In this study, a hybridized neuro-genetic optimization methodology realized by embedding numerical simulations trained artificial neural networks (ANN) into a genetic algorithm (GA) is used to optimize the flow rectification efficiency of the diffuser element for a valveless diaphragm micropump application. A higher efficiency ratio of the diffuser element consequently yields a higher flow rate for the micropump. For that purpose, optimization of the diffuser element is essential to determine the maximum pumping rate that the micropump is able to generate. Numerical simulations are initially carried out using CoventorWare® to analyze the effects of varying parameters such as diffuser angle, Reynolds number and aspect ratio on the volumetric flow rate of the micropump. A limited range of simulation results will then be used to train the neural network via back-propagation algorithm and optimization process commence subsequently by embedding the trained ANN results as a fitness function into GA. The objective of the optimization is to maximize the efficiency ratio of the diffuser element for the range of parameters investigated. The optimized efficiency ratio obtained from the neuro-genetic optimization is 1.38, which is higher than any of the maximum efficiency ratio attained from the overall parametric studies, establishing the superiority of the optimization method.
Exohedral cuprofullerenes with 6-, 12-, or 24-nuclearity were obtained by utilizing fluorocarboxylic/dicarboxylic acid under solvothermal conditions. The 24-nuclear molecule presents a C60@Cu24 core-shell structure with a rhombicuboctahedron Cu24 coated on the C60 core, representing the highest nuclearity in metallofullerene. The resultant complexes show an efficient absorption of visible light as opposed to the pristine C60. TD-DFT calculations revealed the charge transfer from Cu(I) and O atoms to the fullerene moiety dominates the photophysical process.
In this paper, we first present a 6-point binary interpolating subdivision scheme (BISS) which produces a C2 continuous curve and 4th order of approximation. Then as an application of the scheme, we develop an iterative algorithm for the solution of 2nd order nonlinear singularly per-turbed boundary value problems (NSPBVP). The convergence of an iterative algorithm has also been presented. The 2nd order NSPBVP arising from combustion, chemical reactor theory, nuclear engi-neering, control theory, elasticity, and fluid mechanics can be solved by an iterative algorithm with 4th order of approximation.
The building sector consumes about forty percent of world energy, making energy efficiency in existing buildings an important issue. This study has been undertaken to investigate energy consumption of a building that has been redesigned to incorporate energy efficient features. It was found that the introduction of energy efficient features has helped to achieve savings up to 46% of the total spent on energy particularly based on electricity bills.
The water flow-like algorithm (WFA) is a relatively new metaheuristic algorithm, which has shown good solution for the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) and is comparable to state of the art results. The basic WFA for TSP uses a 2-opt searching method to decide a water flow splitting decision. Previous algorithms, such as the Ant Colony System for the TSP, has shown that using k-opt (k>2) improves the solution, but increases its complexity exponentially. Therefore, this paper aims to present the performance of the WFA-TSP using 3-opt and 4-opt, respectively, compare them with the basic WFA-TSP using 2-opt and the state of the art algorithms. The algorithms are evaluated using 16 benchmarks TSP datasets. The experimental results show that the proposed WFA-TSP-4opt outperforms in solution quality compare with others, due to its capacity of more exploration and less convergence.
The transition of orthogonal smectic A (SmA) phase to the tilted phases, upon lowering the temperature, is explored with a discrete phenomenological model and the phase diagrams are presented. The results show that the transition of SmA to uniplanar structures can be affected by the effect of chirality. The areas showing the uniplanar phase in the phase diagrams diminish with the increase in effect of chirality.
Differential cross sections for excitation to the n=2 states of atomic helium by electrons were computed for incident energies in the range from 30 to 50 eV. The n=2 states excitation cross sections are calculated with the use of closecoupling expansion with a non-orthogonal Laguerre-L2 basis function. The present status of agreement between theory and experiment for excitation of the ground-state was quite satisfactory.
We report the first observation of the spontaneous polarization of Λ and Λ[over ¯] hyperons transverse to the production plane in e^{+}e^{-} annihilation, which is attributed to the effect arising from a polarizing fragmentation function. For inclusive Λ/Λ[over ¯] production, we also report results with subtracted feed-down contributions from Σ^{0} and charm. This measurement uses a dataset of 800.4 fb^{-1} collected by the Belle experiment at or near a center-of-mass energy of 10.58 GeV. We observe a significant polarization that rises with the fractional energy carried by the Λ/Λ[over ¯] hyperon.
The newtonian and special-relativistic statistical predictions for the mean, standard deviation and probability density function of the position and momentum are compared for the periodically-delta-kicked particle at low speed. Contrary to expectation, we find that the statistical predictions, which are calculated from the same parameters and initial gaussian ensemble of trajectories, do not always agree if the initial ensemble is sufficiently well-localized in phase space. Moreover, the breakdown of agreement is very fast if the trajectories in the ensemble are chaotic, but very slow if the trajectories in the ensemble are non-chaotic. The breakdown of agreement implies that special-relativistic mechanics must be used, instead of the standard practice of using newtonian mechanics, to correctly calculate the statistical predictions for the dynamics of a low-speed system.
According to recent researches, angle shear connectors are appropriate to transfer longitudinal shear forces across the steel-concrete interface. Angle steel profile has been used in different positions as L-shaped or C-shaped shear connectors. The application of angle shear connectors in tilted positions is of interest in this study. This study investigates the behaviour of tilted-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic loading using experimental push out tests. Eight push-out specimens are tested to investigate the effects of different angle parameters on the ultimate load capacity of connectors. Two different tilted angles of 112.5 and 135 degrees between the angle leg and steel beam are considered. In addition, angle sizes and lengths are varied. Two different failure modes were observed consisting of concrete crushing-splitting and connector fracture. By increasing the size of connector, the maximum load increased for most cases. In general, the 135 degrees tilted angle shear connectors have a higher strength and stiffness than the 112.5 degrees type.
Evidence for C-H···π(CuCl···HNCS) interactions, i.e. C-H···π(quasi-chelate ring) where a six-membered quasi-chelate ring is closed by an N-H···Cl hydrogen bond, is presented based on crystal structure analyses of (Ph3P)2Cu[ROC(=S)N(H)Ph]Cl. Similar intramolecular interactions are identified in related literature structures. Calculations suggest that the energy of attraction provided by such interactions approximates 3.5 kcal mol(-1).
High-speed current controller for vector controlled permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is presented. The controller is developed based on modular design for faster calculation and uses fixed-point proportional-integral (PI) method for improved accuracy. Current dq controller is usually implemented in digital signal processor (DSP) based computer. However, DSP based solutions are reaching their physical limits, which are few microseconds. Besides, digital solutions suffer from high implementation cost. In this research, the overall controller is realizing in field programmable gate array (FPGA). FPGA implementation of the overall controlling algorithm will certainly trim down the execution time significantly to guarantee the steadiness of the motor. Agilent 16821A Logic Analyzer is employed to validate the result of the implemented design in FPGA. Experimental results indicate that the proposed current dq PI controller needs only 50 ns of execution time in 40 MHz clock, which is the lowest computational cycle for the era.
This paper is about the stagnation point flow and mass transfer with chemical reaction past a stretching/shrinking cylinder. The governing partial differential equations in cylindrical form are transformed into ordinary differential equations by a similarity transformation. The transformed equations are solved numerically using a shooting method. Results for the skin friction coefficient, Schmidt number, velocity profiles as well as concentration profiles are presented for different values of the governing parameters. Effects of the curvature parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter and Schmidt number on the flow and mass transfer characteristics are examined. The study indicates that dual solutions exist for the shrinking cylinder but for the stretching cylinder, the solution is unique. It is observed that the surface shear stress and the mass transfer rate at the surface increase as the curvature parameter increases.
We report the observation of ϒ(2S)→γη_{b}(1S) decay based on an analysis of the inclusive photon spectrum of 24.7 fb^{-1} of e^{+}e^{-} collisions at the ϒ(2S) center-of-mass energy collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e^{+}e^{-} collider. We measure a branching fraction of B[ϒ(2S)→γη_{b}(1S)]=(6.1_{-0.7-0.6}^{+0.6+0.9})×10^{-4} and derive an η_{b}(1S) mass of 9394.8_{-3.1-2.7}^{+2.7+4.5} MeV/c^{2}, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. The significance of our measurement is greater than 7 standard deviations, constituting the first observation of this decay mode.
We present first evidence that the cosine of the CP-violating weak phase 2β is positive, and hence exclude trigonometric multifold solutions of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) Unitarity Triangle using a time-dependent Dalitz plot analysis of B^{0}→D^{(*)}h^{0} with D→K_{S}^{0}π^{+}π^{-} decays, where h^{0}∈{π^{0},η,ω} denotes a light unflavored and neutral hadron. The measurement is performed combining the final data sets of the BABAR and Belle experiments collected at the ϒ(4S) resonance at the asymmetric-energy B factories PEP-II at SLAC and KEKB at KEK, respectively. The data samples contain (471±3)×10^{6}BB[over ¯] pairs recorded by the BABAR detector and (772±11)×10^{6}BB[over ¯] pairs recorded by the Belle detector. The results of the measurement are sin2β=0.80±0.14(stat)±0.06(syst)±0.03(model) and cos2β=0.91±0.22(stat)±0.09(syst)±0.07(model). The result for the direct measurement of the angle β of the CKM Unitarity Triangle is β=[22.5±4.4(stat)±1.2(syst)±0.6(model)]°. The measurement assumes no direct CP violation in B^{0}→D^{(*)}h^{0} decays. The quoted model uncertainties are due to the composition of the D^{0}→K_{S}^{0}π^{+}π^{-} decay amplitude model, which is newly established by performing a Dalitz plot amplitude analysis using a high-statistics e^{+}e^{-}→cc[over ¯] data sample. CP violation is observed in B^{0}→D^{(*)}h^{0} decays at the level of 5.1 standard deviations. The significance for cos2β>0 is 3.7 standard deviations. The trigonometric multifold solution π/2-β=(68.1±0.7)° is excluded at the level of 7.3 standard deviations. The measurement resolves an ambiguity in the determination of the apex of the CKM Unitarity Triangle.
In this paper, we look at the propagation of internal solitary waves over three
different types of slowly varying region, i.e. a slowly increasing slope, a smooth bump and
a parabolic mound in a two-layer fluid flow. The appropriate mathematical model for this
problem is the variable-coefficient extended Korteweg-de Vries equation. The governing
equation is then solved numerically using the method of lines. Our numerical simulations
show that the internal solitary waves deforms adiabatically on the slowly increasing slope.
At the same time, a trailing shelf is generated as the internal solitary wave propagates
over the slope, which would then decompose into secondary solitary waves or a wavetrain.
On the other hand, when internal solitary waves propagate over a smooth bump or a
parabolic mound, a trailing shelf of negative polarity would be generated as the results of
the interaction of the internal solitary wave with the decreasing slope of the bump or the
parabolic mound. The secondary solitary waves is observed to be climbing the negative
trailing shelf.
Partial differential equations involve results of unknown functions when there are multiple independent variables. There is a need for analytical solutions to ensure partial differential equations could be solved accurately. Thus, these partial differential equations could be solved using the right initial and boundaries conditions. In this light, boundary conditions depend on the general solution; the partial differential equations should present particular solutions when paired with varied boundary conditions. This study analysed the use of variable separation to provide an analytical solution of the homogeneous, one-dimensional heat equation. This study is applied to varied boundary conditions to examine the flow attributes of the heat equation. The solution is verified through different boundary conditions: Dirichlet, Neumann, and mixed-insulated boundary conditions. the initial value was kept constant despite the varied boundary conditions. There are two significant findings in this study. First, the temperature profile changes are influenced by the boundary conditions, and that the boundary conditions are dependent on the heat equation’s flow attributes.
In this paper, we propose a non-localization routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs), namely, the triangle metric based multi-layered routing protocol (TM2RP). The main idea of the proposed TM2RP is to utilize supernodes along with depth information and residual energy to balance the energy consumption between sensors. Moreover, TM2RP is the first multi-layered and multi-metric pressure routing protocol that considers link quality with residual energy to improve the selection of next forwarding nodes with more reliable and energy-efficient links. The aqua-sim package based on the ns-2 simulator was used to evaluate the performance of the proposed TM2RP. The obtained results were compared to other similar methods such as depth based routing (DBR) and multi-layered routing protocol (MRP). Simulation results showed that the proposed protocol (TM2RP) obtained better outcomes in terms of energy consumption, network lifetime, packet delivery ratio, and end-to-end delay.
Moisture damage in hot mix asphalt pavements is a periodic but persistent problem nowadays, even though laboratory testing is performed to identify different moisture-susceptible mixtures. In this study, a Hamburg Wheel Tracking device (HWTD) was used for rutting tests which were conducted on control and a high percentage of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP), i.e., 30%, 50% and 100% of virgin mixtures, under air dry and water-immersed conditions. Similarly, the extracted bitumen from RAP was tested for binder physical properties. Results showed that the asphalt mixtures containing RAP have less rut depth as compared to the control mix both in air dry and immersion conditions and hence showed better anti-rutting properties and moisture stability. Stripping performance of control and RAP containing mixtures was also checked, concluding that the RAP mixture was greatly dependent on the interaction between the binder (virgin plus aged) and aggregates.
We report on the first Belle search for a light CP-odd Higgs boson, A^{0}, that decays into low mass dark matter, χ, in final states with a single photon and missing energy. We search for events produced via the dipion transition ϒ(2S)→ϒ(1S)π^{+}π^{-}, followed by the on-shell process ϒ(1S)→γA^{0} with A^{0}→χχ, or by the off-shell process ϒ(1S)→γχχ. Utilizing a data sample of 157.3×10^{6} ϒ(2S) decays, we find no evidence for a signal. We set limits on the branching fractions of such processes in the mass ranges M_{A^{0}}<8.97 GeV/c^{2} and M_{χ}<4.44 GeV/c^{2}. We then use the limits on the off-shell process to set competitive limits on WIMP-nucleon scattering in the WIMP mass range below 5 GeV/c^{2}.