In this study, a hybridized neuro-genetic optimization methodology realized by embedding numerical simulations trained artificial neural networks (ANN) into a genetic algorithm (GA) is used to optimize the flow rectification efficiency of the diffuser element for a valveless diaphragm micropump application. A higher efficiency ratio of the diffuser element consequently yields a higher flow rate for the micropump. For that purpose, optimization of the diffuser element is essential to determine the maximum pumping rate that the micropump is able to generate. Numerical simulations are initially carried out using CoventorWare® to analyze the effects of varying parameters such as diffuser angle, Reynolds number and aspect ratio on the volumetric flow rate of the micropump. A limited range of simulation results will then be used to train the neural network via back-propagation algorithm and optimization process commence subsequently by embedding the trained ANN results as a fitness function into GA. The objective of the optimization is to maximize the efficiency ratio of the diffuser element for the range of parameters investigated. The optimized efficiency ratio obtained from the neuro-genetic optimization is 1.38, which is higher than any of the maximum efficiency ratio attained from the overall parametric studies, establishing the superiority of the optimization method.
The building sector consumes about forty percent of world energy, making energy efficiency in existing buildings an important issue. This study has been undertaken to investigate energy consumption of a building that has been redesigned to incorporate energy efficient features. It was found that the introduction of energy efficient features has helped to achieve savings up to 46% of the total spent on energy particularly based on electricity bills.
The water flow-like algorithm (WFA) is a relatively new metaheuristic algorithm, which has shown good solution for the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) and is comparable to state of the art results. The basic WFA for TSP uses a 2-opt searching method to decide a water flow splitting decision. Previous algorithms, such as the Ant Colony System for the TSP, has shown that using k-opt (k>2) improves the solution, but increases its complexity exponentially. Therefore, this paper aims to present the performance of the WFA-TSP using 3-opt and 4-opt, respectively, compare them with the basic WFA-TSP using 2-opt and the state of the art algorithms. The algorithms are evaluated using 16 benchmarks TSP datasets. The experimental results show that the proposed WFA-TSP-4opt outperforms in solution quality compare with others, due to its capacity of more exploration and less convergence.
Exohedral cuprofullerenes with 6-, 12-, or 24-nuclearity were obtained by utilizing fluorocarboxylic/dicarboxylic acid under solvothermal conditions. The 24-nuclear molecule presents a C60@Cu24 core-shell structure with a rhombicuboctahedron Cu24 coated on the C60 core, representing the highest nuclearity in metallofullerene. The resultant complexes show an efficient absorption of visible light as opposed to the pristine C60. TD-DFT calculations revealed the charge transfer from Cu(I) and O atoms to the fullerene moiety dominates the photophysical process.
The transition of orthogonal smectic A (SmA) phase to the tilted phases, upon lowering the temperature, is explored with a discrete phenomenological model and the phase diagrams are presented. The results show that the transition of SmA to uniplanar structures can be affected by the effect of chirality. The areas showing the uniplanar phase in the phase diagrams diminish with the increase in effect of chirality.
Differential cross sections for excitation to the n=2 states of atomic helium by electrons were computed for incident energies in the range from 30 to 50 eV. The n=2 states excitation cross sections are calculated with the use of closecoupling expansion with a non-orthogonal Laguerre-L2 basis function. The present status of agreement between theory and experiment for excitation of the ground-state was quite satisfactory.
We report the first observation of the spontaneous polarization of Λ and Λ[over ¯] hyperons transverse to the production plane in e^{+}e^{-} annihilation, which is attributed to the effect arising from a polarizing fragmentation function. For inclusive Λ/Λ[over ¯] production, we also report results with subtracted feed-down contributions from Σ^{0} and charm. This measurement uses a dataset of 800.4 fb^{-1} collected by the Belle experiment at or near a center-of-mass energy of 10.58 GeV. We observe a significant polarization that rises with the fractional energy carried by the Λ/Λ[over ¯] hyperon.
In this paper, we first present a 6-point binary interpolating subdivision scheme (BISS) which produces a C2 continuous curve and 4th order of approximation. Then as an application of the scheme, we develop an iterative algorithm for the solution of 2nd order nonlinear singularly per-turbed boundary value problems (NSPBVP). The convergence of an iterative algorithm has also been presented. The 2nd order NSPBVP arising from combustion, chemical reactor theory, nuclear engi-neering, control theory, elasticity, and fluid mechanics can be solved by an iterative algorithm with 4th order of approximation.
The newtonian and special-relativistic statistical predictions for the mean, standard deviation and probability density function of the position and momentum are compared for the periodically-delta-kicked particle at low speed. Contrary to expectation, we find that the statistical predictions, which are calculated from the same parameters and initial gaussian ensemble of trajectories, do not always agree if the initial ensemble is sufficiently well-localized in phase space. Moreover, the breakdown of agreement is very fast if the trajectories in the ensemble are chaotic, but very slow if the trajectories in the ensemble are non-chaotic. The breakdown of agreement implies that special-relativistic mechanics must be used, instead of the standard practice of using newtonian mechanics, to correctly calculate the statistical predictions for the dynamics of a low-speed system.
According to recent researches, angle shear connectors are appropriate to transfer longitudinal shear forces across the steel-concrete interface. Angle steel profile has been used in different positions as L-shaped or C-shaped shear connectors. The application of angle shear connectors in tilted positions is of interest in this study. This study investigates the behaviour of tilted-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic loading using experimental push out tests. Eight push-out specimens are tested to investigate the effects of different angle parameters on the ultimate load capacity of connectors. Two different tilted angles of 112.5 and 135 degrees between the angle leg and steel beam are considered. In addition, angle sizes and lengths are varied. Two different failure modes were observed consisting of concrete crushing-splitting and connector fracture. By increasing the size of connector, the maximum load increased for most cases. In general, the 135 degrees tilted angle shear connectors have a higher strength and stiffness than the 112.5 degrees type.
Evidence for C-H···π(CuCl···HNCS) interactions, i.e. C-H···π(quasi-chelate ring) where a six-membered quasi-chelate ring is closed by an N-H···Cl hydrogen bond, is presented based on crystal structure analyses of (Ph3P)2Cu[ROC(=S)N(H)Ph]Cl. Similar intramolecular interactions are identified in related literature structures. Calculations suggest that the energy of attraction provided by such interactions approximates 3.5 kcal mol(-1).
High-speed current controller for vector controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is presented. The controller is developed based on modular design for faster calculation and uses fixed-point proportional-integral (PI) method for improved accuracy. Current dq controller is usually implemented in digital signal processor (DSP) based computer. However, DSP based solutions are reaching their physical limits, which are few microseconds. Besides, digital solutions suffer from high implementation cost. In this research, the overall controller is realizing in field programmable gate array (FPGA). FPGA implementation of the overall controlling algorithm will certainly trim down the execution time significantly to guarantee the steadiness of the motor. Agilent 16821A Logic Analyzer is employed to validate the result of the implemented design in FPGA. Experimental results indicate that the proposed current dq PI controller needs only 50 ns of execution time in 40 MHz clock, which is the lowest computational cycle for the era.
This paper is about the stagnation point flow and mass transfer with chemical reaction past a stretching/shrinking cylinder. The governing partial differential equations in cylindrical form are transformed into ordinary differential equations by a similarity transformation. The transformed equations are solved numerically using a shooting method. Results for the skin friction coefficient, Schmidt number, velocity profiles as well as concentration profiles are presented for different values of the governing parameters. Effects of the curvature parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter and Schmidt number on the flow and mass transfer characteristics are examined. The study indicates that dual solutions exist for the shrinking cylinder but for the stretching cylinder, the solution is unique. It is observed that the surface shear stress and the mass transfer rate at the surface increase as the curvature parameter increases.
In this paper, we generalize the theory of Brownian motion and the Onsager-Machlup theory of fluctuations for spatially symmetric systems to equilibrium and nonequilibrium steady-state systems with a preferred spatial direction, due to an external force. To do this, we extend the Langevin equation to include a bias, which is introduced by an external force and alters the Gaussian structure of the system's fluctuations. In addition, by solving this extended equation, we provide a physical interpretation for the statistical properties of the fluctuations in these systems. Connections of the extended Langevin equation with the theory of active Brownian motion are discussed as well.
A new smart grid system is widely used for energy supply system because it is simple, available, low cost, high efficiency and environmentally friendly. Conventionally, inverter techniques are utilised to convert input DC into output AC with the same frequency and phase. This process suffers the same problem which is a higher harmonic distortion, phase synchronisation, lower quality of waveform and long distance, among others. In this paper, three phase synchronous inverters (PSI) were used to direct synchronous PWM control, LCL filter, three phase RLC load, three phase Yg-Delta transformer, 5 km feeder with 2 MW load. PWM was used to generate the pulse signal for synchronisation. However, LCL filters were used to remove the noise in inverter output and transformer output side of the design. A balanced three phase load (10 kVAR) and also the input DC voltage 500 V were considered in this design. Three phase transformer (100kVA/260V/25kV) was used to increase the inverter output voltage and current with the fundamental frequency (50 Hz). The system conversion efficiency was 99.96% and phase synchronous error for each phase was approximately 4.5 degrees.
In this paper, the application of the method of lines (MOL) to the Forced
Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation with variable coefficient (FKdVB) is presented.
The MOL is a powerful technique for solving partial differential equations by typically
using finite-difference approximations for the spatial derivatives and ordinary differential
equations (ODEs) for the time derivative. The MOL approach of the FKdVB
equation leads to a system of ODEs. The solution of the system of ODEs is obtained
by applying the Fourth-Order Runge-Kutta (RK4) method. The numerical solution
obtained is then compared with its progressive wave solution in order to show the
accuracy of the MOL method.
This paper discusses the harmonic analysis of the AC-to-DC uncontrolled converters commonly used in electric vehicles charging station. The aim of this paper is to model and simulate different rectifier models in addition to explaining the differences in input current harmonics, the total Harmonic Distortion (THD) as well as the power factor (pf). The converter configurations include single-phase bridge, 6-pulse and 12-pulse rectifier circuits. The single phase is normally used for electric scooter charging, while three-phase converters can be used for both electric bus and car charging. The circuit configurations of the rectifiers were modelled and simulated using Matlab R2014a to achieve the objective of the study. The results revealed that the THD levels were extremely high which is unacceptable if the system is connected to the utility grid.
Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) method is widely used as a modulation technique
to drive a three-phase inverter. It is an advanced computational intensive method used in pulse width modulation (PWM) algorithm for the three-phase voltage source inverter. Compared with the other PWM techniques, SVPWM is easier to implement, thus, it is the most preferred technique among others. Mathematical model for SVPWM was developed using MATLAB/ Simulink software. In this paper, the interface between MATLAB Simulink with the three-phase inverter by using Arduino Uno microcontroller is proposed. Arduino Uno generates the SVPWM signals for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) and is described in this paper. This work consists of software and hardware implementations. Simulation was done via Matlab/Simulink software to verify the effectiveness of the system and to measure the percentage of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). The results show that SVPWM technique is able to drive the three-phase inverter with the Arduino UNO.
This study deals with the steady laminar slip flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid in a non-uniform permeable channel under the influence of transverse magnetic field. The reabsorption through the wall is accounted for by considering flux as a function of downstream distance. The non-linear coupled partial differential equations of motion are first transformed into a single fourth order partial differential equation and then solved analytically using Adomain decomposition method. Effects of pertinent parameters on different flow properties are discussed by plotting graphs. Results reveal that magnetic field considerably influences the behavior of flow.
The main purpose of this study is to determine shoreline change in Bengkalis Cape, Riau Province, Indonesia using sediment samples analysis, satellite images, and oceanographic parameters. The samples were collected at five stations by using sediment grab and oceanographic observation was also carried out at each station in November 2015. The southern part of Bengkalis Cape is characterised by fine-grain sediments (mud) and high rate of accretion that reaches 29.77 metre/year, and is influenced by weak tidal currents with a velocity of less than 0.06 m/s and low wave energy. In contrast, the northern part is occupied by coarse-grain sediments (sand) which is characterised by high rate of abrasion as shown in the image data for 20 years; 1995-2015 reaches 38.02 metre/year, and is under the influence of strong tidal current (0.16 m/s) and high wave energy. The major contributing factor for the shoreline change is the current system which flowing from Malacca strait to the shore area and sediments deposition in the area.