Mucins and mucin-type glycoproteins, collectively referred to as mucin-type O-glycans, are implicated in many important biological functions and pathological conditions, including malignancy. Presently, there is no reliable method to measure the total mucin-type O-glycans of a sample, which may contain one or more of these macromolecules of unknown structures. We report the development of an improved microassay that is based on the binding of lectins to the unique and constant GalNAc-Ser/Thr structural feature of mucin-type O-glycans. Since the sugar-amino acid linkage in the mucin-type O-glycans is invariably cryptic, we first chemically removed the heterogeneous peripheral and core saccharides of model glycoconjugates before examining for their interactions using an enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA). Desialylation of the model glycoconjugates led to maximal binding of the lectins but additional treatments such as Smith degradation did not result in increased binding. Of the lectins tested for their ability to probe the desialylated O-glycans, jacalin showed the highest sensitivity followed by champedak galactose binding (CGB) lectin and Vicia villosa agglutinin. Further improvement in the sensitivity of ELLA was achieved by using microtiter plates that were pre-coated with the CGB lectin, which increased the specificity of the assay to mucin-type O-glycans. Finally, the applicability of the developed sandwich ELLA to crude samples was demonstrated by estimating trace quantities of the mucin-type O-glycans in the human serum.
Purified lectins from seeds of six distinct clones of Artocarpus integer (lectin C) were shown to be structurally and functionally similar. All lectins comprised of two types of non-covalently-linked subunits with apparent M(r) of 13,300 and 16,000. The lectins appeared to interact with several human serum proteins, with the predominance of the IgA1 and C1 inhibitor molecules. Interaction was not detected with IgA2, IgD, IgG and IgM. The lectin Cs were also shown to precipitate monkey, sheep, rabbit, cat, hamster, rat and guinea-pig serum. Due to their uniform properties, lectin C may provide better alternative to the Artocarpus heterophyllus lectin, jacalin, for use in future investigations.
The natural coagulant Moringa oleifera lectin (MoL) as cationic protein is a promising candidate in coagulation process of water treatment plant. Introducing the gene encoding MoL into a host, Pichia pastoris, to secrete soluble recombinant protein is assessed in this study. Initial screening using PCR confirmed the insertion of MoL gene, and SDS-PAGE analysis detected the MoL protein at 8 kDa. Cultured optimization showed the highest MoL protein at 520 mg/L was observed at 28 °C for 144 h of culturing by induction in 1% methanol. Approximately, 0.40 mg/mL of recombinant MoL protein showed 95 ± 2% turbidity removal of 1% kaolin suspension. In 0.1% kaolin suspension, the concentration of MoL at 10 μg/mL exhibits the highest turbidity reduction at 68 ± 1%. Thus, recombinant MoL protein from P. pastoris is an effective coagulant for water treatment.
A new dihydrochalcone, 2',4'-dihydroxy-3,4-(2″,2″-dimethylchromeno)-3'-prenyldihydrochalcone (1) together with 4-hydroxyonchocarpin (2), isobavachalcone (3), 4',5-dihydroxy-6,7-(2,2-dimethylpyrano)-2'-methoxy-8-γ,γ-dimethylallyflavone (4), artocarpin (5) and cycloheterophyllin (6) were successfully isolated from the leaves and heartwoods of Artocarpus lowii King (Moraceae). The structures of these compounds were fully characterised using spectroscopic methods and by direct comparison with published data. These compounds were tested for their antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Compound (1) displayed moderate antioxidant activity towards DPPH and tyrosinase inhibitory activities with SC50 value of 223.8 μM and IC50 value of 722.5 μM, respectively. Among the isolated compounds, cycloheterophyllin (6) showed the most potential antioxidant activity with SC50 value of 320.0 and 102.8 μM for ABTS and DPPH radicals scavenging activities, respectively, and also exhibited highest FRAP equivalent value of 4.7 ± 0.09 mM. Compound (6) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity with the IC50 value of 104.6 μM.
Malaysia, Biosafety Bill 2006 was approved by Parliament in July 2007, and labeling legislation will be implemented soon. In this study, duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to detect
endogenous soybean lectin gene and exogenous cp4-epsps (5’-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phospate synthase) gene simultaneously. Additionally, real-time PCR utilizing SYBR Green fluorescence dye were established for the quantitative analysis of Roundup Ready soybean (RRS), which is based on the two established calibration curve from cloned fragment of cp4-epsps gene and lectin gene respectively. Approximately, 39.5% (45/114) of the samples examined in this study contain RRS, animal feeds (31), processed food (13) and raw soybean (1). Additionally, 75.6% (34/45) of the positive samples were found contained RRS above 0.9%. The sensitive GMO quantitative approach described in this study enable the analysis of various samples and this will facilitate the labeling process.
The objective of this study was to screen and identify α-amylase inhibitor peptides from Pinto bean. Five Pinto bean bioactive peptides were successfully identified: PPHMLP (P1), PLPWGAGF (P3), PPHMGGP (P6), PLPLHMLP (P7) and LSSLEMGSLGALFVCM (P9). Based on ELISA results, their promising optical density values were 1.27; 3.71, 1.67, 3.20 and 1.03, respectively, which indicated the binding interaction between the peptide and α-amylase occurred. The highest inhibitory activity (66.72%) of the chemically synthesized peptide was shown in SyP9 followed by SyP1 (48.86%), SyP3 (31.17%), SyP7 (27.88%) and SyP6 (23.96%). The IC50 values were 1.97, 8.96, 14.63, 18.45 and 20.56mgml(-1), respectively. Structure activity relationship study revealed that α-amylase was inhibited due to its residues of Ala230, Asp229, Asp326, Tyr54, Met195, Leu194 and His233 were bound. On the other hand, the residues of PBBP (i.e. histidine, proline and methionine) were found to have the highest potency in the binding interaction.
The effect of extracts of champedak (Artocarpus integer) seed lectin on the proliferation of normal human lymphocyte was investigated. The IgA1 binding lectin was demonstrated to stimulate the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Action of the lectin on enriched T and B cell populations demonstrated T lymphocyte specificity. The lectin was not mitogenic to B lymphocytes. Optimal stimulation of proliferative response was achieved when cells were subjected to 5 days exposure to the crude lectin at 20 micrograms/ml.
We recently adopted immobilized jacalin as an affinity adsorbent to purify human serum IgA for laboratory study. In the course of our investigation, we detected a serum protein that co-eluted with IgA from jacalin-agarose affinity column. It constituted in significant quantity (24.0 +/- 0.9%, n = 30) of total jacalin-bound protein (JBP) and the yield was equivalent to 0.4 +/- 0.1 mg per ml serum. The molecular mass of this protein was 55 kDa with electromobility in the alpha 2 region as demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and immunoelectrophoresis. N-terminal microsequencing of this 55 kDa protein revealed that it is human alpha 2-HS glycoprotein (alpha 2HSG). The molecular interaction of alpha 2HSG with jacalin was characterized by competitive ELISA: human serum IgA, human colostrum secretory IgA (sIgA), and monosaccharides including D-galactose and melibiose exhibited strong inhibitory effect on its binding to jacalin. Accordingly, we propose that human alpha 2HSG binds in a similar manner as that of the bovine fetuin to jacalin. In addition, alpha 2HSG displays similar binding property to jacalin from different geographic area (India and Malaysia) and from different laboratory preparations (Sigma, Pierce and 'homemade' jacalin).
The discovery of jacalin, a group of lectins from jackfruit seeds (Artocarpus heterophyllus), has attracted considerable attention due to its numerous interesting immunological properties as well as its usefulness in the isolation of various serum proteins. We have further identified a similar lectin from the seeds of Champedak (Artocarpus integer) which we refer to as lectin-C and performed comparative studies with two types of jacalin isolated from different batches of the Malaysian jackfruit seeds (jacalin-M1 and jacalin-M2). The three purified lectins demonstrated equivalent apparent Mr of about 52,500, each of which comprised of a combination of two types of non-covalently-linked subunits with apparent Mr of approximately 13,300 and 16,000. The lectins demonstrated equal haemagglutinating activity against human erythrocytes of blood groups A, B, AB and O. Our data also demonstrated that lectin-C, jacalin-M1 and jacalin-M2 are similar by selectively precipitating human serum IgA1 and colostral sIgA but not IgA2, IgD, IgG and IgM. When immunoelectrophoresis was performed on normal human sera and reacted with the lectins, single precipitin arcs corresponding to IgA immunoprecipitates were detected with lectin-C and jacalin-MI. Jacalin-M2, however, exhibited two closely associated precipitin arcs. The binding of these lectins with IgA was pronouncedly inhibited in the presence of p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, 1-o-methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside, D-melibiose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and D-galactose. The data therefore provide evidence on the differential specificity of IgA binding lectins isolated from seeds of similar as well as distinct Artocarpus species.
The effect of Artocarpus integer lectin (lectin C) on the functional activity of guinea-pig complement was investigated. Purified and crude extract of lectin C from six cultivars of Artocarpus integer seeds were found to consume complement and thus decreased the complement-induced haemolytic activity of sensitized sheep erythrocytes. The change in the complement-mediated haemolytic activity was significantly decreased when incubation of the lectins was performed in the presence of melibiose. The reversal effect of the carbohydrate, which is a potent inhibitor of the lectin's binding to O-linked oligosaccharides of glycoprotein, demonstrate involvement of the lectins interaction with O-glycans of glycoproteins in the consumption of guinea-pig complement.
COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, has resulted in a massive global health crisis. Bioactive molecules extracted or synthesized using starting material obtained from marine species, including griffithsin, plitidepsin and fingolimod are in clinical trials to evaluate their anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-HIV efficacies. The current review highlights the anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential of marine-derived phytochemicals explored using in silico, in vitro and in vivo models. The current literature suggests that these molecules have the potential to bind with various key drug targets of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, many of these agents have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory potentials and thus could play a role in the attenuation of COVID-19 complications. Overall, these agents may play a role in the management of COVID-19, but further preclinical and clinical studies are still required to establish their role in the mitigation of the current viral pandemic.
Champedak (Artocarpus integer) lectin-M is a lectin with high specificity and affinity for the core-mannosyl residues of the N-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins. We have studied the interaction of the champedak seed lectin with human serum glycoproteins that were resolved by 2-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis. The lectin demonstrated strong interaction with haptoglobin beta chain, orosomucoid, alpha1-antitrypsin, alpha2-HS glycoprotein, transferrin, hemopexin, alpha1B-glycoprotein, and the heavy chains of IgA, IgM and IgG of the human serum. With exceptions of the heavy chains of the immunoglobulins and alpha1B-glycoprotein, all the other lectin-M-probed glycopeptides are acute-phase proteins. The use of champedak lectin-M to probe for serum glycoproteins that were separated in a 2-D gel electrophoresis and Western blotting technique may be conveniently applied to analyse the acute-phase and humoral immune responses simultaneously. Subjecting human serum to immobilised-lectin-M affinity chromatography was able to isolate intact haptoglobin, alpha1-antitrypsin, alpha1B-glycoprotein, hemopexin and IgA.
A study on the binding interaction of lectins from Artocarpus heterophyllus (jacalin), Glycine max and Sambucus nigra with standardised quantity of IgA from the IgA nephropathy patients and normal controls was performed. The Glycine max lectin demonstrated higher affinity towards the serum IgA of IgAN patients as compared to normal controls. However, the affinity binding was lower in cases ofjacalin and the Sambucus nigra lectin. When serum samples were treated with neuraminidase, the differential jacalin affinity binding between IgA1 of patients and normal controls was abrogated. Our data are in support of the view that the O-linked oligosaccharide moieties of the patients IgA1 were generally lacking in galactose and sialic acid residues.
Strategies to control influenza outbreaks are focused mainly on prophylactic vaccination. Human influenza vaccines are trivalent blends of different virus subtypes. Therefore and due to frequent antigenic drifts, strain independent manufacturing processes are required for vaccine production. This study verifies the strain independency of a capture method based on Euonymus europaeus lectin-affinity chromatography (EEL-AC) for downstream processing of influenza viruses under various culture conditions propagated in MDCK cells. A comprehensive lectin binding screening was conducted for two influenza virus types from the season 2007/2008 (A/Wisconsin/67/2005, B/Malaysia/2506/2004) including a comparison of virus-lectin interaction by surface plasmon resonance technology. EEL-AC resulted in a reproducible high product recovery rate and a high degree of contaminant removal in the case of both MDCK cell-derived influenza virus types demonstrating clearly the general applicability of EEL-AC. In addition, host cell dependency of EEL-AC was studied with two industrial relevant cell lines: Vero and MDCK cells. However, the choice of the host cell lines is known to lead to different product glycosylation profiles. Hence, altered lectin specificities have been observed between the two cell lines, requiring process adaptations between different influenza vaccine production systems.
A 35 kDa glycoprotein whose abundance was previously demonstrated to be enhanced in sera of patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma (n = 12), was isolated from pooled sera of three of the cancer patients using champedak galactose-binding lectin affinity chromatography in the present study. Subjecting it to 2-DE and MS/MS, the glycoprotein was identified as the O-glycosylated fragment of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4). When compared to control sera (n = 17), expression of the 35 kDa ITIH4 cleavage fragment was demonstrated to be significantly enhanced in sera of patients with breast carcinoma (n = 10), epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n = 10), and germ cell ovarian carcinoma (n = 10) but not in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (n = 13) and osteosarcoma (n = 7). The lectin-based electrophoretic bioanalytical method adopted in the present study may be used to assess the physiological relevance of ITIH4 fragmentation and its correlation with different malignancies, their stages and progression.
In view of the controversy with respect to the interaction of jacalin with human IgA2, a study was undertaken to assess the reactivity of the Artocarpus heterophyllus lectin, as well as the lectin from Artocarpus integer (lectin C), with subclasses of human immunoglobulin A by ELISA. Our data is consistent with the view that Artocarpus lectins have no affinity for the IgA2 immunoglobulins. In further support of the findings, we have established that N-linked oligosaccharide moieties of IgA have no significant bearing in the lectin-immunoglobulin binding. Interaction was also not affected in the presence of 1% (w/v) BSA.
Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive Mac-2 binding protein (WFA+-M2BP) has been suggested to be useful for the assessment of disease severity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Consecutive adult NAFLD patients who had a liver biopsy were included. Serum WFA+-M2BP level was measured using a lectin-antibody sandwich immunoassay using a chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay machine (HISCL-5000, Sysmex, Kobe, Japan). The measured levels were indexed using the following equation: Cut-off index (COI) = ([WFA+-M2BP]sample-[WFA+-M2BP]NC) / ([WFA+-M2BP]PC-[WFA+-M2BP]NC), where PC = positive control and NC = negative control. Histopathological examination of liver biopsy specimen was reported according to Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Clinical Research Network Scoring System. Data for 220 cases were analyzed. The AUROC of the COI for the diagnosis of NASH was 0.65. The AUROC of the COI for the diagnosis of steatosis grade ≥2 and 3 was 0.64 and 0.53, respectively. The AUROC of the COI for the diagnosis of lobular inflammation grade ≥1, ≥2 and 3 was 0.57, 0.68 and 0.59, respectively. The AUROC of the COI for the diagnosis of hepatocyte ballooning grade ≥1 and 2 was 0.64 and 0.65, respectively. The AUROC of the COI for the diagnosis of fibrosis stage ≥1, ≥2, ≥3 and 4 was 0.61, 0.71, 0.74 and 0.84, respectively. Out of the 220 cases, 152 cases were the same 76 patients who had a repeat liver biopsy after 48 weeks of intervention. The AUROC of the change in the COI to detect improvement in steatosis, lobular inflammation, hepatocyte ballooning and fibrosis was 0.57, 0.54, 0.59 and 0.52, respectively. In conclusion, serum WFA+-M2BP was most useful for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis in NAFLD patients. However, it was less useful for differentiating NASH from non-NASH, and for diagnosis and follow-up of the individual histopathological components of NASH.
A mannose-binding lectin, termed champedak lectin-M, was isolated from an extract of the crude seeds of champedak (Artocarpus integer). On gel filtration chromatography, the lectin eluted in a single peak at elution volumes corresponding to 64 kDa. SDS-PAGE showed the mannose-binding lectin to be composed of 16.8 kDa polypeptides with some of the polypeptides being disulphide-linked to give dimers. When tested with all isotypes of immunoglobulins, champedak lectin-M demonstrated a selective strong interaction with human IgE and IgM, and a weak interaction with IgA2. The binding interactions of lectin-M were metal ion independent. The lectin was also shown to interact with horseradish peroxidase, ovalbumin, porcine thyroglobulin, human alpha1-acid glycoprotein, transferrin and alpha1-antitrypsin. It demonstrated a binding preference to Man alpha 1-3Man ligands in comparison to Man alpha 1-6Man or Man alpha 1-2Man.
Our group has previously reported the isolation, partial characterisation, and application of a Galbeta1-3GalNAc- and IgA1-reactive lectin from the seeds of champedak (Artocarpus integer). In the present study, we have subjected the purified lectin to reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and sequenced its subunits. Determination of the N-terminal sequence of the first 47 residues of the large subunit demonstrated at least 95% homology to the N-terminal sequence of the alpha chains of a few other galactose-binding Artocarpus lectins. The two smaller subunits of the lectin, each comprised of 21 amino acid residues, demonstrated minor sequence variability. Their sequences were generally comparable to the beta chains of the other galactose-binding Artocarpus lectins. When used to probe human serum glycopeptides that were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the lectin demonstrated strong apparent interactions with glycopeptides of IgA1, hemopexin, alpha2-HS glycoprotein, alpha1-antichymotrypsin, and a few unknown glycoproteins. Immobilisation of the lectin to Sepharose generated an affinity column that may be used to isolate the O-glycosylated serum glycoproteins.