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  1. Talei D, Valdiani A, Rafii MY, Maziah M
    PLoS One, 2014;9(11):e112907.
    PMID: 25423252 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0112907
    Separation of proteins based on the physicochemical properties with different molecular weight and isoelectric points would be more accurate. In the current research, the 45-day-old seedlings were treated with 0 (control) and 12 dS m(-1) of sodium chloride in the hydroponic system. After 15 days of salt exposure, the total protein of the fresh leaves and roots was extracted and analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis system (2-DE). The analysis led to the detection of 32 induced proteins (19 proteins in leaf and 13 proteins in the root) as well as 12 upregulated proteins (four proteins in leaf and eight proteins in the root) in the salt-treated plants. Of the 44 detected proteins, 12 were sequenced, and three of them matched with superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate oxygenase whereas the rest remained unknown. The three known proteins associate with plants response to environmental stresses and could represent the general stress proteins in the present study too. In addition, the proteomic feedback of different accessions of A. paniculata to salt stress can potentially be used to breed salt-tolerant varieties of the herb.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/drug effects
  2. Mohajer S, Mat Taha R, Mohajer M, Khorasani Esmaeili A
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:680356.
    PMID: 25045740 DOI: 10.1155/2014/680356
    To explore the potential of in vitro rapid regeneration, three varieties (Golpaygan-181, Orumieh-1763, and Gorgan-1601) of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. syn. Onobrychis sativa L.) were evaluated. For the first time, an encapsulation protocol was established from somatic embryogenic callus in torpedo and cotyledonary stages to create artificial seeds. Callus derived from different concentrations of Kinetin (0-2.0 mg L(-1)) and Indole-3-acetic acid (0-2.0 mg L(-1)) was coated with sodium alginate and subsequently cultured either in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or in soil substrate. Adventitious shoots from synthetic beads developed into rooting in full and half strength MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of auxin and cytokinin. Prolonged water conservation of black and red soils (1:1) had the highest rate of survival plantlets in the acclimatization process. Diverse resistance techniques in Onobrychis viciifolia were evaluated when the plants were subjected to water deficiency. Higher frequency of epicuticular waxes was observed in in vivo leaves compared to in vitro leaves. Jagged trichomes nonsecreting glands covered by spines were only observed in the lower leaf side. Ultimately, stomata indices were 0.127 (abaxial), 0.188 (adaxial) in in vivo and 0.121 (abaxial), 0.201 (adaxial) in in vitro leaves.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/drug effects
  3. Maluin FN, Hussein MZ, Yusof NA, Fakurazi S, Maznah Z, Idris AS, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 12 18;10(1):22323.
    PMID: 33339951 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-79335-6
    The nanoformulations of pesticides have shown great interest from many parties due to their slow release capability and site-specific delivery. Hence, in this work, a new nanoformulation of a fungicide, namely chitosan-hexaconazole nanoparticles with a mean diameter size of 18 nm was subjected to the residual analysis on oil palm tissue, leaf and palm oil (crude palm oil and crude palm kernel oil) using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method coupled with the gas chromatography-micro electron capture detector (GC-µECD). The chitosan-hexaconazole nanoparticles were applied using the trunk injection method at 4.5 g a.i./palm (standard single dose) and 9.0 g a.i./palm (double dose). The fungicide residue was analyzed at 0 (6 h after application), 1, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days after treatment. The palm oil matrices; the crude palm oil (CPO) and crude palm kernel oil (CPKO) were found to be residue-free. However, it was observed that high accumulation of the fungicide in the stem tissue and leaf after the treatment using the chitosan-hexaconazole nanoparticles, which is good for better bioavailability for the treatment of the fungi, Ganoderma boninense. The dissipation kinetic at double dose treatment in the tissue and leaf was found to govern by the second-order kinetic with half-lives (t1/2) of 383 and 515 days, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/drug effects
  4. George A, Ng CP, O'Callaghan M, Jensen GS, Wong HJ
    PMID: 24886679 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-161
    Polygonum minus Huds.is a culinary flavouring that is common in South East Asian cuisine and as a remedy for diverse maladies ranging from indigestion to poor eyesight. The leaves of this herb have been reported to be high in antioxidants. Flavonoids which have been associated with memory, cognition and protection against neurodegeneration were found in P. minus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/drug effects
  5. Hassan SA, Mijin S, Yusoff UK, Ding P, Wahab PE
    Molecules, 2012 Jun 28;17(7):7843-53.
    PMID: 22743588 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17077843
    The source and quantity of nutrients available to plants can affect the quality of leafy herbs. A study was conducted to compare quality of Cosmos caudatus in response to rates of organic and mineral-based fertilizers. Organic based fertilizer GOBI (8% N:8% P₂O₅:8% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O) were evaluated based on N element rates at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 kg h⁻¹. Application of organic based fertilizer reduced nitrate, improved vitamin C, antioxidant activity as well as nitrogen and calcium nutrients content. Antioxidant activity and chlorophyll content were significantly higher with increased fertilizer application. Fertilization appeared to enhance vitamin C content, however for the maximum ascorbic acid content, regardless of fertilizer sources, plants did not require high amounts of fertilizer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/drug effects
  6. Cristancho RJ, Hanafi MM, Omar SR, Rafii MY
    Plant Biol (Stuttg), 2011 Mar;13(2):333-42.
    PMID: 21309980 DOI: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.2010.00378.x
    Aluminium (Al) phytotoxicity is an important soil constraint that limits crop yield. The objectives of this study were to investigate how growth, physiology, nutrient content and organic acid concentration is affected by Al, and to assess the degree of Al tolerance in different oil palm progeny (OPP). Four OPPs ['A' (Angola dura × Angola dura), 'B' (Nigerian dura × Nigerian dura), 'C' (Deli dura × AVROS pisifera) and 'D' (Deli dura × Dumpy AVROS pisifera)] were grown in different Al concentrations (0, 100 and 200 μm) in aerated Hoagland solution, pH 4.4, for 80 days. We observed a severe reduction (57.5%) in shoot dry weight, and root tips were reduced by 46.5% in 200 μm Al. In 'B' and 'C', the majority of macro- and micronutrients in plants were reduced significantly by 200 μm Al, with Mg being lowered by more than 50% in roots and shoots. The 200 μm Al treatment resulted in a 56.50% reduction in total leaf area, a 20% reduction in net photosynthesis and a 17% reduction in SPAD chlorophyll value in the third leaf. Root tips (0-5 mm) showed a significant increase in oxalic acid content with increasing Al concentration (∼ 5.86-fold); progeny 'A' had the highest concentration of oxalic acid. There was a significant interaction between Al concentration × OPP on total leaf number, root volume, lateral root length, Mg and K in root and shoot tissues, and Ca and N in shoots. The OPPs could be ranked in their tolerance to Al as: 'A' > 'D' > 'B' > 'C'.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/drug effects
  7. Goh CS, Lee KT, Bhatia S
    Bioresour Technol, 2010 Oct;101(19):7362-7.
    PMID: 20471249 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.04.048
    This work presents the pretreatment of oil palm fronds (OPF) using hot compressed water (HCW) to enhance sugar recovery in enzymatic hydrolysis. A central, composite rotatable design was used to optimize the effect of reaction temperature, reaction time and liquid-solid ratio on the pretreatment process. All variables were found to significantly affect the glucose yield. A quadratic polynomial equation was used to model glucose yield by multiple regression analysis, using response surface methodology (RSM). Using a 10 bar pressurized reactor, the optimum conditions for pretreatment of OPF were found at 178 degrees C, 11.1 min and a liquid-solid ratio of 9.6. The predicted glucose yield was 92.78 wt.% at the optimum conditions. Experimental verification of the optimum conditions gave a glucose yield in good agreement with the estimated value of the model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/drug effects*
  8. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Karimi E, Ibrahim MH
    PMID: 23176249 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-229
    The increase in atmospheric CO(2) concentration caused by climate change and agricultural practices is likely to affect biota by producing changes in plant growth, allocation and chemical composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA, at two levels: 0 and 10-3 M) and CO(2) enrichment (at two levels: 400 and 800 μmol·mol-1) on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from two Malaysian ginger varieties, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/drug effects
  9. Rahnamaie-Tajadod R, Goh HH, Mohd Noor N
    J. Plant Physiol., 2019 Sep;240:152994.
    PMID: 31226543 DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2019.152994
    Polygonum minus Huds. is a medicinal aromatic plant rich in terpenes, aldehydes, and phenolic compounds. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a plant signaling molecule commonly applied to elicit stress responses to produce plant secondary metabolites. In this study, the effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in P. minus leaves were investigated by using a metabolomic approach. Time-course changes in the leaf composition of VOCs on days 1, 3, and 5 after MeJA treatment were analyzed through solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The VOCs found in MeJA-elicited leaves were similar to those found in mock-treated leaves but varied in quantity at different time points. We focused our analysis on the content and composition of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and green leaf volatiles (GLVs) within the leaf samples. Our results suggest that MeJA enhances the activity of biosynthetic pathways for aldehydes and terpenes in P. minus. Hence, the production of aromatic compounds in this medicinal herb can be increased by MeJA elicitation. Furthermore, the relationship between MeJA elicitation and terpene biosynthesis in P. minus was shown through SPME-GC-MS analysis of VOCs combined with transcriptomic analysis of MeJA-elicited P. minus leaves from our previous study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/drug effects
  10. Panhwar QA, Naher UA, Radziah O, Shamshuddin J, Razi IM
    Molecules, 2015 Feb 20;20(3):3628-46.
    PMID: 25710843 DOI: 10.3390/molecules20033628
    Aluminum toxicity is widely considered as the most important limiting factor for plants growing in acid sulfate soils. A study was conducted in laboratory and in field to ameliorate Al toxicity using plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), ground magnesium limestone (GML) and ground basalt. Five-day-old rice seedlings were inoculated by Bacillus sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophila, Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia seminalis and grown for 21 days in Hoagland solution (pH 4.0) at various Al concentrations (0, 50 and 100 μM). Toxicity symptoms in root and leaf were studied using scanning electron microscope. In the field, biofertilizer (PGPB), GML and basalt were applied (4 t·ha-1 each). Results showed that Al severely affected the growth of rice. At high concentrations, the root surface was ruptured, leading to cell collapse; however, no damages were observed in the PGPB inoculated seedlings. After 21 days of inoculation, solution pH increased to >6.0, while the control treatment remained same. Field study showed that the highest rice growth and yield were obtained in the bio-fertilizer and GML treatments. This study showed that Al toxicity was reduced by PGPB via production of organic acids that were able to chelate the Al and the production of polysaccharides that increased solution pH. The release of phytohormones further enhanced rice growth that resulted in yield increase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/drug effects
  11. Haddadi F, Aziz MA, Abdullah SN, Tan SG, Kamaladini H
    Molecules, 2015 Feb 23;20(3):3647-66.
    PMID: 25711423 DOI: 10.3390/molecules20033647
    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method was applied to introduce the luciferase reporter gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in the pGreen0049 binary vector into strawberry cv. Camarosa. The in vitro regeneration system of strawberry leaves to be used in the transformation was optimized using different TDZ concentrations in MS medium. TDZ at 16 µM showed the highest percentage (100%) of shoot formation and the highest mean number of shoots (24) produced per explant. Studies on the effects of different antibiotics, namely timentin, cefotaxime, carbenicillin and ampicillin, on shoot regeneration of strawberry leaf explants showed the best shoot regeneration in the presence of 300 mg/L timentin and 150 mg/L cefotaxime. Assessment of the different factors affecting Agrobacterium mediated-transformation of strawberry with the luciferase gene showed the highest efficiency of putative transformant production (86%) in the treatment with no preculture, bacterial OD600 of 0.6 and the addition of 150 mg/L cefotaxime in the pre-selection and selection media. The presence of the luciferase gene in the plant genome was verified by the luciferase reporter gene assay, nested PCR amplification and dot blot of genomic DNA isolated from the young leaves of each putatively transformed plantlet.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/drug effects
  12. Reddy AS, Abd Malek SN, Ibrahim H, Sim KS
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2013 Nov 12;13:314.
    PMID: 24215354 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-314
    BACKGROUND: Alpinia scabra, locally known as 'Lengkuas raya', is an aromatic, perennial and rhizomatous herb from the family Zingiberaceae. It is a wild species which grows largely on mountains at moderate elevations in Peninsular Malaysia, but it can also survive in the lowlands like in the states of Terengganu and Northern Johor. The present study reports the cytotoxic potential of A. scabra extracts from different parts of the plant.

    METHODS: The experimental approach in the present study was based on a bioassay-guided fractionation. The crude methanol and fractionated extracts (hexane, chloroform and water) from different parts of A. scabra (leaves, rhizomes, roots and pseudo stems) were prepared prior to the cytotoxicity evaluation against human ovarian (SKOV-3) and hormone-dependent breast (MCF7) carcinoma cells. The identified cytotoxic extracts were then subjected to chemical investigations in order to identify the active ingredients. A normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) was used to determine the specificity for cancerous cells. The cytotoxic extracts and fractions were also subjected to morphological assessment, DNA fragmentation analysis and DAPI nuclear staining.

    RESULTS: The leaf (hexane and chloroform) and rhizome (chloroform) extracts showed high inhibitory effect against the tested cells. Ten fractions (LC1-LC10) were yielded after purification of the leaf chloroform extract. Fraction LC4 which showed excellent cytotoxic activity was further purified and resulted in 17 sub-fractions (VLC1-VLC17). Sub-fraction VLC9 showed excellent cytotoxicity against MCF7 and SKOV-3 cells but not toxic against normal MRC-5 cells. Meanwhile, eighteen fractions (RC1-RC18) were obtained after purification of the rhizome chloroform extract, of which fraction RC5 showed cytotoxicity against SKOV-3 cells with high selectivity index. There were marked morphological changes when observed using phase-contrast inverted microscope, DAPI nuclear staining and also DNA fragmentations in MCF7 and SKOV-3 cells after treatment with the cytotoxic extracts and fractions which were indicative of cell apoptosis. Methyl palmitate and methyl stearate were identified in the hexane leaf extract by GC-MS analysis.

    CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained from the current study demonstrated that the cell death induced by cytotoxic extracts and fractions of A. scabra may be due to apoptosis induction which was characterized by apoptotic morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. The active ingredients in the leaf sub-fraction VLC9 and rhizome fraction RC5 may lead to valuable compounds that have the ability to kill cancer cells but not normal cells.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/drug effects
  13. Ling AP, Tan KP, Hussein S
    J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 2013 Jul;14(7):621-31.
    PMID: 23825148 DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B1200135
    Labisia pumila var. alata, commonly known as 'Kacip Fatimah' or 'Selusuh Fatimah' in Southeast Asia, is traditionally used by members of the Malay community because of its post-partum medicinal properties. Its various pharmaceutical applications cause an excessive harvesting and lead to serious shortage in natural habitat. Thus, this in vitro propagation study investigated the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro leaf and stem explants of L. pumila.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/drug effects*
  14. Tangahu BV, Abdullah SR, Basri H, Idris M, Anuar N, Mukhlisin M
    Int J Phytoremediation, 2013;15(8):814-26.
    PMID: 23819277
    Phytoremediation is an environment-friendly and cost-effective method to clean the environment of heavy metal contamination. A prolonged phytotoxicity test was conducted in a single exposure. Scirpus grossus plants were grown in sand to which the diluted Pb (NO3)2 was added, with the variation of concentration were 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/L. It was found that Scirpus grossus plants can tolerate Pb at concentrations of up to 400 mg/L. The withering was observed on day-7 for Pb concentrations of 400 mg/L and above. 100% of the plants withered with a Pb concentration of 600 mg/L on day 65. The Pb concentration in water medium decreased while in plant tissues increased. Adsorption of Pb solution ranged between 2 to 6% for concentrations of 100 to 800 mg/L. The Bioaccumulation Coefficient and Translocation Factor of Scirpus grossus were found greater than 1, indicating that this species is a hyperaccumulator plant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/drug effects
  15. Omidvar V, Abdullah SN, Izadfard A, Ho CL, Mahmood M
    Planta, 2010 Sep;232(4):925-36.
    PMID: 20635097 DOI: 10.1007/s00425-010-1220-z
    The 1,053-bp promoter of the oil palm metallothionein gene (so-called MSP1) and its 5' deletions were fused to the GUS reporter gene, and analysed in transiently transformed oil palm tissues. The full length promoter showed sevenfold higher activity in the mesocarp than in leaves and 1.5-fold more activity than the CaMV35S promoter in the mesocarp. The 1,053-bp region containing the 5' untranslated region (UTR) gave the highest activity in the mesocarp, while the 148-bp region was required for minimal promoter activity. Two positive regulatory regions were identified at nucleotides (nt) -953 to -619 and -420 to -256 regions. Fine-tune deletion of the -619 to -420 nt region led to the identification of a 21-bp negative regulatory sequence in the -598 to -577 nt region, which is involved in mesocarp-specific expression. Gel mobility shift assay revealed a strong interaction of the leaf nuclear extract with the 21-bp region. An AGTTAGG core-sequence within this region was identified as a novel negative regulatory element controlling fruit-specificity of the MSP1 promoter. Abscisic acid (ABA) and copper (Cu(2+)) induced the activity of the promoter and its 5' deletions more effectively than methyl jasmonate (MeJa) and ethylene. In the mesocarp, the full length promoter showed stronger inducibility in response to ABA and Cu(2+) than its 5' deletions, while in leaves, the -420 nt fragment was the most inducible by ABA and Cu(2+). These results suggest that the MSP1 promoter and its regulatory regions are potentially useful for engineering fruit-specific and inducible gene expression in oil palm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/drug effects
  16. Choo TP, Lee CK, Low KS, Hishamuddin O
    Chemosphere, 2006 Feb;62(6):961-7.
    PMID: 16081131
    This study describes an investigation using tropical water lilies (Nymphaea spontanea) to remove hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions and electroplating waste. The results show that water lilies are capable of accumulating substantial amount of Cr(VI), up to 2.119 mg g(-1) from a 10 mg l(-1) solution. The roots of the plant accumulated the highest amount of Cr(VI) followed by leaves and petioles, indicating that roots play an important role in the bioremediation process. The maturity of the plant exerts a great effect on the removal and accumulation of Cr(VI). Plants of 9 weeks old accumulated the most Cr(VI) followed by those of 6 and 3 weeks old. The results also show that removal of Cr(VI) by water lilies is more efficient when the metal is present singly than in the presence of Cu(II) or in waste solution. This may be largely associated with more pronounced phytotoxicity effect on the biochemical changes in the plants and saturation of binding sites. Significant toxicity effect on the plant was evident as shown in the reduction of chlorophyll, protein and sugar contents in plants exposed to Cr(VI) in this investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/drug effects
  17. Khandaker MM, Boyce AN, Osman N
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2012 Apr;53:101-10.
    PMID: 22349652 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2012.01.016
    The present study represents the first report of the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on the growth, development and quality of the wax apple fruit, a widely cultivated fruit tree in South East Asia. The wax apple trees were spray treated with 0, 5, 20 and 50 mM H(2)O(2) under field conditions. Photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll and dry matter content of the leaves and total soluble solids and total sugar content of the fruits of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense, var. jambu madu) were significantly increased after treatment with 5 mM H(2)O(2). The application of 20 mM H(2)O(2) significantly reduced bud drop and enhanced fruit growth, resulting in larger fruit size, increased fruit set, fruit number, fruit biomass and yield compared to the control. In addition, the endogenous level of H(2)O(2) in wax apple leaves increased significantly with H(2)O(2) treatments. With regard to fruit quality, 20 mM H(2)O(2) treatment increased the K(+), anthocyanin and carotene contents of the fruits by 65%, 67%, and 41%, respectively. In addition, higher flavonoid, phenol and soluble protein content, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activities were recorded in the treated fruits. There was a positive correlation between peel colour (hue) and TSS, between net photosynthesis and SPS activity and between phenol and flavonoid content with antioxidant activity in H(2)O(2)-treated fruits. It is concluded that spraying with 5 and 20 mM H(2)O(2) once a week produced better fruit growth, maximising the yield and quality of wax apple fruits under field conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/drug effects
  18. Hariono M, Rollando R, Yoga I, Harjono A, Suryodanindro A, Yanuar M, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Mar 08;26(5).
    PMID: 33800366 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26051464
    In our previous work, the partitions (1 mg/mL) of Ageratum conyzoides (AC) aerial parts and Ixora coccinea (IC) leaves showed inhibitions of 94% and 96%, respectively, whereas their fractions showed IC50 43 and 116 µg/mL, respectively, toward Matrix Metalloproteinase9 (MMP9), an enzyme that catalyzes a proteolysis of extracellular matrix. In this present study, we performed IC50 determinations for AC n-hexane, IC n-hexane, and IC ethylacetate partitions, followed by the cytotoxicity study of individual partitions against MDA-MB-231, 4T1, T47D, MCF7, and Vero cell lines. Successive fractionations from AC n-hexane and IC ethylacetate partitions led to the isolation of two compounds, oxytetracycline (OTC) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP). The result showed that AC n-hexane, IC n-hexane, and IC ethylacetate partitions inhibit MMP9 with their respective IC50 as follows: 246.1 µg/mL, 5.66 µg/mL, and 2.75 × 10-2 µg/mL. Toward MDA-MB-231, 4T1, T47D, and MCF7, AC n-hexane demonstrated IC50 2.05, 265, 109.70, and 2.11 µg/mL, respectively, whereas IC ethylacetate showed IC50 1.92, 57.5, 371.5, and 2.01 µg/mL, respectively. The inhibitions toward MMP9 by OTC were indicated by its IC50 18.69 µM, whereas DOP was inactive. A molecular docking study suggested that OTC prefers to bind to PEX9 rather than its catalytic domain. Against 4T1, OTC showed inhibition with IC50 414.20 µM. In conclusion, this study furtherly supports the previous finding that AC and IC are two herbals with potential to be developed as triple-negative anti-breast cancer agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/drug effects
  19. Jahan MS, Nozulaidi M, Khairi M, Mat N
    J. Plant Physiol., 2016 May 20;195:1-8.
    PMID: 26970687 DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2016.03.002
    Light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in photosystem II (PSII) regulate glutathione (GSH) functions in plants. To investigate whether LHCs control GSH biosynthesis that modifies guard cell abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity, we evaluated GSH content, stomatal aperture, reactive oxygen species (ROS), weight loss and plant growth using a ch1-1 mutant that was defective of LHCs and compared this with wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Glutathione monoethyl ester (GSHmee) increased but 1-chloro-2,4 dinitrobenzene (CDNB) decreased the GSH content in the guard cells. The guard cells of the ch1-1 mutants accumulated significantly less GSH than the WT plants. The guard cells of the ch1-1 mutants also showed higher sensitivity to ABA than the WT plants. The CDNB treatment increased but the GSHmee treatment decreased the ABA sensitivity of the guard cells without affecting ABA-induced ROS production. Dark and light treatments altered the GSH content and stomatal aperture of the guard cells of ch1-1 and WT plants, irrespective of CDNB and GSHmee. The ch1-1 mutant contained fewer guard cells and displayed poor growth, late flowering and stumpy weight loss compared with the WT plants. This study suggests that defective LHCs reduced the GSH content in the guard cells and increased sensitivity to ABA, resulting in stomatal closure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/drug effects
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