A 246-nt variant of Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) has been identified and described from oil palms with orange spotting symptoms in Malaysia. Compared with the 246-nt form of CCCVd from coconut, the oil palm variant substituted C(31)→U in the pathogenicity domain and G(70)→C in the central conserved domain. This is the first sequence reported for a 246-nt variant of CCCVd in oil palms expressing orange spotting symptoms.
Multivariate analyses were performed using 13 morphological traits and 13 molecular markers (10 SSRs and three ISSRs) to assess the phylogenetic relationship among tungro resistant genotypes. For morphological traits, the genotypes were grouped into six clusters, according to D(2) statistic and Canonical vector analysis. Plant height, days to flowering, days to maturity, panicle length, number of spikelet per panicle, number of unfilled grain per panicle and yield were important contributors to genetic divergence in 14 rice genotypes. Based on Nei's genetic distance for molecular studies, seven clusters were formed among the tungro resistant and susceptible genotypes. Mantel's test revealed a significant correlation (r = 0.834*) between the morphological and molecular data. To develop high yielding tungro resistant varieties based on both morphological and molecular analyses, crosses could be made with susceptible (BR10 and BR11) genotypes with low yielding but highly resistant genotypes, Sonahidemota, Kumragoir, Nakuchimota, Khaiyamota, Khairymota and Kachamota. The chi-square analysis for seven alleles (RM11, RM17, RM20, RM23, RM80, RM108 and RM531) of SSR and five loci (RY1, MR1, MR2, MR4 and GF5) of three ISSR markers in F2 population of cross, BR11×Sonahidemota, showed a good fit to the expected segregation ratio (1:2:1) for a single gene model.
Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), a member of the genus Tobamovirus, infects several ornamental and horticultural crops worldwide. In this study, the nucleotide sequences of the coat protein gene of worldwide ToMV isolates were analyzed to estimate the genetic structure and diversity of this virus and the involved evolutionary forces. The phylogenetic analysis showed three clades with high bootstrap support: Clade I contained three ToMV isolates from Brazil collected from pepper, Clade II comprised one Brazilian ToMV isolate from pepper, and Clade III was composed of ToMV isolates collected from different plant hosts (pepper, tomato, eggplant, lilac, camellia, dogwood, red spruce, etc.) and water (from melting ice, lakes and streams) from different countries: USA, Brazil, Korea, Germany, Spain, Denmark (Greenland), China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Iran, and Kazakhstan. With the exception of Brazil, nucleotide diversity within and between different geographic regions was very low, although statistical analyses suggested some gene flow between most of these regions. Our analyses also suggested a strong negative selection which could have contributed to the genetic stability of ToMV.
Coconut cadong-cadong viroid (CCCVd) causes the Lethal cadang-cadang disease of coconut palms in the Philippines and it is recently reported to be associated with the orange spotting disease on oil palm in Malaysia. The low concentration of the viroid RNA in oil palm as well as the high content of polyphenols and polysaccharides in this plant which interfere with the purification steps makes it difficult to extract and detect this viroid from oil palm. A previously described method was modified and optimized for extraction and detection of CCCVd from infected oil palms. Briefly, 7 g of leaf material was homogenized in a mortar or a blender using liquid nitrogen. 10 ml of extraction buffer (100 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 10 mM EDTA) along with 100 mM 2-mercaptoethanol and 10 ml water saturated phenol was added to the frozen powder. After centrifuging at 4 degrees C, 4000 g for 30 min, the aqueous phase was extracted once more with phenol then once with chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (24:1). After adding sodium acetate, pH 5.6 to 200 mM, the mixture was precipitated with 2.5 vol ethanol overnight in -20 freezer and then the pellet was washed with 70% ethanol and air-dried. One milliliter of 8 M LiCl was added to the dried pellet and after shaking overnight at 4 degrees C and another centrifugation step the supernatant was collected and precipitated again with ethanol and then the resulting pellet was washed and air-dried. To carry out northern blotting, samples equivalent to 40 g of plant tissue were mixed with formamide buffer and loaded onto a 12% polyacrylamide gel containing 7 M urea and after separation by electrophoresis, were electroblotted onto membrane and fixed by UV cross-linking. Pre-hybridization and hybridization using hybridization buffer (50% formamide, 25%SSPE, 0.1% Ficol and PVP, 0.1 % SDS, 0.02 % DNA (5mg/ml)) was carried out at 45 degrees C for 90 min and 16 h, respectively followed by two low stringency washes (0.5 X SSC, 0.1% SDS, at room temperature for 5 min) and one high stringency wash (0.1X SSC, 0.1% SDS at 60 degrees C for 1 hour). In vitro synthesized DIG-labeled full-length CCCVd(-) RNA probe was used in hybridization step. DIG Nucleic Acid Detection Kit (Roche) instructions were followed for detection procedure and as a result the blue bands corresponding to the position of the viroid were appeared on the membrane. The result of this study showed the ability of DIG labeled probe in detection of the viroid and also provided a suitable extraction and hybridization method for the detection of CCCVd from oil palm.
Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has major impacts on yield and quality of the tuberous roots of cassava in Eastern and Central Arica. At least two Potyviridae species cause the disease: Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV). Cloned viral genome sequences known as infectious clones (ICs) have been important in the study of other viruses, both as a means of standardising infectious material and characterising viral gene function. IC construction is often technically challenging for Potyviridae due to sequence instability in E. coli. Here, we evaluate three methods for the construction of infectious clones for CBSD. Whilst a simple IC for in vitro transcription was made for UCBSV isolate 'Kikombe', such an approach failed to deliver full-length clones for CBSV isolates 'Nampula' or 'Tanza', necessitating more complex approaches for their construction. The ICs successfully generated symptomatic infection in the model host N. benthamiana and in the natural host cassava. This shows that whilst generating ICs for CBSV is still a technical challenge, a structured approach, evaluating both in vitro and in planta transcription systems should successfully deliver ICs, allowing further study into the symptomology and virulence factors in this important disease complex.
A growing number of metagenomics-based approaches have been used for the discovery of viruses in insects, cultivated plants, and water in agricultural production systems. In this study, sixteen blueberry root transcriptomes from eight clonally propagated blueberry plants of cultivar 'Emerald' (interspecific hybrid of Vaccinium corymbosum and V. darrowi) generated as part of a separate study on varietal tolerance to soil salinity were analyzed for plant viral sequences. The objective was to determine if the asymptomatic plants harbored the latent blueberry red ringspot virus (BRRV) in their roots. The only currently known mechanism of transmission of BRRV is through vegetative propagation; however, the virus can remain latent for years with some plants of 'Emerald' never developing red ringspot symptoms. Bioinformatic analyses of 'Emerald' transcriptomes using de novo assembly and reference-based mapping approaches yielded eight complete viral genomes of BRRV (genus Soymovirus, family Caulimoviridae). Validation in vitro by PCR confirmed the presence of BRRV in 100% of the 'Emerald' root samples. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed 94% to 97% nucleotide identity between BRRV genomes from Florida and sequences from Czech Republic, Japan, Poland, Slovenia, and the United States. Taken together, this study documented the first detection of a complete BRRV genome from roots of asymptomatic blueberry plants and in Florida through in silico analysis of plant transcriptomes.
A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) detected Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd) within 60 min at 60 °C in total nucleic acid extracted from oil palm leaves infected with CCCVd. Positive reactions showed colour change from orange to green in the reaction mix after the addition of fluorescent reagent, and a laddering pattern band on 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. Conventional RT-PCR with LAMP primers produced amplicons with a sequence identical to the 297-nt CCCVd oil palm variant with the primers being specific for CCCVd and not for other viroids such as PSTVd and CEVd. RT-LAMP was found to be rapid and specific for detecting oil palm CCCVd.
Numerous potyvirus studies, including virus biology, transmission, viral protein function, as well as virus-host interaction, have greatly benefited from the utilization of reverse genetic techniques. Reverse genetics of RNA viruses refers to the manipulation of viral genomes, transfection of the modified cDNAs into cells, and the production of live infectious progenies, either wild-type or mutated. Reverse genetic technology provides an opportunity of developing potyviruses into vectors for improving agronomic traits in plants, as a reporter system for tracking virus infection in hosts or a production system for target proteins. Therefore, this review provides an overview on the breakthroughs achieved in potyvirus research through the implementation of reverse genetic systems.
Morphological and host-plant relationship studies were conducted to differentiate two sympatric populations of brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, one from rice (Oryza sativa) and the other from Leersia hexandra, a weed grass. In morphometric studies based on esterase activities, an UPGMA dendrogram using 17 quantitative morphological characters, including stridulatory organs (courtship signal-producing organs) between two sympatric populations of N. lugens, one from rice and the other from L. hexandra, a weed grass revealed that both populations were separated from each other. An out-group, N. bakeri, was found to be completely different from the two sympatric populations of N. lugens. Rice plants were best suited for the establishment of the rice-infesting population, and L. hexandra was a favourable host for the Leersia-infesting population. The individuals derived from one host did not thrive on the other host, as shown by a significant reduction in survival and nymphal development, ovipositional preferences, ovipositional response, and egg hatchability. Therefore, morphological and host-plant relationship studies indicate that rice-associated population with high esterase activities and L. heaxandra-associated population with low esterase activities are two closely related sibling species.
Fiji leaf gall is an important disease of sugarcane in Australia and other Asia-Pacific countries. The causative agent is the reovirus Fiji disease virus (FDV). Previous reports indicate that there is variation in pathology between virus isolates. To investigate the amount of genetic variation found in FDV, 25 field isolates from Australia, Papua New Guinea and Malaysia were analysed by partial sequencing of genome segments S3 and S9. There was up to 15% divergence in the nucleotide sequence among the 25 isolates. A similar amount of divergence and pattern of relationships was found for each of the two genomic segments for most of the field isolates, although reassortment of genome segments seems likely for at least one of the Papua New Guinean isolates. The finding of a high level of variation in FDV isolated in different regions has implications for quarantine and disease management.
Two isolates of a novel babuvirus causing "bunchy top" symptoms were characterised, one from abacá (Musa textilis) from the Philippines and one from banana (Musa sp.) from Sarawak (Malaysia). The name abacá bunchy top virus (ABTV) is proposed. Both isolates have a genome of six circular DNA components, each ca. 1.0-1.1 kb, analogous to those of isolates of Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). However, unlike BBTV, both ABTV isolates lack an internal ORF in DNA-R, and the ORF in DNA-U3 found in some BBTV isolates is also absent. In all phylogenetic analyses of nanovirid isolates, ABTV and BBTV fall in the same clade, but on separate branches. However, ABTV and BBTV isolates shared only 79-81% amino acid sequence identity for the putative coat protein and 54-76% overall nucleotide sequence identity across all components. Stem-loop and major common regions were present in ABTV, but there was less than 60% identity with the major common region of BBTV. ABTV and BBTV were also shown to be serologically distinct, with only two out of ten BBTV-specific monoclonal antibodies reacting with ABTV. The two ABTV isolates may represent distinct strains of the species as they are less closely related to each other than are isolates of the two geographic subgroups (Asian and South Pacific) of BBTV.
Six papaya samples showing downward leaf curling were collected in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, China. The result of TAS-ELISA showed they were all infected by geminiviruses. Comparison of partial DNA-A sequences reveals that these virus isolates can be classified into two groups. Group I includes isolates G2, G4, G5, G28 and G29 from Guangxi province, while isolate GD2 from Guangdong province belongs to Group II. The complete DNA-A sequence of G2 and GD2 were characterized. Sequence comparisons showed that the DNA-A of G2 and GD2 were most closely related to that of Ageratum yellow vein China virus- [Hn2] and Ageratum yellow vein virus , respectively, with 83.4 and 75.2% nucleotide sequence identity, while DNA-A sequence between G2 and GD2 had only 73.4% sequence identity. The molecular data suggests that G2 and GD2 are two distinct begomoviruses, for which the name Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) for G2 and Papaya leaf curl Guangdong virus (PaLCuGDV) for GD2 are proposed. Comparison of individual encoded proteins showed the coat protein of G2 and GD2 shared highest amino acid sequence identity (97.7 and 94.2%, respectively) with that of Pepper leaf curl virus -[Malaysia] (PepLCV-[MY]), suggesting the CP of these viruses may have identical ancestor.
Due to the low titer or uneven distribution of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in field samples, detection of CTV by using conventional detection techniques may be difficult. Therefore, in the present work, the cadmium-telluride quantum dots (QDs) was conjugated with a specific antibody against coat protein (CP) of CTV, and the CP were immobilized on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to develop a specific and sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based nanobiosensor for detecting CTV. The maximum FRET efficiency for the developed nano-biosensor was observed at 60% in AuNPs-CP/QDs-Ab ratio of 1:8.5. The designed system showed higher sensitivity and specificity over enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a limit of detection of 0.13μgmL(-1) and 93% and 94% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. As designed sensor is rapid, sensitive, specific and efficient in detecting CTV, this could be envisioned for diagnostic applications, surveillance and plant certification program.
Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) is a leading cause of cassava losses in East and Central Africa, and is currently having a severe impact on food security. The disease is caused by two viruses within the Potyviridae family: Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), which both encode atypical Ham1 proteins with highly conserved inosine triphosphate (ITP) pyrophosphohydrolase (ITPase) domains. ITPase proteins are widely encoded by plant, animal, and archaea. They selectively hydrolyse mutagenic nucleotide triphosphates to prevent their incorporation into nucleic acid and thereby function to reduce mutation rates. It has previously been hypothesized that U/CBSVs encode Ham1 proteins with ITPase activity to reduce viral mutation rates during infection. In this study, we investigate the potential roles of U/CBSV Ham1 proteins. We show that both CBSV and UCBSV Ham1 proteins have ITPase activities through in vitro enzyme assays. Deep-sequencing experiments found no evidence of the U/CBSV Ham1 proteins providing mutagenic protection during infections of Nicotiana hosts. Manipulations of the CBSV_Tanza infectious clone were performed, including a Ham1 deletion, ITPase point mutations, and UCBSV Ham1 chimera. Unlike severely necrotic wild-type CBSV_Tanza infections, infections of Nicotiana benthamiana with the manipulated CBSV infectious clones do not develop necrosis, indicating that that the CBSV Ham1 is a necrosis determinant. We propose that the presence of U/CBSV Ham1 proteins with highly conserved ITPase motifs indicates that they serve highly selectable functions during infections of cassava and may represent a euphorbia host adaptation that could be targeted in antiviral strategies.
Rice tungro disease (RTD) is a recurring disease affecting rice farming especially in the South and Southeast Asia. The disease is commonly diagnosed by visual observation of the symptoms on diseased plants in paddy fields and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, visual observation is unreliable and PCR can be costly. High-throughput as well as relatively cheap detection methods are important for RTD management for screening large number of samples. Due to this, detection by serological assays such as immunoblotting assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are preferred. However, these serological assays are limited by lack of continuous supply of antibodies as reagents due to the difficulty in preparing sufficient purified virions as antigens. This study aimed to generate and evaluate the reactivity of the recombinant coat proteins of Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) as alternative antigens to generate antibodies. The genes encoding the coat proteins of both viruses, RTBV (CP), and RTSV (CP1, CP2 and CP3) were cloned and expressed as recombinant fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. All of the recombinant fusion proteins, with the exception of the recombinant fusion protein of the CP2 of RTSV, were reactive against our in-house anti-tungro rabbit serum. In conclusion, our study showed the potential use of the recombinant fusion coat proteins of the tungro viruses as alternative antigens for production of antibodies for diagnostic purposes.