), total organic carbon (0.11 to 0.88%), and particle size cumulative percent of sediments (from 9.01 to 9.39%) was observed. A number of multivariate statistical techniques were used to examine the changes in sediment quality. The population means were substantially different according to the three-way ANOVA test at the 0.05 level. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis showed a substantial association with all indicators throughout all seasons, implying contamination from both natural and anthropogenic causes. The ecosystem of the Kalpakkam coastal zone has been affected by nutrient contamination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phosphorus/analysis
  8. Sniatala B, Kurniawan TA, Sobotka D, Makinia J, Othman MHD
    Sci Total Environ, 2023 Jan 15;856(Pt 2):159283.
    PMID: 36208738 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.159283
    Global food security, which has emerged as one of the sustainability challenges, impacts every country. As food cannot be generated without involving nutrients, research has intensified recently to recover unused nutrients from waste streams. As a finite resource, phosphorus (P) is largely wasted. This work critically reviews the technical applicability of various water technologies to recover macro-nutrients such as P, N, and K from wastewater. Struvite precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange, and membrane filtration are applied for nutrient recovery. Technological strengths and drawbacks in their applications are evaluated and compared. Their operational conditions such as pH, dose required, initial nutrient concentration, and treatment performance are presented. Cost-effectiveness of the technologies for P or N recovery is also elaborated. It is evident from a literature survey of 310 published studies (1985-2022) that no single technique can effectively and universally recover target macro-nutrients from liquid waste. Struvite precipitation is commonly used to recover over 95 % of P from sludge digestate with its concentration ranging from 200 to 4000 mg/L. The recovered precipitate can be reused as a fertilizer due to its high content of P and N. Phosphate removal of higher than 80 % can be achieved by struvite precipitation when the molar ratio of Mg2+/PO43- ranges between 1.1 and 1.3. The applications of artificial intelligence (AI) to collect data on critical parameters control optimization, improve treatment effectiveness, and facilitate water utilities to upscale water treatment plants. Such infrastructure in the plants could enable the recovered materials to be reused to sustain food security. As nutrient recovery is crucial in wastewater treatment, water treatment plant operators need to consider (1) the costs of nutrient recovery techniques; (2) their applicability; (3) their benefits and implications. It is essential to note that the treatment cost of P and/or N-laden wastewater depends on the process applied and local conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phosphorus/analysis
  9. Liu Q, Wu TY, Tu W, Pu L
    J Sci Food Agric, 2023 Jan 30;103(2):908-916.
    PMID: 36067269 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.12202
    BACKGROUND: Relieving serious non-point source pollution of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) is an urgent task in China. It is necessary to explore the changing characteristics of chemical fertilization intensity (FI) and efficiency to provide references. A new method of 'relative productivity proportion weight', which was simpler than data envelope analysis, was proposed to construct models of fertilizer allocation efficiency (FAE) and chemical fertilizer integrated efficiency (FIE) by considering NPK multi-inputs and the grain output scale, respectively.

    RESULTS: During 1980-2014, the FIs of NPK chemical fertilizers in China showed a significant growing trend. After reaching the highest value of 339 kg ha-1 in 2014, FIs were reduced to 303 kg ha-1 in 2019, higher than the 225 kg ha-1 maximum safe usage internationally recognized. Meanwhile, the pattern of change of FAE was one of 'decreasing to increasing', with values of 1 in 1980, 0.66 in 2003, and 0.80 in 2019. FIE basically showed an increasing trend, which could be divided into three stages: the first stage of low efficiency during 1980-2009, the second stage of medium efficiency after 2010, and the third stage of high efficiency after 2018.

    CONCLUSION: From 1980 until 2019, a reduction of FAE from 1 to 0.80 with an average of 0.75 was observed in China. FIE was found between 0.65 and 0.85 and had the potential of upgrading by 15-35%. Therefore, China needs to improve the fertilizer use efficiency in order to strive for negative growth of chemical fertilizer intensity and ecological agriculture construction. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Phosphorus/analysis
  10. Chow MF, Yusop Z, Shirazi SM
    Environ Monit Assess, 2013 Oct;185(10):8321-31.
    PMID: 23591675 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-013-3175-6
    Information on the pollution level and the influence of hydrologic regime on the stormwater pollutant loading in tropical urban areas are still scarce. More local data are still required because rainfall and runoff generation processes in tropical environment are very different from the temperate regions. This study investigated the extent of urban runoff pollution in residential, commercial, and industrial catchments in the south of Peninsular Malaysia. Stormwater samples and flow rate data were collected from 51 storm events. Samples were analyzed for total suspended solids, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, oil and grease (O&G), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), nitrite nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphorus, total phosphorus (TP), and zinc (Zn). It was found that the event mean concentrations (EMCs) of pollutants varied greatly between storm characteristics and land uses. The results revealed that site EMCs for residential catchment were lower than the published data but higher for the commercial and industrial catchments. All rainfall variables were negatively correlated with EMCs of most pollutants except for antecedent dry days (ADD). This study reinforced the earlier findings on the importance of ADD for causing greater EMC values with exceptions for O&G, NO3-N, TP, and Zn. In contrast, the pollutant loadings are influenced primarily by rainfall depth, mean intensity, and max 5-min intensity in all the three catchments. Overall, ADD is an important variable in multiple linear regression models for predicting the EMC values in the tropical urban catchments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phosphorus/analysis
  11. Akinbile CO, Yusoff MS
    Int J Phytoremediation, 2012 Mar;14(3):201-11.
    PMID: 22567705
    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) were analyzed to determine their effectiveness in aquaculture wastewater treatment in Malaysia. Wastewater from fish farm in Semanggol Perak, Malaysia was sampled and the parameters determined included, the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrite phosphate (PO4(3-)), nitrate (NO(3-)), nitrite (NO(-2)), ammonia (NH3), and total kjedahl nitrogen (TKN). Also, hydroponics system was set up and was added with fresh plants weights of 150 +/- 20 grams Eichhornia crassipes and 50 +/- 10 grams Pistia stratiotes during the 30 days experiment. The phytoremediation treatment with Eichhornia crassipes had pH ranging from 5.52 to 5.59 and from 4.45 to 5.5 while Pistia stratiotes had its pH value from 5.76 to 6.49 and from 6.24 to 7.07. Considerable percentage reduction was observed in all the parameters treated with the phytoremediators. Percentage reduction of turbidity for Eichhornia crassipes were 85.26% and 87.05% while Pistia stratiotes were 92.70% and 93.69% respectively. Similar reductions were observed in COD, TKN, NO(3-), NH3, and PO4(3-). The capability of these plants in removing nutrients was established from the study. Removal of aquatic macrophytes from water bodies is recommended for efficient water purification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phosphorus/analysis
  12. Gikonyo EW, Zaharah AR, Hanafi MM, Anuar AR
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2011;11:1421-41.
    PMID: 21805012 DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2011.131
    Soil phosphorus (P) release capability could be assessed through the degree of P saturation (DPS). Our main objective was to determine DPS and, hence, P threshold DPS values of an Ultisol treated with triple superphosphate (TSP), Gafsa phosphate rocks (GPR), or Christmas Island phosphate rocks (CIPR), plus or minus manure. P release was determined by the iron oxide-impregnated paper strip (strip P), while DPS was determined from ammonium oxalate-extractable aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), and P. Soils were sampled from a closed incubation study involving soils treated with TSP, GPR, and CIPR at 0-400 mg P kg-1, and a field study where soils were fertilized with the same P sources at 100-300 kg P ha-1 plus or minus manure. The DPS was significantly influenced by P source x P rate, P source x manure (incubated soils), and by P source x P rate x time (field-sampled soils). Incubated soil results indicated that both initial P and total strip P were related to DPS by exponential functions: initial strip P = 1.38exp0.18DPS, R2 = 0.82** and total strip P = 8.01exp0.13DPS, R2 = 0.65**. Initial strip P was linearly related to total P; total P = 2.45, initial P + 8.41, R2 = 0.85**. The threshold DPS value established was about 22% (incubated soil). Field soils had lower DPS values <12% and strip P was related to initial DPS and average DPS in exponential functions: strip P = 2.6exp0.44DPS, R2 = 0.77** and strip P = 1.1DPS2 ¨C 2.4DPS + 6.2, R2 = 0.58**, respectively. The threshold values were both approximately equal to 8% and P release was 11-14 mg P kg-1. Results are evident that DPS can be used to predict P release, but the threshold values are environmentally sensitive; hence, recommendations should be based on field trials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phosphorus/analysis*
  13. Gikonyo EW, Zaharah AR, Hanafi MM, Anuar RA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2010 Sep 01;10:1679-93.
    PMID: 20842313 DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2010.174
    The effectiveness of different soil tests in assessing soil phosphorus (P) in soils amended with phosphate rocks (PRs) is uncertain. We evaluated the effects of triple superphosphate (TSP) and PRs on extractable P by conventional soil tests (Mehlich 3 [Meh3] and Bray-1 [B1]) and a nonconventional test (iron oxide-impregnated paper, strip). Extracted amounts of P were in the order: Meh3 >B1 > strip. All the tests were significantly correlated (p = 0.001). Acidic reagents extracted more P from TSP than PRs, while the strip removed equal amounts from the two sources. The P removed by the three tests was related significantly to dry matter yield (DMY), but only in the first harvest, except for B1. Established critical P levels (CPLs) differed for TSP and PRs. In PR-fertilized soils, CPLs were 27, 17, and 12 mg P kg(-1) soil for Meh3, B1, and strip, respectively, and 42, 31, and 12 mg P kg(-1) soil, respectively, in TSP-fertilized soils. Thus, the strip resulted in a common CPL for TSP and PRs (12 mg P kg(-1) soil). This method can be used effectively in soils where integrated nutrient sources have been used, but there is need to establish CPLs for different crops. For cost-effective fertilizer P recommendations based on conventional soil tests, there is a need to conduct separate calibrations for TSP- and PR-fertilized soils.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phosphorus/analysis*
  14. Zahed MA, Aziz HA, Isa MH, Mohajeri L, Mohajeri S
    Bioresour Technol, 2010 Dec;101(24):9455-60.
    PMID: 20705460 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.07.077
    To determine the influence of nutrients on the rate of biodegradation, a five-level, three-factor central composite design (CCD) was employed for bioremediation of seawater artificially contaminated with crude oil. Removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was the dependent variable. Samples were extracted and analyzed according to US-EPA protocols. A significant (R(2)=0.9645, P<0.0001) quadratic polynomial mathematical model was generated. Removal from samples not subjected to optimization and removal by natural attenuation were 53.3% and 22.6%, respectively. Numerical optimization was carried out based on desirability functions for maximum TPH removal. For an initial crude oil concentration of 1g/L supplemented with 190.21 mg/L nitrogen and 12.71 mg/L phosphorus, the Design-Expert software predicted 60.9% hydrocarbon removal; 58.6% removal was observed in a 28-day experiment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phosphorus/analysis
  15. Haruna Ahmed O, Aainaa Hasbullah N, Ab Majid NM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2010 Oct 12;10:1988-95.
    PMID: 20953548 DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2010.196
    The world's tropical rainforests are decreasing at an alarming rate as they are converted to agricultural land, pasture, and plantations. Decreasing tropical forests affect global warming. As a result, afforestation progams have been suggested to mitigate this problem. The objective of this study was to determine the carbon and phosphorus accumulation of a rehabilitated forest of different ages. The size of the study area was 47.5 ha. Soil samples were collected from the 0-, 6-, 12-, and 17-year-old rehabilitated forest. Twenty samples were taken randomly with a soil auger at depths of 0-20 and 20-40 cm. The procedures outlined in the Materials and Methods section were used to analyze the soil samples for pH, total C, organic matter, total P, C/P ratio, yield of humic acid (HA), and cation exchange capacity (CEC). The soil pH decreased significantly with increasing age of forest rehabilitation regardless of depth. Age did not affect CEC of the rehabilitated forest. Soil organic matter (SOM), total C, and total P contents increased with age. However, C/P ratio decreased with time at 0-20 cm. Accumulation of HA with time and soil depth was not consistent. The rehabilitated forest has shown signs of being a C and P sink.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phosphorus/analysis*
  16. Ab-Ghani Z, Ngo H, McIntyre J
    Aust Dent J, 2007 Dec;52(4):276-81.
    PMID: 18265682
    BACKGROUND: There have been cononcerns about the dissolution of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) and its possible degradation when exposed to an acidic environment over time. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure of Fuji IX Fast to the simulated acidic aspects of the oral environment in terms of any change in the elemental composition of strontium (Sr), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and fluorine (F) which resulted at the surface of this material.

    METHODS: Sixty-five cylindrical block of Fuji IX Fast were prepared using split moulds. The demineralizing solution was an acetate buffered demineralizing solution at pH 403. The remineralizing solution was a buffered solution containing 1.5 mM Ca, 0.9 mM P and 10 ppm F at pH 7. The blocks of Fuji IX Fast were subjected either to two-day alternating cycles of remineralization and demineralization for up to 24 days (test); 6 two-day cycles of demineralizing or remineralizing solution separately, or deionized distilled water alone (controls) or were left untreated (base line control). Mineral profiles of Ca, P, Sr and F within 100 microm of the material surface were assessed following 8, 16 and 24 days of treatment (test); 4, 8 or 12 days (controls) or for baseline control samples, using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA).

    RESULTS: There were significant changes in mineral profile in the test specimens in terms of Sr and Ca concentrations. A molecule for molecule exchange of these elements resulted between GIC and eluant solutions. Fluoride loss from the GIC occurredto the level comparable with uptake levels recorded in eluant solutions from previous studies. The ionic exchanges appeared to be the result of dissolution followed by an equilibrium-driven diffusion. These exchanges were superficial though substantial.

    CONCLUSIONS: Simulated exposure of Fuji IX to the oral environment resulted in an exchange of Ca from the bathing solutions into Fuji IX to replace any Sr which was lost to the GIC. Fluorine loss from the GIC followed previously described patterns. The possible clinical significance of this exchange was discussed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Phosphorus/analysis
  17. Yaser AZ, Abd Rahman R, Kalil MS
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2007 Dec 15;10(24):4473-8.
    PMID: 19093514
    Composting of Palm Oil Mill Sludge (POMS) with sawdust was conducted in natural aerated reactor. Composting using natural aerated reactor is cheap and simple. The goal of this study is to observe the potential of composting process and utilizing compost as media for growing Cymbopogun citratus, one of Malaysia herbal plant. The highest maximum temperature achieved is about 40 degrees C and to increase temperature bed, more biodegradable substrate needs to be added. The pH value decrease along the process with final pH compost is acidic (pH 5.7). The highest maximum organic losses are about 50% with final C/N ratio of the compost is about 19. Final compost also showed some fertilizing value but need to be adjusted to obtain an ideal substrate. Addition of about 70% sandy soil causes highest yield and excellent root development for C. citratus in potted media. Beside that, compost from POMS-sawdust also found to have fertilizer value and easy to handle. Composting of POMS with sawdust shows potential as an alternative treatment to dispose and recycle waste components.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phosphorus/analysis
  18. Praveena SM, Aris AZ
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2013 Feb 15;67(1-2):196-9.
    PMID: 23260650 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.11.037
    Tidal variation in tropical coastal water plays an important role on physicochemical characteristics and nutrients concentration. Baseline measurements were made for nutrients concentration and physicochemical properties of coastal water, Port Dickson, Malaysia. pH, temperature, oxidation reduction potential, salinity and electrical conductivity have high values at high tides. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was used to understand spatial variation of nutrients and physicochemical pattern of Port Dickson coastal water at high and low tide. Four principal components of PCA were extracted at low and high tides. Positively loaded nutrients with negative loadings of DO, pH and ORP in PCA outputs indicated nutrients contribution related with pollution sources. This study output will be a baseline frame for future studies in Port Dickson involving water and sediment samples. Water and sediment samples of future monitoring studies in Port Dickson coastal water will help in understanding of coastal water chemistry and pollution sources.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phosphorus/analysis
  19. Muhamad MH, Sheikh Abdullah SR, Abu Hasan H, Abd Rahim RA
    J Environ Manage, 2015 Nov 1;163:115-24.
    PMID: 26311084 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.08.012
    The complexity of residual toxic organics from biologically treated effluents of pulp and paper mills is a serious concern. To date, it has been difficult to choose the best treatment technique because each of the available options has advantages and drawbacks. In this study, two different treatment techniques using laboratory-scale aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were tested with the same real recycled paper mill effluent to evaluate their treatment efficiencies. Two attached-growth SBRs using granular activated carbon (GAC) with and without additional biomass and a suspended-growth SBR were used in the treatment of real recycled paper mill effluent at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) level in the range of 800-1300 mg/L, a fixed hydraulic retention time of 24 h and a COD:N:P ratio of approximately 100:5:1. The efficiency of this biological treatment process was studied over a 300-day period. The six most important wastewater quality parameters, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, ammonia (expressed as NH3-N), phosphorus (expressed as PO4(3)-P), colour, and suspended solids (SS), were measured to compare the different treatment techniques. It was determined that these processes were able to almost completely and simultaneously eliminate COD (99%) and turbidity (99%); the removals of NH3-N (90-100%), PO4(3)-P (66-78%), colour (63-91%), and SS (97-99%) were also sufficient. The overall performance results confirmed that an attached-growth SBR system using additional biomass on GAC is a promising configuration for wastewater treatment in terms of performance efficiency and process stability under fluctuations of organic load. Hence, this hybrid system is recommended for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phosphorus/analysis
  20. Alongi DM, Chong VC, Dixon P, Sasekumar A, Tirendi F
    Mar Environ Res, 2003 May;55(4):313-33.
    PMID: 12517423
    The impact of floating net cages culturing the seabass, Lates calcarifer, on planktonic processes and water chemistry in two heavily used mangrove estuaries in Malaysia was examined. Concentrations of dissolved inorganic and particulate nutrients were usually greater in cage vs. adjacent (approximately 100 m) non-cage waters, although most variability in water-column chemistry related to water depth and tides. There were few consistent differences in plankton abundance, production or respiration between cage and non-cage sites. Rates of primary production were low compared with rates of pelagic mineralization reflecting high suspended loads coupled with large inputs of organic matter from mangrove forests, fishing villages, fish cages, pig farms and other industries within the catchment. Our preliminary sampling did not reveal any large-scale eutrophication due to the cages. A crude estimate of the contribution of fish cage inputs to the estuaries shows that fish cages contribute only approximately 2% of C but greater percentages of N (32-36%) and P (83-99%) to these waters relative to phytoplankton and mangrove inputs. Isolating and detecting impacts of cage culture in such heavily used waterways--a situation typical of most mangrove estuaries in Southeast Asia--are constrained by a background of large, highly variable fluxes of organic material derived from extensive mangrove forests and other human activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Phosphorus/analysis
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