Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 33 in total

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  1. Lee YY, Medford AR, Halim AS
    J R Coll Physicians Edinb, 2015;45(2):104-7.
    PMID: 26181523 DOI: 10.4997/JRCPE.2015.203
    Increasing numbers of doctors are experiencing burnout now more than ever before and the worrying part is that what we see is just the tip of the iceberg. Burnout, a state of mental exhaustion caused by the doctor's professional life, is characterised by emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and a reduced sense of accomplishment or success. Burnout has been largely ignored or under-recognised previously. This paper provides a perspective on burnout among doctors, including an overview of symptoms, the scale of the problem, the implications and causes of burnout and, finally, a strategic framework to provide a basis for managing it. Most importantly, professional bodies are urged to start taking steps to help troubled doctors. Medical Colleges should provide essential assistance, support and guidance as well as ensuring fair management and promotion policies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians/psychology*
  2. Al-Dubai SA, Rampal KG
    J Occup Health, 2010;52(1):58-65.
    PMID: 19907108
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the level and factors contributing to burnout among doctors in Sana'a City, Yemen and to determine the relationship between burnout and psychological morbidity.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 563 working doctors in the four main hospitals in Sana'a City, Yemen. The 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) was used as a measure of psychological morbidity and the 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to measure emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Sources of job stress were determined using a 37-item scale questionnaire. The questionnaire elicited information about socio-demographic and work characteristics.

    RESULTS: On the MBI, 356 doctors showed high emotional exhaustion (63.2%), 109 showed high depersonalization (19.4%) and 186 showed low personal accomplishment (33.0%). Sixty six doctors (11.7%) were identified as experiencing a high degree of burnout (high emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and low personal accomplishment). The prevalence of high degree of burnout was significantly higher in those with duration of work or=40 h/wk (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.25-3.62) and in those who had psychological morbidity (OR=5.3, 95% CI 2.22-12.39). Thirteen out of 37 sources of stress were significantly associated with high degree of burnout. In multivariate analysis, the significant predictors of high burnout were: dealing with patient's psychosocial problems, feeling of isolation, disturbance of home/family life by work, not chewing khat, long working hours and psychological morbidity.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of high degree of burnout as well as emotional exhaustion in Yemeni doctors was higher than those reported internationally and was associated with psychological morbidity and many important sources of job stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians/psychology*
  3. Phua J, Joynt GM, Nishimura M, Deng Y, Myatra SN, Chan YH, et al.
    Intensive Care Med, 2016 Jul;42(7):1118-27.
    PMID: 27071388 DOI: 10.1007/s00134-016-4347-y
    PURPOSE: To compare the attitudes of physicians towards withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining treatments in intensive care units (ICUs) in low-middle-income Asian countries and regions with those in high-income ones, and to explore differences in the role of families and surrogates, legal risks, and financial considerations between these countries and regions.

    METHODS: Questionnaire study conducted in May-December 2012 on 847 physicians from 255 ICUs in 10 low-middle-income countries and regions according to the World Bank's classification, and 618 physicians from 211 ICUs in six high-income countries and regions.

    RESULTS: After we accounted for personal, ICU, and hospital characteristics on multivariable analyses using generalised linear mixed models, physicians from low-middle-income countries and regions were less likely to limit cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, vasopressors and inotropes, tracheostomy and haemodialysis than those from high-income countries and regions. They were more likely to involve families in end-of-life care discussions and to perceive legal risks with limitation of life-sustaining treatments and do-not-resuscitate orders. Nonetheless, they were also more likely to accede to families' requests to withdraw life-sustaining treatments in a patient with an otherwise reasonable chance of survival on financial grounds in a case scenario (adjusted odds ratio 5.05, 95 % confidence interval 2.69-9.51, P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians/psychology*
  4. Sararaks S, Jamaluddin R
    Med J Malaysia, 1999 Sep;54(3):310-9.
    PMID: 11045056
    Motivation, especially on the relationship of remuneration of government doctors to it, has long been an issue of concern. This study sought to elucidate the demotivating factors in service and the perceived discrepancy in income. It was conducted amongst doctors serving in the Ministry of Health, Negeri Sembilan, using self-administered questionnaires. Factors considered demotivating were remuneration, workload and recognition given. Career development, promotion prospects, issues with superiors, resources and patient attitudes were other factors identified. On average, respondents expect an income of 1.63 times more than their current drawn salary and 87.2% cited rewards as a recommendation to improve their satisfaction in service. In-service training was desired by almost all. Though the medical profession has traditionally been viewed as altruistic in nature, doctors in service are voicing out their views and perception, and they should be heard.
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians/psychology*
  5. Yaacob I, Abdullah ZA
    PMID: 8362301
    A study of the smoking habits and attitudes toward smoking among 120 doctors at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia was conducted between May to August 1991. Eighteen percent of the doctors were smokers, 13% ex-smokers and 69% had never smoked. All the smokers were male and all except one smoked only cigarettes. Three of the 32 female doctors were ex-smokers. Nineteen of the 21 smokers only smoked in areas where they could not be seen by the public. Most doctors (equally among smokers and non-smokers) had first-degree relatives (mostly males) who were smokers and 28% had relative with smoking-related disease. 81% non-smoking and 43% smoking doctors had advised healthy people to stop smoking. 92% non-smoking and 52% smoking doctors support the smoking-ban in the hospital. Seven of the 21 smokers had never attempted to quit smoking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians/psychology*
  6. Loh LC
    Respirology, 2018 12;23(12):1198-1199.
    PMID: 30084515 DOI: 10.1111/resp.13382
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians/psychology*
  7. Nantha YS
    J Health Organ Manag, 2013;27(2):266-72.
    PMID: 23802402
    In the light of an increasing healthcare burden, this paper seeks to offer insight about how intrinsic motivation could play a pivotal role in improving the pre-existing healthcare service delivery systems by altering clinician behaviour. The paper argues the case for four salient dimensions worth exploring through the lens of intrinsic motivation--non-financial incentives, positive affective states, organizational culture and prescribing quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians/psychology*
  8. Jamshed SQ, Hassali MA, Ibrahim MI, Babar ZU
    J Pak Med Assoc, 2011 Jan;61(1):80-3.
    PMID: 22368910
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians/psychology*
  9. Al-Naggar RA, Isa ZM, Shah SA, Chen R, Kadir SY
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2009;10(5):743-6.
    PMID: 20104962
    A cross-sectional study was conducted at the main hospitals in Sana'a, Yemen to determine the attitude and practice of Yemen female doctors on mammography screening. Study subjects were all female doctors who were on duty during the questionnaire distribution. Those who agreed to participate were given the questionnaire to complete. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse socio-demographic variables and variables related to general health. Participants in this study were 105 female doctors with mean age of 32.1 years (SD = 7.17). Thirty-four respondents (36.6%) did not send asymptomatic women for mammography screening. The reasons were because of high cost (58.0%, n= 25), availability of other methods (23.3%, n= 10), instrument not available (11.6%, n= 5) and high risk of radiation (7.0%, n= 3). Twenty-five participants (26.9%) sent patients on regular basis if there was a family or personal history of breast cancer. Twenty-three participants (24.7%) sent the patients for mammogram screening every year regardless of the patients'history or symptoms. Although most doctors (36.5%) do not refer patients for mammography screening, seventy-seven (74.0%) indicated that they would refer patients for mammography screening on personal request by the patients. This study showed a low percentage of doctors who referred patients for routine mammography. The major reason given was the high cost of the procedure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians/psychology*
  10. Fathelrahman AI, Awang R, Bashir AA, Taha IA, Ibrahim HM
    Pharm World Sci, 2008 Dec;30(6):759-63.
    PMID: 18704750 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-008-9245-0
    OBJECTIVE: The services of the Ministry of Health Drug Information Center--Khartoum State were evaluated by assessing users' satisfaction.

    METHOD: Four hundred and twenty-three subjects were recruited from center records using a systematic random sampling technique. Subjects who consented were interviewed by telephone using a specially designed semi-structured questionnaire. Descriptive as well as comparative analyses were carried out. Differences between groups were tested using the Chi-square test when applicable.

    RESULTS: The majority of users surveyed (89.6%) had called the center from within Khartoum State and 10.4% of users had called from other states. Of the enquiries, 36.1% were from pharmacists, 29.5% from physicians, and 22.3% from laypersons. The vast majority (93.1%) of respondents were educated to degree level or higher. Approximately one fifth, one half, and one third of the users surveyed had consulted the center >5 times, 2-5 times, and once, respectively. More than 90% of users rated the services provided as good to excellent and 94.7% declared their probable intention to continue utilizing the center in the future.

    CONCLUSION: The center succeeded in satisfying and retaining its users by providing an acceptable quality of service.

    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians/psychology
  11. Chan CM, Wan Ahmad WA, Yusof MM, Ho GF, Krupat E
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2015;16(16):6895-8.
    PMID: 26514463
    BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore whether levels of patient-centredness, job satisfaction and psychological distress varied between oncology nurses and doctors.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires, a total of 24 nurses and 43 doctors were assessed for patient-centredness, psychological distress, and job satisfaction using the Patient-Practitioner Orientation Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Job Satisfaction Scale. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test and MANCOVA, with p<0.05 considered significant.

    RESULTS: Overall response rate was 95.6% (43/45) for physicians and 85.7% (24/28) for nurses. Even after adjusting for known covariates, our principal finding was that doctors reported greater psychological distress compared to nurses (p=0.009). Doctors also reported lower job satisfaction compared to nurses (p = 0.017), despite higher levels of patient-centredness found in nurses (p=0.001). Findings may be explained in part by differences in job characteristics and demands.

    CONCLUSIONS: Mental health is an important concern not just in cancer patients but among healthcare professionals in oncology.

    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians/psychology*
  12. Samsiah A, Othman N, Jamshed S, Hassali MA
    PLoS One, 2016;11(12):e0166114.
    PMID: 27906960 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0166114
    OBJECTIVE: To explore and understand participants' perceptions and attitudes towards the reporting of medication errors (MEs).

    METHODS: A qualitative study using in-depth interviews of 31 healthcare practitioners from nine publicly funded, primary care clinics in three states in peninsular Malaysia was conducted for this study. The participants included family medicine specialists, doctors, pharmacists, pharmacist assistants, nurses and assistant medical officers. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Analysis of the data was guided by the framework approach.

    RESULTS: Six themes and 28 codes were identified. Despite the availability of a reporting system, most of the participants agreed that MEs were underreported. The nature of the error plays an important role in determining the reporting. The reporting system, organisational factors, provider factors, reporter's burden and benefit of reporting also were identified.

    CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare practitioners in primary care clinics understood the importance of reporting MEs to improve patient safety. Their perceptions and attitudes towards reporting of MEs were influenced by many factors which affect the decision-making process of whether or not to report. Although the process is complex, it primarily is determined by the severity of the outcome of the errors. The participants voluntarily report the errors if they are familiar with the reporting system, what error to report, when to report and what form to use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians/psychology
  13. Malik RA, Aldinc E, Chan SP, Deerochanawong C, Hwu CM, Rosales RL, et al.
    Adv Ther, 2017 06;34(6):1426-1437.
    PMID: 28502036 DOI: 10.1007/s12325-017-0536-5
    There are no data on physician-patient communication in painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN) in the Asia-Pacific region. The objective of this study was to examine patient and physician perceptions of pDPN and clinical practice behaviors in five countries in South-East Asia. Primary care physicians and practitioners, endocrinologists, diabetologists, and patients with pDPN completed separate surveys on pDPN diagnosis, impact, management, and physician-patient interactions in Hong Kong, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand. Data were obtained from 100 physicians and 100 patients in each country. The majority of physicians (range across countries, 30-85%) were primary care physicians and practitioners. Patients were mostly aged 18-55 years and had been diagnosed with diabetes for >5 years. Physicians believed pDPN had a greater impact on quality of life than did patients (ranges 83-92% and 39-72%, respectively), but patients believed pDPN had a greater impact on items such as sleep, anxiety, depression, and work than physicians. Physicians considered the diagnosis and treatment of pDPN a low priority, which may be reflected in the generally low incidence of screening (range 12-65%) and a lack of awareness of pDPN. Barriers to treatment included patients' lack of awareness of pDPN. Both physicians and patients agreed that pain scales and local language descriptions were the most useful tools in helping to describe patients' pain. Most patients were monitored upon diagnosis of pDPN (range 55-97%), but patients reported a shorter duration of monitoring compared with physicians. Both physicians and patients agreed that it was patients who initiated conversations on pDPN. Physicians most commonly referred to guidelines from the American Diabetes Association or local guidelines for the management of pDPN. This study highlights important differences between physician and patient perceptions of pDPN, which may impact on its diagnosis and treatment. For a chronic and debilitating complication like pDPN, the physician-patient dialogue is central to maximizing patient outcomes. Strategies, including education of both groups, need to be developed to improve communication.

    FUNDING: Pfizer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians/psychology*
  14. Vijay A, Earnshaw VA, Tee YC, Pillai V, White Hughto JM, Clark K, et al.
    LGBT Health, 2018 01;5(1):61-68.
    PMID: 29227183 DOI: 10.1089/lgbt.2017.0092
    PURPOSE: Transgender people are frequent targets of discrimination. Discrimination against transgender people in the context of healthcare can lead to poor health outcomes and facilitate the growth of health disparities. This study explores factors associated with medical doctors' intentions to discriminate against transgender people in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 436 physicians at two major university medical centers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed an online survey. Sociodemographic characteristics, stigma-related constructs, and intentions to discriminate against transgender people were measured. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression were used to evaluate independent covariates of discrimination intent.

    RESULTS: Medical doctors who felt more fearful of transgender people and more personal shame associated with transgender people expressed greater intention to discriminate against transgender people, whereas doctors who endorsed the belief that transgender people deserve good care reported lower discrimination intent. Stigma-related constructs accounted for 42% of the variance and 8% was accounted for by sociodemographic characteristics.

    CONCLUSIONS: Constructs associated with transgender stigma play an important role in medical doctors' intentions to discriminate against transgender patients. Development of interventions to improve medical doctors' knowledge about and attitudes toward transgender people are necessary to reduce discriminatory intent in healthcare settings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians/psychology*
  15. Adenuga KI, Iahad NA, Miskon S
    Int J Med Inform, 2017 08;104:84-96.
    PMID: 28599820 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2017.05.008
    Telemedicine systems have been considered as a necessary measure to alleviate the shortfall in skilled medical specialists in developing countries. However, the obvious challenge is whether clinicians are willing to use this technological innovation, which has aided medical practice globally. One factor which has received little academic attention is the provision of suitable encouragement for clinicians to adopt telemedicine, in the form of rewards, motivation or incentives. A further consideration for telemedicine usage in developing countries, especially sub-Saharan Africa and Nigeria in particular, are to the severe shortage of available practising clinicians. The researchers therefore explore the need to positively reinforce the adoption of telemedicine amongst clinicians in Nigeria, and also offer a rationale for this using the UTAUT model. Data were collected using a structured paper-based questionnaire, with 252 physicians and nurses from six government hospitals in Ondo state, Nigeria. The study applied SmartPLS 2.0 for analysis to determine the relationship between six variables. Demographic moderating variables, age, gender and profession, were included. The results indicate that performance expectancy (p<0.05), effort expectancy (p<0.05), facilitating condition (p<0.01) and reinforcement factor (p<0.001) have significant effects on clinicians' behavioural intention to use telemedicine systems, as predicted using the extended UTAUT model. Our results showed that the use of telemedicine by clinicians in the Nigerian context is perceived as a dual responsibility which requires suitable reinforcement. In addition, performance expectancy, effort expectancy, facilitating condition and reinforcement determinants are influential factors in the use of telemedicine services for remote-patient clinical diagnosis and management by the Nigerian clinicians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians/psychology*
  16. Mohd Fauzi MF, Mohd Yusoff H, Muhamad Robat R, Mat Saruan NA, Ismail KI, Mohd Haris AF
    PMID: 33050004 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17197340
    The COVID-19 pandemic potentially increases doctors' work demands and limits their recovery opportunity; this consequently puts them at a high risk of adverse mental health impacts. This study aims to estimate the level of doctors' fatigue, recovery, depression, anxiety, and stress, and exploring their association with work demands and recovery experiences. This was a cross-sectional study among all medical doctors working at all government health facilities in Selangor, Malaysia. Data were collected in May 2020 immediately following the COVID-19 contagion peak in Malaysia by using self-reported questionnaires through an online medium. The total participants were 1050 doctors. The majority of participants were non-resident non-specialist medical officers (55.7%) and work in the hospital setting (76.3%). The highest magnitude of work demands was mental demand (M = 7.54, SD = 1.998) while the lowest magnitude of recovery experiences was detachment (M = 9.22, SD = 5.043). Participants reported a higher acute fatigue level (M = 63.33, SD = 19.025) than chronic fatigue (M = 49.37, SD = 24.473) and intershift recovery (M = 49.97, SD = 19.480). The majority of them had no depression (69.0%), no anxiety (70.3%), and no stress (76.5%). Higher work demands and lower recovery experiences were generally associated with adverse mental health. For instance, emotional demands were positively associated with acute fatigue (adj. b = 2.73), chronic fatigue (adj. b = 3.64), depression (adj. b = 0.57), anxiety (adj. b = 0.47), and stress (adj. b = 0.64), while relaxation experiences were negatively associated with acute fatigue (adj. b = -0.53), chronic fatigue (adj. b = -0.53), depression (adj. b = -0.14), anxiety (adj. b = -0.11), and stress (adj. b = -0.15). However, higher detachment experience was associated with multiple mental health parameters in the opposite of the expected direction such as higher level of chronic fatigue (adj. b = 0.74), depression (adj. b = 0.15), anxiety (adj. b = 0.11), and stress (adj. b = 0.11), and lower level of intershift recovery (adj. b = -0.21). In conclusion, work demands generally worsen, while recovery experiences protect mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic with the caveat of the role of detachment experiences.
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians/psychology*
  17. Zandi G, Shahzad I, Farrukh M, Kot S
    PMID: 33138254 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17217961
    Measurement of job stress and employees' commitment are few of the admired topics in the corporate world amongst business writers. With a principal aim to trial the blow of exposure to COVID-19 patients on doctors' job stress and commitment, in Pakistan; data have been collected through 7-10 min telephonic interview from voluntary participants and a sample of 129 responses were analyzed by Structure Equation Modeling-Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS) path modeling through Smart PLS 3.2. The results of the study indicated; direct positive & significant impact of Extent of Exposure on Job Stress while direct negative, significant association with Commitment. Job Stress also observed having direct negative impact on commitment. The Extent of Exposure-Job Stress relationship was also found stronger among group of doctors having Low level of Perceived Organizational Support and weaker among group of doctors having High level of Perceive Organizational support. Perceived Organizational Support showed a moderating effect on the Extent of Exposure-Job Stress relationship; while, Social Support showed no moderation. Researchers are required to investigate more and management of the medical services providers (both hospitals and government) needs to focus on doctors' perception about Organizational Support, as doctors show no concern about the support from society as long as their well-being is cared for by respective hospitals. This study is an effort to stimulate more empirical evidence towards the treating and handling of COVID-19 patients and the psychological well-being of doctors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians/psychology*
  18. Brouwer E, Driessen E, Mamat NH, Nadarajah VD, Somodi K, Frambach J
    Med Teach, 2020 02;42(2):221-227.
    PMID: 31630598 DOI: 10.1080/0142159X.2019.1676885
    Introduction: Medical schools increasingly offer curricula that specifically aim to prepare students for an international medical career. This is challenging as well as controversial: curriculum designers must balance specific local healthcare requirements with global health competencies doctors need in our globalised world. By investigating how international medical programme designers experience this balancing act, this study aims to contribute insights to the debate on local versus global medical education.Methods: We conducted a multi-centre instrumental case study across three universities with international medical programmes in three countries. The study involved 26 semi-structured interviews with key curriculum designers recruited through purposive sampling. Additionally, we performed a curriculum document analysis. Data were thematically analysed within a multidisciplinary team.Results: Participants described two profiles of international medical programme graduates: 'a global physician', equipped with specific competencies for international practice, and 'a universal professional', an overall high-level graduate fit for future practice anywhere. These perspectives presented different curriculum design challenges.Conclusions: International medical programmes teach us how we can rethink graduate profiles in a globalising world. Yet, educational standardisation poses risks and securing equity in global health education is challenging, as is preparing students to be adaptable to the requirements of a rapidly changing future local healthcare context.
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians/psychology*
  19. Dharmalingam TK, Muniandy RK
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 01;75(1):68-73.
    PMID: 32008024
    INTRODUCTION: Doctors play an important role to assess and manage pain. Failing to do so properly, pain will affect the quality of life and increase the length of hospital stay for patients. In Queen Elizabeth Hospital (QEH), Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, pain assessment and management programs have been conducted on a regular basis. However, there has been no studies to assess the effectiveness of these programs.

    METHODOLOGY: This is a cross-sectional study to assess the knowledge and attitude on pain assessment and management among medical officers at QEH. A universal sampling technique was used, to represent medical officers from major clinical departments. The Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP) questionnaire was used for this study.

    RESULTS: A total of 278 questionnaires were distributed to medical officers. The study sample consisted of 125 females (44.9%), and 153 males (55.1%). The age group of the participants ranged from 25 to 41 years old. A 116 respondents scored less than 60% on the knowledge of pain (41.7%). These findings show there was a deficit in their knowledge and attitude about pain. There was also a difference of scores between genders, where the male doctors performed better than the female doctors. There was a difference between scores among doctors from different departments. The highest mean score was from the department of Anaesthesia (80.2%). There was also a difference regarding pain knowledge based on the years of working as a doctor, where the highest passing rate was from doctors working for more than five years.

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that there is a lack of knowledge and attitude on pain assessment and management among QEH medical officers who responded to this study. This will support the plan on a more aggressive and continuous education programme to improve pain assessment and management among doctors in QEH.

    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians/psychology*
  20. Shahabudin SH, Edariah AB
    Med Educ, 1991 Sep;25(5):430-7.
    PMID: 1758320 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.1991.tb00091.x
    A random survey of 400 doctors was carried out over a period of 3 months to determine the factors that would facilitate or inhibit the participation of doctors in continuing medical education (CME) in Malaysia. Regular participation in CME was defined as participation in any activity (self-directed reading or attending organized activities) at least once a month during the past year. It was found that 78% of doctors regularly participated in CME. Working in a hospital environment and being members of the Malaysian Medical Association and at least one specialty organization appeared to be important facilitatory factors in CME participation. These doctors also read the local medical journals regularly and subscribed to other journals. In addition, they were more likely to possess postgraduate qualifications and would have teaching, research, diagnostic or clinical responsibilities as major components of their work. They were more likely to practise in the big cities and would tend to be active in at least one voluntary or social organization. If they were in the Government sector, they were more likely to work in the Universities or in the Hospital Division of the Ministry of Health. The 22% who were less likely to participate in CME were general practitioners in the private sector. They worked long hours with day, evening and/or night shifts every day. If the doctors were in the Government sector, they were more likely to be in the Health Division, working in administration and public health, or they were in the armed forces and other organizations such as local councils. They worked in the smaller towns or in the districts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Matched MeSH terms: Physicians/psychology*
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