Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

  1. Singh R, Low EL, Ooi LC, Ong-Abdullah M, Ting NC, Nookiah R, et al.
    New Phytol, 2020 04;226(2):426-440.
    PMID: 31863488 DOI: 10.1111/nph.16387
    Oil palm breeding involves crossing dura and pisifera palms to produce tenera progeny with greatly improved oil yield. Oil yield is controlled by variant alleles of a type II MADS-box gene, SHELL, that impact the presence and thickness of the endocarp, or shell, surrounding the fruit kernel. We identified six novel SHELL alleles in noncommercial African germplasm populations from the Malaysian Palm Oil Board. These populations provide extensive diversity to harness genetic, mechanistic and phenotypic variation associated with oil yield in a globally critical crop. We investigated phenotypes in heteroallelic combinations, as well as SHELL heterodimerization and subcellular localization by yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and gene expression analyses. Four novel SHELL alleles were associated with fruit form phenotype. Candidate heterodimerization partners were identified, and interactions with EgSEP3 and subcellular localization were SHELL allele-specific. Our findings reveal allele-specific mechanisms by which variant SHELL alleles impact yield, as well as speculative insights into the potential role of SHELL in single-gene oil yield heterosis. Future field trials for combinability and introgression may further optimize yield and improve sustainability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding*
  2. Gregory PJ, Mayes S, Hui CH, Jahanshiri E, Julkifle A, Kuppusamy G, et al.
    Planta, 2019 Sep;250(3):979-988.
    PMID: 31250097 DOI: 10.1007/s00425-019-03179-2
    MAIN CONCLUSION: Crops For the Future (CFF), as an entity, has established a broad range of research activities to promote the improvement and adoption of currently underutilised crops. This paper summarises selected research activities at Crops For the Future (CFF) in pursuit of its mission 'to develop solutions for diversifying future agriculture using underutilised crops'. CFF is a research company focussed on the improvement of underutilised crops, so that they might be grown and consumed more widely with benefits to human food and nutritional security; its founding guarantors were the Government of Malaysia and the University of Nottingham. From its base in Malaysia, it engages in research around the world with a focus on species and system diversification. CFF has adopted a food system approach that adds value by delivering prototype food, feed and knowledge products. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) was adopted as an exemplar crop around which to develop CFF's food system approach with emphasis on the short-day photoperiod requirement for pod-filling and the hard-to-cook trait. Selective breeding has allowed the development of lines that are less susceptible to photoperiod but also provided a range of tools and approaches that are now being exploited in other crops such as winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), moringa (Moringa oleifera) and proso (Panicum miliaceum) and foxtail (Setaria italica) millets. CFF has developed and tested new food products and demonstrated that several crops can be used as feed for black soldier fly which can, in turn, be used to feed fish thereby reducing the need for fishmeal. Information about underutilised crops is widely dispersed; so, a major effort has been made to develop a knowledge base that can be interrogated and used to answer practical questions about potential exploitation of plant and nutritional characteristics. Future research will build on the success with Bambara groundnut and include topics such as urban agriculture, rural development and diversification, and the development of novel foods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding
  3. Khan MMH, Rafii MY, Ramlee SI, Jusoh M, Al Mamun M
    Sci Rep, 2022 09 19;12(1):15658.
    PMID: 36123374 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-19003-z
    This investigation was carried out to explore G × E interaction for yield and its associated attributes in 30 Bambara groundnut genotypes across four environments in tropical Malaysia. Such evaluations are essential when the breeding program's objective is to choose genotypes with broad adaption and yield potential. Studies of trait relationships, variance components, mean performance, and genetic linkage are needed by breeders when designing, evaluating, and developing selection criteria for improving desired characteristics in breeding programs. The evaluation of breeding lines of Bambara groundnut for high yield across a wide range of environments is important for long-term production and food security. Each site's experiment employed a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Data on vegetative and yield component attributes were recorded. The analysis of variance revealed that there were highly significant (p ≤ 0.01) differences among the 30 genotypes for all variables evaluated. A highly significant and positive correlation was identified between yield per hectare and dry seed weight (0.940), hundred seed weight (0.844), fresh pod weight (0.832), and total pod weight (0.750); the estimated correlation between dry weight of pods and seed yield was 1.0. The environment was more important than genotype and G × E in determining yield and yield components.A total of 49% variation is covered by PC1 (33.9%) and PC2 (15.1%) and the genotypes formed five distinct clusters based on Ward hierarchical clustering (WHC) method. The genotypes S5G1, S5G3, S5G5, S5G6, S5G8, S5G7, S5G2, S5G4, S5G10, S5G13, S5G11, and S5G14 of clusters I, II, and III were closest to the ideal genotype with superior yield across the environments. The PCA variable loadings revealed that an index based on dry pod weight, hundred seed weight, number of total pods and fresh pod weight could be used as a selection criteria to improve seed yield of Bambara groundnut.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding
  4. Hama-Ali EO, Alwee SS, Tan SG, Panandam JM, Ling HC, Namasivayam P, et al.
    Mol Biol Rep, 2015 May;42(5):917-25.
    PMID: 25399079 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-014-3829-7
    Oil palm breeding has been progressing very well in Southeast Asia, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Despite this progress, there are still problems due to the difficulty of controlled crossing in oil palm. Contaminated/illegitimate progeny has appeared in some breeding programs; late and failure of detection by the traditional method causes a waste of time and labor. The use of molecular markers improves the integrity of breeding programs in perennial crops such as oil palm. Four half-sib families with a total of 200 progeny were used in this study. Thirty polymorphic single locus DNA microsatellites markers were typed to identify the illegitimate individuals and to obtain the correct parental and progeny assignments by using the CERVUS and COLONY programs. Three illegitimate palms (1.5%) were found, and 16 loci proved to be sufficient for sibship assignments without parental genotypes by using the COLONY program. The pairwise-likelihood score (PLS) method was better for half-sib family assignments than the full likelihood (FL) method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding/methods*
  5. Gao X, Chai HH, Ho WK, Mayes S, Massawe F
    BMC Plant Biol, 2023 May 30;23(1):287.
    PMID: 37248451 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-023-04293-w
    BACKGROUND: Assessment of segregating populations for their ability to withstand drought stress conditions is one of the best approaches to develop breeding lines and drought tolerant varieties. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.) is a leguminous crop, capable of growing in low-input agricultural systems in semi-arid areas. An F4 bi-parental segregating population obtained from S19-3 × DodR was developed to evaluate the effect of drought stress on photosynthetic parameters and identify QTLs associated with these traits under drought-stressed and well-watered conditions in a rainout shelter.

    RESULTS: Stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthesis rate (A), transpiration rate (E) and intracellular CO2 (Ci) were significantly reduced (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding
  6. Baadu R, Chong KP, Gansau JA, Mohamed Zin MR, Dayou J
    PeerJ, 2023;11:e15682.
    PMID: 37868055 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.15682
    In the 1920s, Lewis Stadler initiated the introduction of permanent improvements to the genetic makeup of irradiated plants. Since then, studies related to breeding mutations have grown, as efforts have been made to expand and improve crop productivity and quality. Stadler's discovery began with x-rays on corn and barley and later extended to the use of gamma-rays, thermal, and fast neutrons in crops. Radiation has since been shown to be an effective and unique method for increasing the genetic variability of species, including rice. Numerous systematic reviews have been conducted on the impact of physical mutagens on the production and grain quality of rice in Southeast Asia. However, the existing literature still lacks information on the type of radiation used, the rice planting materials used, the dosage of physical mutagens, and the differences in mutated characteristics. Therefore, this article aims to review existing literature on the use of physical mutagens in rice crops in Southeast Asian countries. Guided by the PRISMA Statement review method, 28 primary studies were identified through a systematic review of the Scopus, Science Direct, Emerald Insight, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing, and MDPI journal databases published between 2016 and 2020. The results show that 96% of the articles used seeds as planting materials, and 80% of the articles focused on gamma-rays as a source of physical mutagens. The optimal dosage of gamma-rays applied was around 100 to 250 Gy to improve plant development, abiotic stress, biochemical properties, and nutritional and industrial quality of rice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding
  7. Teh CK, Ong AL, Mayes S, Massawe F, Appleton DR
    Genes (Basel), 2020 07 21;11(7).
    PMID: 32708151 DOI: 10.3390/genes11070826
    Superior oil yield is always the top priority of the oil palm industry. Short trunk height (THT) and compactness traits have become increasingly important to improve harvesting efficiency since the industry started to suffer yield losses due to labor shortages. Breeding populations with low THT and short frond length (FL) are actually available, such as Dumpy AVROS pisifera (DAV) and Gunung Melayu dura (GM). However, multiple trait stacking still remains a challenge for oil palm breeding, which usually requires 12-20 years to complete a breeding cycle. In this study, yield and height increment in the GM × GM (GM-3341) and the GM × DAV (GM-DAV-3461) crossing programs were evaluated and palms with good yield and smaller height increment were identified. In the GM-3341 family, non-linear THT growth between THT_2008 (seven years old) and THT_2014 (13 years old) was revealed by a moderate correlation, suggesting that inter-palm competition becomes increasingly important. In total, 19 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for THT_2008 (8), oil per palm (O/P) (7) and FL (4) were localized on the GM-3341 linkage map, with an average mapping interval of 2.01 cM. Three major QTLs for THT_2008, O/P and FL are co-located on chromosome 11 and reflect the correlation of THT_2008 with O/P and FL. Multiple trait selection for high O/P and low THT (based on the cumulative effects of positive alleles per trait) identified one palm from 100 palms, but with a large starting population of 1000-1500 seedling per cross, this low frequency could be easily compensated for during breeding selection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding/methods*
  8. Zhao H, Zhao S, International Network for Bamboo and Rattan, Fei B, Liu H, Yang H, et al.
    Gigascience, 2017 07 01;6(7):1-7.
    PMID: 28637269 DOI: 10.1093/gigascience/gix046
    Bamboo and rattan are widely grown for manufacturing, horticulture, and agroforestry. Bamboo and rattan production might help reduce poverty, boost economic growth, mitigate climate change, and protect the natural environment. Despite progress in research, sufficient molecular and genomic resources to study these species are lacking. We launched the Genome Atlas of Bamboo and Rattan (GABR) project, a comprehensive, coordinated international effort to accelerate understanding of bamboo and rattan genetics through genome analysis. GABR includes 2 core subprojects: Bamboo-T1K (Transcriptomes of 1000 Bamboos) and Rattan-G5 (Genomes of 5 Rattans), and several other subprojects. Here we describe the organization, directions, and status of GABR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding*
  9. Ma'arup R, Trethowan RM, Ahmed NU, Bramley H, Sharp PJ
    Plant Sci, 2020 Jun;295:110212.
    PMID: 32534607 DOI: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2019.110212
    Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccon Schrank) is a potential source of new genetic diversity for the improvement of hexaploid bread wheat. Emmer wheat was crossed and backcrossed to bread wheat and 480 doubled haploids (DHs) were produced from BC1F1 plants with hexaploid appearance derived from 19 crossses. These DHs were screened under well-watered conditions (E1) in 2013 to identify high-yielding materials with similar phenology. One-hundred and eighty seven DH lines selected on this basis, 4 commercial bread wheat cultivars and 9 bread wheat parents were then evaluated in extensive field experiments under two contrasting moisture regimes in north-western NSW in 2014 and 2015. A significant range in the water-use-efficiency of grain production (WUEGrain) was observed among the emmer derivatives. Of these, 8 hexaploid lines developed from 8 different emmer wheat parents had significantly improved intrinsic water-use-efficiency (WUEintr) and instantaneous water-use-efficiency (WUEi) compared to their bread wheat recurrent parents. Accurate and large scale field-based phenotyping was effective in identifying emmer wheat derived lines with superior performance to their hexaploid bread wheat recurrent parents under moisture stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding*
  10. Cheng A, Ismail I, Osman M, Hashim H, Mohd Zainual NS
    Genome, 2017 Dec;60(12):1045-1050.
    PMID: 28813631 DOI: 10.1139/gen-2017-0100
    While it is crucial for developing countries like Malaysia to achieve self-sufficiency in rice (Oryza sativa L.), it is equally critical to be able to produce high-quality rice, specifically fragrant rice, which demands are often met through importation. The present study was aimed at developing high-yielding fragrant rice, in a timely and cost-effective manner. A marker-assisted backcross (MABC) approach was optimised to introgress the fragrance gene (fgr) into two high-yielding Malaysian varieties, MR84 and MR219, within two years utilising less than 50 molecular markers. Coupled with phenotypic screening, one single foreground marker (fgr-SNP) and 48 background markers were selected and utilised, revealing recovery of at least 90% of recurrent parent genome (RPG) in merely two backcross generations. Collectively, the yield potential of the developed BC2F2 lines (BLs) was higher (P > 0.05) than the donor parent, MRQ74, and similar (P < 0.05) to both the recurrent parents, MR84 and MR219. In addition, some of the developed BLs showed good grain quality, such as having long grain. We believe that this is the first report comprising the validation and utilisation of the single functional marker system (fgr-SNP) in introgressing the fgr gene into different rice varieties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding/methods*
  11. Nudin NFH, Ali AM, Ngah N, Mazlan NZ, Mat N, Ghani MNA, et al.
    C. R. Biol., 2017 Aug;340(8):359-366.
    PMID: 28888550 DOI: 10.1016/j.crvi.2017.08.003
    Plant breeding is a way of selection of a particular individual for the production of the progeny by separating or combining desired characteristics. The objective of this study was to justify different characteristics of Dioscorea hispida (Ubi gadong) varieties using molecular techniques to select the best variety for sustainable production at the farmer's level. A total of 160 germplasms of Ubi gadong were collected from different locations at the Terengganu and Kelantan states of Malaysia. Forty eight (48) out of 160 germplasms were selected as "primary" selection based on yield and other qualitative characters. Selected collections were then grown and maintained for ISSR marker-assisted genetic diversity analysis. Overall plant growth and yield of tubers were also determined. A total of 12 ISSR markers were tested to justify the characteristics of Ubi gadong varieties among which three markers showed polymorphic bands and on average 57.3% polymorphism were observed representing the highest variation among germplasms. The ISSR marker based on UPGMA cluster analysis grouped all 48 D. hispida into 10 vital groups that proved a vast genetic variation among germplasm collections. Therefore, hybridization should be made between two distant populations. The D. hispida is already proved as the highest starch content tuber crops and very rich in vitamins with both micro and macro minerals. Considering all these criteria and results from marker-assisted diversity analysis, accessions that are far apart based on their genetic coefficient (like DH27 and DH71; DH30 and DH70; DH43 and DH62; DH45 and DH61; DH77 and DH61; DH78 and DH57) could be selected as parents for further breeding programs. This will bring about greater diversity, which will lead to high productive index in terms of increase in yield and overall quality and for the ultimate target of sustainable Ubi gadong production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding*
  12. Yazid SN, Ahmad K, Razak MSFA, Rahman ZA, Ramachandran K, Mohamad SNA, et al.
    Braz J Biol, 2021;84:e248359.
    PMID: 34730685 DOI: 10.1590/1519-6984.248359
    Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) is one of the major rice diseases in Malaysia. This disease causes substantial yield loss as high as 70%. Development of rice varieties which inherited BLB resistant traits is a crucial approach to promote and sustain rice industry in Malaysia. Hence, this study aims were to enhance BLB disease resistant characters of high yielding commercial variety MR219 through backcross breeding approach with supporting tool of marker-assisted selection (MAS). Broad spectrum BLB resistance gene, Xa7 from donor parent IRBB7 were introgressed into the susceptible MR219 (recurrent parent) using two flanking markers ID7 and ID15. At BC3F4, we managed to generate 19 introgressed lines with homozygous Xa7 gene and showed resistant characteristics as donor parent when it was challenged with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae through artificial inoculation. Recurrent parent MR219 and control variety, MR263 were found to be severely infected by the disease. The improved lines exhibited similar morphological and yield performance characters as to the elite variety, MR219. Two lines, PB-2-107 and PB-2-34 were chosen to be potential lines because of their outstanding performances compared to parent, MR219. This study demonstrates a success story of MAS application in development of improved disease resistance lines of rice against BLB disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding
  13. Li Z, He Y, Sonne C, Lam SS, Kirkham MB, Bolan N, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2023 Feb 15;319:120964.
    PMID: 36584860 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2022.120964
    Radionuclides released from nuclear contamination harm the environment and human health. Nuclear pollution spread over large areas and the costs associated with decontamination is high. Traditional remediation methods include both chemical and physical, however, these are expensive and unsuitable for large-scale restoration. Bioremediation is the use of plants or microorganisms to remove pollutants from the environment having a lower cost and can be upscaled to eliminate contamination from soil, water and air. It is a cheap, efficient, ecologically, and friendly restoration technology. Here we review the sources of radionuclides, bioremediation methods, mechanisms of plant resistance to radionuclides and the effects on the efficiency of biological adsorption. Uptake of radionuclides by plants can be facilitated by the addition of appropriate chemical accelerators and agronomic management, such as citric acid and intercropping. Future research should accelerate the use of genetic engineering and breeding techniques to screen high-enrichment plants. In addition, field experiments should be carried out to ensure that this technology can be applied to the remediation of nuclear contaminated sites as soon as possible.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding
  14. Hasan MM, Rafii MY, Ismail MR, Mahmood M, Rahim HA, Alam MA, et al.
    Biotechnology, biotechnological equipment, 2015 Mar 04;29(2):237-254.
    PMID: 26019637
    The world's population is increasing very rapidly, reducing the cultivable land of rice, decreasing table water, emerging new diseases and pests, and the climate changes are major issues that must be addressed to researchers to develop sustainable crop varieties with resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, recent scientific discoveries and advances particularly in genetics, genomics and crop physiology have opened up new opportunities to reduce the impact of these stresses which would have been difficult if not impossible as recently as the turn of the century. Marker assisted backcrossing (MABC) is one of the most promising approaches is the use of molecular markers to identify and select genes controlling resistance to those factors. Regarding this, MABC can contribute to develop resistant or high-yielding or quality rice varieties by incorporating a gene of interest into an elite variety which is already well adapted by the farmers. MABC is newly developed efficient tool by which using large population sizes (400 or more plants) for the backcross F1 generations, it is possible to recover the recurrent parent genotype using only two or three backcrosses. So far, many high yielding, biotic and abiotic stresses tolerance, quality and fragrance rice varieties have been developed in rice growing countries through MABC within the shortest timeframe. Nowadays, MABC is being used widely in plant breeding programmes to develop new variety/lines especially in rice. This paper reviews recent literature on some examples of variety/ line development using MABC strategy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding
  15. Sherman A, Rubinstein M, Eshed R, Benita M, Ish-Shalom M, Sharabi-Schwager M, et al.
    BMC Plant Biol, 2015;15:277.
    PMID: 26573148 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-015-0663-6
    Germplasm collections are an important source for plant breeding, especially in fruit trees which have a long duration of juvenile period. Thus, efforts have been made to study the diversity of fruit tree collections. Even though mango is an economically important crop, most of the studies on diversity in mango collections have been conducted with a small number of genetic markers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding
  16. Faiz Ahmad, Zaiton Ahmad, Affrida Abu Hassan, Sakinah Ariffin, Norazlina Noordin, Shakinah Salleh, et al.
    The research on radiation induced mutation has been conducted as one of the promising method of plant breeding in Malaysia since 1980s. Nuclear Malaysia is leading research institute inMalaysia conducting plant mutationbreeding research. Gamma Greenhousefacility located in Nuclear Malaysiais one of the irradiation facilitiesto serve as a chronic irradiation facility for inducing mutation in various organisms including plants, fungi and microbes.Chronic irradiation refers to the exposure of materials at a lower dose rate over a long period of time. Previous studies have shown that this type of irradiation can minimize radiation damages to living materials and produces a wider mutation spectrum, therefore is very useful for trait improvements in irradiated organisms. Experiments on induce mutation using Gamma Greenhouse facility for crop improvement program have been conducted since its first operation in 2009. Various plant species including ornamental and herbal plants, food crops and industrial crops have been irradiated to improve their traits such as higher yield and biomass, pest and disease tolerance, higher bioactive compounds, longer bloom time and many others. Most of these crop improvement programs were done through collaborations with other agencies in Malaysia such as universities, research institutes and government departments. A number of publications on crop improvement using Gamma Greenhouse have been published inlocal and international journals as well as seminar presentations at national and international levels. The outputs from induced mutation via chronic radiation using Gamma Greenhouse could be of great interest for plant breeders dealing with improvement and development of new cultivars. This paper discusses the activities and achievement in plant breeding and improvement using Gamma Greenhouse Facility in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding
  17. Goh HH, Ng CL, Loke KK
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2018 11 2;1102:11-30.
    PMID: 30382566 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-98758-3_2
    Functional genomics encompasses diverse disciplines in molecular biology and bioinformatics to comprehend the blueprint, regulation, and expression of genetic elements that define the physiology of an organism. The deluge of sequencing data in the postgenomics era has demanded the involvement of computer scientists and mathematicians to create algorithms, analytical software, and databases for the storage, curation, and analysis of biological big data. In this chapter, we discuss on the concept of functional genomics in the context of systems biology and provide examples of its application in human genetic disease studies, molecular crop improvement, and metagenomics for antibiotic discovery. An overview of transcriptomics workflow and experimental considerations is also introduced. Lastly, we present an in-house case study of transcriptomics analysis of an aromatic herbal plant to understand the effect of elicitation on the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding
  18. Li G, Yan L, Chen X, Lam SS, Rinklebe J, Yu Q, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2023 Apr;320:138058.
    PMID: 36746249 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2023.138058
    Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) pose a great threat to ecosystems and long-term exposure causes adverse effects to wildlife and humans. Cadmium induces a variety of diseases including cancer, kidney dysfunction, bone lesions, anemia and hypertension. Here we review the ability of plants to accumulate cadmium from soil, air and water under different environmental conditions, focusing on absorption mechanisms and factors affecting these. Cadmium possess various transport mechanisms and pathways roughly divided into symplast and apoplast pathway. Excessive cadmium concentrations in the environment affects soil properties, pH and microorganism composition and function and thereby plant uptake. At the same time, plants resist cadmium toxicity by antioxidant reaction. The differences in cadmium absorption capacity of plants need more exploration to determine whether it is beneficial for crop breeding or genetic modification. Identify whether plants have the potential to become hyperaccumulator and avoid excessive cadmium uptake by edible plants. The use of activators such as wood vinegar, GLDA (Glutamic acid diacetic acid), or the placement of earthworms and fungi can speed up phytoremediation of plants, thereby reducing uptake of crop varieties and reducing human exposure, thus accelerating food safety and the health of the planet.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding
  19. Khan MMH, Rafii MY, Ramlee SI, Jusoh M, Al Mamun M, Kundu BC
    Mol Biol Rep, 2023 Sep;50(9):7619-7637.
    PMID: 37531035 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-023-08693-x
    BACKGROUND: A set of 44 selected Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc.) accessions was sampled from 11 distinct populations of four geographical zones to assess the genetic drift, population structure, phylogenetic relationship, and genetic differentiation linked with ISSR primers.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: The amplification of genomic DNA with 32 ISSR markers detected an average of 97.64% polymorphism while 35.15% and 51.08% polymorphism per population and geographical zone, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance revealed significant variation within population 75% and between population 25% whereas within region 84% and between region 16%. The Bidillali exposed greater number of locally common band i.e., NLCB (≤ 25%) = 25 and NLCB (≤ 50%) = 115 were shown by Cancaraki while the lowest was recorded as NLCB (≤ 25%) = 6 and NLCB (≤ 50%) = 72 for Roko and Maibergo, accordingly. The highest PhiPT value was noted between Roko and Katawa (0.405*) whereas Nei's genetic distance was maximum between Roko and Karu (0.124). Based on Nei's genetic distance, a radial phylogenetic tree was constructed that assembled the entire accessions into 3 major clusters for further confirmation unrooted NJ vs NNet split tree analysis based on uncorrected P distance exposed the similar result. Principal coordinate analysis showed variation as PC1 (15.04%) > PC2 (5.81%).

    CONCLUSIONS: The current study leads to prompting the genetic improvement and future breeding program by maximum utilization and better conservation of existing accessions. The accessions under Cancaraki and Jatau are population documented for future breeding program due to their higher genetic divergence and homozygosity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding
  20. Usman MG, Rafii MY, Martini MY, Oladosu Y, Kashiani P
    J Sci Food Agric, 2017 Mar;97(4):1164-1171.
    PMID: 27290898 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7843
    BACKGROUND: Studies on genotypic and phenotypic correlations among characters of crop plants are useful in planning, evaluating and setting selection criteria for the desired characters in a breeding program. The present study aimed to estimate the phenotypic correlation coefficients among yield and yield attributed characters and to work out the direct and indirect effects of yield-related characters on yield per plant using path coefficient analysis. Twenty-six genotypes of chili pepper were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications.

    RESULTS: Yield per plant showed positive and highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlations with most of the characters studied at both the phenotypic and genotypic levels. By contrast, disease incidence and days to flowering showed a significant negative association with yield. Fruit weight and number of fruits exerted positive direct effect on yield and also had a positive and significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlation with yield per plant. However, fruit length showed a low negative direct effect with a strong and positive indirect effect through fruit weight on yield and had a positive and significant association with yield.

    CONCLUSION: Longer fruits, heavy fruits and a high number of fruits are variables that are related to higher yields of chili pepper under tropical conditions and hence could be used as a reliable indicator in indirect selection for yield. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Breeding*
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