Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 34 in total

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  1. Ahmadi F, Akmar Abdullah SN, Kadkhodaei S, Ijab SM, Hamzah L, Aziz MA, et al.
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2018 Jun;127:320-335.
    PMID: 29653435 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.04.004
    Oil palm is grown in tropical soils with low bioavailability of Pi. A cDNA clone specifically expressed under phosphate-starvation condition in oil palm roots was identified as a high-affinity phosphate transporter (EgPHT1). The deduced amino acid sequence has 6 transmembrane domains each at the N- and C-termini separated by a hydrophilic linker. Comparison of promoter motifs within 1500 bp upstream of ATG of 10 promoters from high- and low-affinity phosphate transporter from both dicots and monocots including EgPHT1 was performed. The EgPHT1 promoter was fused to β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and its activity was analysed by histochemical and fluorometric GUS assays in transiently transformed oil palm tissues and T3 homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis plants. In response to Pi-starvation, no GUS activity was detected in oil palm leaves, but a strong inducible activity was observed in the roots (1.4 times higher than the CaMV35S promoter). GUS was specifically expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis roots under Pi deficiency and starvation of the other macronutrients (N and K) did not induce GUS activity. Eight motifs including ABRERATCAL (abscisic-acid responsive), RHERPATEXPA7 (root hair-specific), SURECOREATSULTR11 (sulfur-deficiency response), LTRECOREATCOR15 (temperature-stress response), MYB2CONSENSUSAT and ACGTATERD1 (water-stress response) as well as two novel motifs, 3 (TAAAAAAA) and 26 (TTTTATGT) identified through pattern discovery, occur at significantly higher frequency (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/genetics
  2. Feldman AB, Murchie EH, Leung H, Baraoidan M, Coe R, Yu SM, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(4):e94947.
    PMID: 24760084 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094947
    A high leaf vein density is both an essential feature of C4 photosynthesis and a foundation trait to C4 evolution, ensuring the optimal proportion and proximity of mesophyll and bundle sheath cells for permitting the rapid exchange of photosynthates. Two rice mutant populations, a deletion mutant library with a cv. IR64 background (12,470 lines) and a T-DNA insertion mutant library with a cv. Tainung 67 background (10,830 lines), were screened for increases in vein density. A high throughput method with handheld microscopes was developed and its accuracy was supported by more rigorous microscopy analysis. Eight lines with significantly increased leaf vein densities were identified to be used as genetic stock for the global C4 Rice Consortium. The candidate population was shown to include both shared and independent mutations and so more than one gene controlled the high vein density phenotype. The high vein density trait was found to be linked to a narrow leaf width trait but the linkage was incomplete. The more genetically robust narrow leaf width trait was proposed to be used as a reliable phenotypic marker for finding high vein density variants in rice in future screens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/genetics
  3. Habib SH, Saud HM, Kausar H
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2014;13(2):2359-67.
    PMID: 24781991 DOI: 10.4238/2014.April.3.8
    Oil palm tissues are rich in polyphenols, polysaccharides and secondary metabolites; these can co-precipitate with RNA, causing problems for downstream applications. We compared two different methods (one conventional and a kit-based method - Easy-Blue(TM) Total RNA Extraction Kit) to isolate total RNA from leaves, roots and shoot apical meristems of tissue culture derived truncated leaf syndrome somaclonal oil palm seedlings. The quality and quantity of total RNA were compared through spectrophotometry and formaldehyde gel electrophoresis. The specificity and applicability of the protocols were evaluated for downstream applications, including cDNA synthesis and RT-PCR analysis. We found that the conventional method gave higher yields of RNA but took longer, and it was contaminated with genomic DNA. This method required extra genomic DNA removal steps that further reduced the RNA yield. The kit-based method, on the other hand, produced good yields as well as well as good quality RNA, within a very short period of time from a small amount of starting material. Moreover, the RNA from the kit-based method was more suitable for synthesizing cDNA and RT-PCR amplification than the conventional method. Therefore, we conclude that the Easy-BlueTM Total RNA Extraction Kit method is suitable and superior for isolation of total RNA from oil palm leaf, root and shoot apical meristem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/genetics
  4. Valdiani A, Javanmard A, Talei D, Tan SG, Nikzad S, Kadir MA, et al.
    Mol Biol Rep, 2013 Feb;40(2):1775-84.
    PMID: 23086278 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-012-2231-6
    Andrographis paniculata (AP) is a medicinal plant species introduced into Malaysia. To address the genetic structure and evolutionary connectedness of the Malaysian AP with the Indian AP, a DNA sequence analysis was conducted based on 24 microsatellite markers. Out of the 24 primer sets, seven novel microsatellite primers were designed and amplified intra-specifically according to the available Indian AP sequences at the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), where 17 of them were amplified using the cross-species strategy by employing the primers belonging to Acanthus ilicifolius Linn (Acanthaceae) and Lumnitzera racemosa Wild (Combretaceae). The primers were then applied on the Malaysian AP accessions. Sixteen of the new microsatellite loci were amplified successfully. Analysis of these microsatellite sequences, revealed some significant differences between the Indian and Malaysian AP accessions in terms of the size and type of the repeat motifs. These findings depicted the cryptic feature of this species. Despite identifying several heterozygous alleles no polymorphism was observed in the detected loci of the selected accessions. This situation was in concordance with the presence of "fixed heterozygosity" phenomenon in the mentioned loci. Accordingly, this was fully consistent with the occurrence of the genetic bottleneck and founder effect within Malaysian AP population. Apart from the amplification of new microsatellites in this species, our observations could be in agreement with the risk of genetic depletion and consequently extinction of this precious herb in Malaysia. This issue should be taken into consideration in the future studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/genetics*
  5. Nejat N, Vadamalai G, Dickinson M
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(2):2301-13.
    PMID: 22408455 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13022301
    Madagascar periwinkle is an ornamental and a medicinal plant, and is also an indicator plant that is highly susceptible to phytoplasma and spiroplasma infections from different crops. Periwinkle lethal yellows, caused by Spiroplasma citri, is one of the most devastating diseases of periwinkle. The response of plants to S. citri infection is very little known at the transcriptome level. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to investigate the expression levels of four selected genes involved in defense and stress responses in naturally and experimentally Spiroplasma citri infected periwinkles. Strictosidine β-glucosidase involved in terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) biosynthesis pathway showed significant upregulation in experimentally and naturally infected periwinkles. The transcript level of extensin increased in leaves of periwinkles experimentally infected by S. citri in comparison to healthy ones. A similar level of heat shock protein 90 and metallothionein expression was observed in healthy, naturally and experimentally spiroplasma-diseased periwinkles. Overexpression of Strictosidine β-glucosidase demonstrates the potential utility of this gene as a host biomarker to increase the fidelity of S. citri detection and can also be used in breeding programs to develop stable disease-resistance varieties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/genetics
  6. Hew CS, Gam LH
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2011 Dec;165(7-8):1577-86.
    PMID: 21938418 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-011-9377-x
    Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. is a traditionally used medicinal plant to decrease cholesterol level, reduce high blood pressure, control diabetics, and for treatment of cancer. In our present study, a proteomic approach was applied to study the proteome of the plant that had never analyzed before. We have identified 92 abundantly expressed proteins from the leaves of G. procumbens (Lour.) Merr. Amongst the identified proteins was miraculin, a taste-masking agent with high commercial value. Miraculin made up ∼0.1% of the total protein extracted; the finding of miraculin gave a great commercial value to G. procumbens (Lour.) Merr. as miraculin's natural source is limited while the production of recombinant miraculin faced challenges of not being able to exhibit the taste-masking effect as in the natural miraculin. We believe the discovery of miraculin in G. procumbens (Lour.) Merr., provides commercial feasibility of miraculin in view of the availability of G. procumbens (Lour.) Merr. that grow wildly and easily in tropical climate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/genetics
  7. Passos MA, de Cruz VO, Emediato FL, de Teixeira CC, Azevedo VC, Brasileiro AC, et al.
    BMC Genomics, 2013;14:78.
    PMID: 23379821 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-78
    Although banana (Musa sp.) is an important edible crop, contributing towards poverty alleviation and food security, limited transcriptome datasets are available for use in accelerated molecular-based breeding in this genus. 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology was employed to determine the sequence of gene transcripts in genotypes of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides Calcutta 4 and M. acuminata subgroup Cavendish cv. Grande Naine, contrasting in resistance to the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella musicola, causal organism of Sigatoka leaf spot disease. To enrich for transcripts under biotic stress responses, full length-enriched cDNA libraries were prepared from whole plant leaf materials, both uninfected and artificially challenged with pathogen conidiospores.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/genetics*
  8. Ashkani S, Rafii MY, Rahim HA, Latif MA
    Biotechnol Lett, 2013 May;35(5):799-810.
    PMID: 23315158 DOI: 10.1007/s10529-012-1130-1
    Malaysian rice, Pongsu Seribu 2, has wide-spectrum resistance against blast disease. Chromosomal locations conferring quantitative resistance were detected by linkage mapping with SSRs and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. For the mapping population, 188 F3 families were derived from a cross between the susceptible cultivar, Mahsuri, and a resistant variety, Pongsu Seribu 2. Partial resistance to leaf blast in the mapping population was assessed. A linkage map covering ten chromosomes and consisting of 63 SSR markers was constructed. 13 QTLs, including 6 putative and 7 putative QTLs, were detected on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 11 and 12. The resulting phenotypic variation due to a single QTL ranged from 2 to 13 %. These QTLs accounted for approx. 80 % of the total phenotypic variation within the F3 population. Therefore, partial resistance to blast in Pongsu Seribu 2 is due to combined effects of multiple loci with major and minor effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/genetics
  9. Nejat N, Cahill DM, Vadamalai G, Ziemann M, Rookes J, Naderali N
    Mol Genet Genomics, 2015 Oct;290(5):1899-910.
    PMID: 25893418 DOI: 10.1007/s00438-015-1046-2
    Invasive phytoplasmas wreak havoc on coconut palms worldwide, leading to high loss of income, food insecurity and extreme poverty of farmers in producing countries. Phytoplasmas as strictly biotrophic insect-transmitted bacterial pathogens instigate distinct changes in developmental processes and defence responses of the infected plants and manipulate plants to their own advantage; however, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying host-phytoplasma interactions. Further, phytoplasma-mediated transcriptional alterations in coconut palm genes have not yet been identified. This study evaluated the whole transcriptome profiles of naturally infected leaves of Cocos nucifera ecotype Malayan Red Dwarf in response to yellow decline phytoplasma from group 16SrXIV, using RNA-Seq technique. Transcriptomics-based analysis reported here identified genes involved in coconut innate immunity. The number of down-regulated genes in response to phytoplasma infection exceeded the number of genes up-regulated. Of the 39,873 differentially expressed unigenes, 21,860 unigenes were suppressed and 18,013 were induced following infection. Comparative analysis revealed that genes associated with defence signalling against biotic stimuli were significantly overexpressed in phytoplasma-infected leaves versus healthy coconut leaves. Genes involving cell rescue and defence, cellular transport, oxidative stress, hormone stimulus and metabolism, photosynthesis reduction, transcription and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were differentially represented. Our transcriptome analysis unveiled a core set of genes associated with defence of coconut in response to phytoplasma attack, although several novel defence response candidate genes with unknown function have also been identified. This study constitutes valuable sequence resource for uncovering the resistance genes and/or susceptibility genes which can be used as genetic tools in disease resistance breeding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/genetics*
  10. Goh HH, Baharin A, Mohd Salleh F', Ravee R, Wan Zakaria WNA, Mohd Noor N
    Sci Rep, 2020 04 20;10(1):6575.
    PMID: 32313042 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-63696-z
    Carnivorous pitcher plants produce specialised pitcher organs containing secretory glands, which secrete acidic fluids with hydrolytic enzymes for prey digestion and nutrient absorption. The content of pitcher fluids has been the focus of many fluid protein profiling studies. These studies suggest an evolutionary convergence of a conserved group of similar enzymes in diverse families of pitcher plants. A recent study showed that endogenous proteins were replenished in the pitcher fluid, which indicates a feedback mechanism in protein secretion. This poses an interesting question on the physiological effect of plant protein loss. However, there is no study to date that describes the pitcher response to endogenous protein depletion. To address this gap of knowledge, we previously performed a comparative RNA-sequencing experiment of newly opened pitchers (D0) against pitchers after 3 days of opening (D3C) and pitchers with filtered endogenous proteins (>10 kDa) upon pitcher opening (D3L). Nepenthes ampullaria was chosen as a model study species due to their abundance and unique feeding behaviour on leaf litters. The analysis of unigenes with top 1% abundance found protein translation and stress response to be overrepresented in D0, compared to cell wall related, transport, and signalling for D3L. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis identified DEGs with functional enrichment in protein regulation, secondary metabolism, intracellular trafficking, secretion, and vesicular transport. The transcriptomic landscape of the pitcher dramatically shifted towards intracellular transport and defence response at the expense of energy metabolism and photosynthesis upon endogenous protein depletion. This is supported by secretome, transportome, and transcription factor analysis with RT-qPCR validation based on independent samples. This study provides the first glimpse into the molecular responses of pitchers to protein loss with implications to future cost/benefit analysis of carnivorous pitcher plant energetics and resource allocation for adaptation in stochastic environments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/genetics
  11. Neoh BK, Wong YC, Teh HF, Ng TLM, Tiong SH, Ooi TEK, et al.
    PLoS One, 2019;14(3):e0213591.
    PMID: 30856213 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0213591
    To investigate limiters of photosynthate assimilation in the carbon-source limited crop, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), we measured differential metabolite, gene expression and the gas exchange in leaves in an open field for palms with distinct mesocarp oil content. We observed higher concentrations of glucose 1-phosphate, glucose 6-phosphate, sucrose 6-phosphate, and sucrose in high-oil content palms with the greatest difference being at 11:00 (p-value ≤0.05) immediately after the period of low morning light intensity. Three important photosynthetic genes were identified using differentially expressed gene analysis (DEGs) and were found to be significantly enriched through Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment: chlorophyll a-b binding protein (CAB-13), photosystem I (PSI), and Ferredoxin-NADP reductase (FNR), particularly for sampling points at non-peak light (11:00 and 19:00), ranging from 3.3-fold (PSI) and 5.6-fold (FNR) to 10.3-fold (CAB-13). Subsequent gas exchange measurements further supported increased carbon assimilation through higher level of internal CO2 concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E) in high-oil content palms. The selection for higher expression of key photosynthesis genes together with CO2 assimilation under low light is likely to be important for crop improvement, in particular at full maturity and under high density planting regimes where light competition exists between palms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/genetics*
  12. Muniandy K, Tan MH, Shehnaz S, Song BK, Ayub Q, Rahman S
    Planta, 2020 Feb 01;251(2):57.
    PMID: 32008119 DOI: 10.1007/s00425-020-03349-7
    MAIN CONCLUSION: The rice leaf mitochondrial DNA is  more methylated compared to the rice grain mitochondrial DNA. The old rice leaf mitochondrial DNA has also a higher methylation level than the young rice leaf mitochondrial DNA. The presence of DNA methylation in rice organelles has not been well characterized. We have previously shown that cytosine methylation of chloroplast DNA is different between leaf and grain, and varies between young and old leaves in rice. However, the variation in cytosine methylation of mitochondrial DNA is still poorly characterized. In this study, we have investigated cytosine methylation of mitochondrial DNA in the rice grain and leaf. Based on CpG, CHG, and CHH methylation analyses, the leaf mitochondrial DNA was found to be  more methylated compared to the grain mitochondrial DNA. The methylation of the leaf mitochondrial DNA was also higher in old compared to young leaves. Differences in methylation were observed at different cytosine positions of the mitochondrial DNA between grain and leaf, although there were also positions with a similar level of high methylation in all the tissues examined. The differentially methylated cytosine positions in rice mitochondrial DNA were observed mostly in the intergenic region and in some mitochondrial-specific genes involved in ATP production, transcription, and translation. The functional importance of cytosine methylation in the life cycle of rice mitochondria is still to be determined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/genetics*
  13. Low ET, Rosli R, Jayanthi N, Mohd-Amin AH, Azizi N, Chan KL, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(1):e86728.
    PMID: 24497974 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086728
    Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ∼8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowering, yield and disease resistance. To achieve this, 294,115 and 150,744 sequences from the hypomethylated or gene-rich regions of Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera genome were sequenced and assembled into contigs. An additional 16,427 shot-gun sequences and 176 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) were also generated to check the quality of libraries constructed. Comparison of these sequences revealed that although the methylation-filtered libraries were sequenced at low coverage, they still tagged at least 66% of the RefSeq supported genes in the BAC and had a filtration power of at least 2.0. A total 33,752 microsatellites and 40,820 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified. These represent the most comprehensive collection of microsatellites and SNPs to date and would be an important resource for genetic mapping and association studies. The gene models predicted from the assembled contigs were mined for genes of interest, and 242, 65 and 14 oil palm transcription factors, resistance genes and miRNAs were identified respectively. Examples of the transcriptional factors tagged include those associated with floral development and tissue culture, such as homeodomain proteins, MADS, Squamosa and Apetala2. The E. guineensis and E. oleifera hypomethylated sequences provide an important resource to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with important agronomic traits in oil palm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/genetics
  14. Tan YC, Yeoh KA, Wong MY, Ho CL
    J. Plant Physiol., 2013 Nov 01;170(16):1455-60.
    PMID: 23769496 DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2013.05.009
    Basal stem rot (BSR) is a major disease of oil palm caused by a pathogenic fungus, Ganoderma boninense. However, the interaction between the host plant and its pathogen is not well characterized. To better understand the response of oil palm to G. boninense, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related genes from oil palm were measured by quantitative reverse-transcription (qRT)-PCR in the roots of oil palms treated with G. boninense from 3 to 12 weeks post infection (wpi). These transcripts encode putative Bowman-Birk serine protease inhibitors (EgBBI1 and 2), defensin (EgDFS), dehydrin (EgDHN), early methionine-labeled polypeptides (EgEMLP1 and 2), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), metallothionein-like protein (EgMT), pathogenesis-related-1 protein (EgPRP), and type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (EgT2RIP). The transcript abundance of EgBBI2 increased in G. boninense-treated roots at 3 and 6wpi compared to those of controls; while the transcript abundance of EgBBI1, EgDFS, EgEMLP1, EgMT, and EgT2RIP increased in G. boninense-treated roots at 6 or 12wpi. Meanwhile, the gene expression of EgDHN was up-regulated at all three time points in G. boninense-treated roots. The expression profiles of the eleven transcripts were also studied in leaf samples upon inoculation of G. boninense and Trichoderma harzianum to identify potential biomarkers for early detection of BSR. Two candidate genes (EgEMLP1 and EgMT) that have different profiles in G. boninense-treated leaves compared to those infected by T. harzianum may have the potential to be developed as biomarkers for early detection of G. boninense infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/genetics
  15. Cheah BH, Nadarajah K, Divate MD, Wickneswari R
    BMC Genomics, 2015;16:692.
    PMID: 26369665 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-015-1851-3
    Developing drought-tolerant rice varieties with higher yield under water stressed conditions provides a viable solution to serious yield-reduction impact of drought. Understanding the molecular regulation of this polygenic trait is crucial for the eventual success of rice molecular breeding programmes. microRNAs have received tremendous attention recently due to its importance in negative regulation. In plants, apart from regulating developmental and physiological processes, microRNAs have also been associated with different biotic and abiotic stresses. Hence here we chose to analyze the differential expression profiles of microRNAs in three drought treated rice varieties: Vandana (drought-tolerant), Aday Sel (drought-tolerant) and IR64 (drought-susceptible) in greenhouse conditions via high-throughput sequencing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/genetics
  16. Cheah BH, Jadhao S, Vasudevan M, Wickneswari R, Nadarajah K
    PLoS One, 2017;12(10):e0186382.
    PMID: 29045473 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0186382
    A cross between IR64 (high-yielding but drought-susceptible) and Aday Sel (drought-tolerant) rice cultivars yielded a stable line with enhanced grain yield under drought screening field trials at International Rice Research Institute. The major effect qDTY4.1 drought tolerance and yield QTL was detected in the IR77298-14-1-2-10 Backcrossed Inbred Line (BIL) and its IR87705-7-15-B Near Isogenic Line (NIL) with 93.9% genetic similarity to IR64. Although rice yield is extremely susceptible to water stress at reproductive stage, currently, there is only one report on the detection of drought-responsive microRNAs in inflorescence tissue of a Japonica rice line. In this study, more drought-responsive microRNAs were identified in the inflorescence tissues of IR64, IR77298-14-1-2-10 and IR87705-7-15-B via next-generation sequencing. Among the 32 families of inflorescence-specific non-conserved microRNAs that were identified, 22 families were up-regulated in IR87705-7-15-B. Overall 9 conserved and 34 non-conserved microRNA families were found as drought-responsive in rice inflorescence with 5 conserved and 30 non-conserved families induced in the IR87705-7-15-B. The observation of more drought-responsive non-conserved microRNAs may imply their prominence over conserved microRNAs in drought response mechanisms of rice inflorescence. Gene Ontology annotation analysis on the target genes of drought-responsive microRNAs identified in IR87705-7-15-B revealed over-representation of biological processes including development, signalling and response to stimulus. Particularly, four inflorescence-specific microRNAs viz. osa-miR5485, osa-miR5487, osa-miR5492 and osa-miR5517, and two non-inflorescence specific microRNAs viz. osa-miR169d and osa-miR169f.2 target genes that are involved in flower or embryonic development. Among them, osa-miR169d, osa-miR5492 and osa-miR5517 are related to flowering time control. It is also worth mentioning that osa-miR2118 and osa-miR2275, which are implicated in the biosynthesis of rice inflorescence-specific small interfering RNAs, were induced in IR87705-7-15-B but repressed in IR77298-14-1-2-10. Further, gene search within qDTY4.1 QTL region had identified multiple copies of NBS-LRR resistance genes (potential target of osa-miR2118), subtilisins and genes implicated in stomatal movement, ABA metabolism and cuticular wax biosynthesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/genetics
  17. Heskes AM, Sundram TCM, Boughton BA, Jensen NB, Hansen NL, Crocoll C, et al.
    Plant J., 2018 03;93(5):943-958.
    PMID: 29315936 DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13822
    Vitex agnus-castus L. (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant historically used throughout the Mediterranean region to treat menstrual cycle disorders, and is still used today as a clinically effective treatment for premenstrual syndrome. The pharmaceutical activity of the plant extract is linked to its ability to lower prolactin levels. This feature has been attributed to the presence of dopaminergic diterpenoids that can bind to dopamine receptors in the pituitary gland. Phytochemical analyses of V. agnus-castus show that it contains an enormous array of structurally related diterpenoids and, as such, holds potential as a rich source of new dopaminergic drugs. The present work investigated the localisation and biosynthesis of diterpenoids in V. agnus-castus. With the assistance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI), diterpenoids were localised to trichomes on the surface of fruit and leaves. Analysis of a trichome-specific transcriptome database, coupled with expression studies, identified seven candidate genes involved in diterpenoid biosynthesis: three class II diterpene synthases (diTPSs); three class I diTPSs; and a cytochrome P450 (CYP). Combinatorial assays of the diTPSs resulted in the formation of a range of different diterpenes that can account for several of the backbones of bioactive diterpenoids observed in V. agnus-castus. The identified CYP, VacCYP76BK1, was found to catalyse 16-hydroxylation of the diol-diterpene, peregrinol, to labd-13Z-ene-9,15,16-triol when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Notably, this product is a potential intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway towards bioactive furan- and lactone-containing diterpenoids that are present in this species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/genetics
  18. Sukiran NL, Ma JC, Ma H, Su Z
    Plant Mol Biol, 2019 Jan;99(1-2):161-174.
    PMID: 30604322 DOI: 10.1007/s11103-018-0810-1
    KEY MESSAGE: Morphological and transcriptomic evidences provide us strong support for the function of ANAC019 in reproductive development under drought stress. Plants are sensitive to drought conditions, particularly at the reproductive stage. Several studies have reported drought effects on crop reproductive development, but the molecular mechanism underlying drought response during reproduction is still unclear. A recent study showed that drought induces in Arabidopsis inflorescence increased expression of many genes, including ANAC019. However, the function of ANAC019 in drought response during reproductive development has not been characterized. Here, we report an investigation of the ANAC019 function in the response to drought during reproduction. ANAC019 is preferentially expressed in the inflorescence compared with the leaf, suggesting possible roles in regulating both stress response and flower development. The anac019 mutant was more sensitive to drought than WT plant, and exhibited a delay in recovery of floral organ development under prolonged drought stress. Moreover, many fewer genes were differentially expressed in the anac019 inflorescence under drought than that of WT, suggesting that the mutant was impaired in drought-induced gene expression. The genes affected by ANAC019 were associated with stress and hormone responses as well as floral development. In particular, the expression levels of several key drought-induced genes, DREB2A, DREB2B, ARF2, MYB21 and MYB24, were dramatically reduced in the absence of ANAC019, suggesting that ANAC019 is an upstream regulator these genes for drought response and flower development. These results provide strong support for the potential function of ANAC019 in reproductive development under drought stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/genetics
  19. Low ET, Alias H, Boon SH, Shariff EM, Tan CY, Ooi LC, et al.
    BMC Plant Biol, 2008;8:62.
    PMID: 18507865 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-8-62
    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the most important oil bearing crops in the world. However, genetic improvement of oil palm through conventional breeding is extremely slow and costly, as the breeding cycle can take up to 10 years. This has brought about interest in vegetative propagation of oil palm. Since the introduction of oil palm tissue culture in the 1970s, clonal propagation has proven to be useful, not only in producing uniform planting materials, but also in the development of the genetic engineering programme. Despite considerable progress in improving the tissue culture techniques, the callusing and embryogenesis rates from proliferating callus cultures remain very low. Thus, understanding the gene diversity and expression profiles in oil palm tissue culture is critical in increasing the efficiency of these processes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/genetics
  20. Ooi SE, Feshah I, Nuraziyan A, Sarpan N, Ata N, Lim CC, et al.
    Plant Cell Rep, 2021 Jul;40(7):1141-1154.
    PMID: 33929599 DOI: 10.1007/s00299-021-02698-1
    KEY MESSAGE: Potentially embryogenic oil palms can be identified through leaf transcriptomic signatures. Differential expression of genes involved in flowering time, and stress and light responses may associate with somatic embryogenesis potential. Clonal propagation is an attractive approach for the mass propagation of high yielding oil palms. A major issue hampering the effectiveness of oil palm tissue culture is the low somatic embryogenesis rate. Previous studies have identified numerous genes involved in oil palm somatic embryogenesis, but their association with embryogenic potential has not been determined. In this study, differential expression analysis of leaf transcriptomes from embryogenic and non-embryogenic mother palms revealed that transcriptome profiles from non- and poor embryogenic mother palms were more similar than highly embryogenic palms. A total of 171 genes exhibiting differential expression in non- and low embryogenesis groups could also discriminate high from poor embryogenesis groups of another tissue culture agency. Genes related to flowering time or transition such as FTIP, FRIGIDA-LIKE, and NF-YA were up-regulated in embryogenic ortets, suggesting that reproduction timing of the plant may associate with somatic embryogenesis potential. Several light response or photosynthesis-related genes were down-regulated in embryogenic ortets, suggesting a link between photosynthesis activity and embryogenic potential. As expression profiles of the differentially expressed genes are very similar between non- and low embryogenic groups, machine learning approaches with several candidate genes may generate a more sensitive model to better discriminate non-embryogenic from embryogenic ortets.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Leaves/genetics*
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