Displaying all 11 publications

  1. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011 Feb 10;12(2):1101-14.
    PMID: 21541046 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12021101
    The effect of two different CO(2) concentrations (400 and 800 μmol mol(-1)) on the photosynthesis rate, primary and secondary metabolite syntheses and the antioxidant activities of the leaves, stems and rhizomes of two Zingiber officinale varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) were assessed in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. High photosynthesis rate (10.05 μmol CO(2) m(-2)s(-1) in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (83.4 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 800 μmol mol(-1) CO(2). Stomatal conductance decreased and water use efficiency increased with elevated CO(2) concentration. Total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total soluble carbohydrates (TSC), starch and plant biomass increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in all parts of the ginger varieties under elevated CO(2) (800 μmol mol(-1)). The order of the TF and TP increment in the parts of the plant was rhizomes > stems > leaves. More specifically, Halia Bara had a greater increase of TF (2.05 mg/g dry weight) and TP (14.31 mg/g dry weight) compared to Halia Bentong (TF: 1.42 mg/g dry weight; TP: 9.11 mg/g dry weight) in average over the whole plant. Furthermore, plants with the highest rate of photosynthesis had the highest TSC and phenolics content. Significant differences between treatments and species were observed for TF and TP production. Correlation coefficient showed that TSC and TP content are positively correlated in both varieties. The antioxidant activity, as determined by the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity, increased in young ginger grown under elevated CO(2). The FRAP values for the leaves, rhizomes and stems extracts of both varieties grown under two different CO(2) concentrations (400 and 800 μmol mol(-1)) were significantly lower than those of vitamin C (3107.28 μmol Fe (II)/g) and α-tocopherol (953 μmol Fe (II)/g), but higher than that of BHT (74.31 μmol Fe (II)/g). These results indicate that the plant biomass, primary and secondary metabolite synthesis, and following that, antioxidant activities of Malaysian young ginger varieties can be enhanced through controlled environment (CE) and CO(2) enrichment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Stems/metabolism
  2. Mesjasz-Przybylowicz J, Przybylowicz W, Barnabas A, van der Ent A
    New Phytol, 2016 Mar;209(4):1513-26.
    PMID: 26508435 DOI: 10.1111/nph.13712
    Phyllanthus balgooyi (Phyllanthaceae), one of > 20 nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator plant species known in Sabah (Malaysia) on the island of Borneo, is remarkable because it contains > 16 wt% Ni in its phloem sap, the second highest concentration of Ni in any living material in the world (after Pycnandra acuminata (Sapotaceae) from New Caledonia with 25 wt% Ni in latex). This study focused on the tissue-level distribution of Ni and other elements in the leaves, petioles and stem of P. balgooyi using nuclear microprobe imaging (micro-PIXE). The results show that in the stems and petioles of P. balgooyi Ni concentrations were very high in the phloem, while in the leaves there was significant enrichment of this element in the major vascular bundles. In the leaves, cobalt (Co) was codistributed with Ni, while the distribution of manganese (Mn) was different. The highest enrichment of calcium (Ca) in the stems was in the periderm, the epidermis and subepidermis of the petiole, and in the palisade mesophyll of the leaf. Preferential accumulation of Ni in the vascular tracts suggests that Ni is present in a metabolically active form. The elemental distribution of P. balgooyi differs from those of many other Ni hyperaccumulator plant species from around the world where Ni is preferentially accumulated in leaf epidermal cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Stems/metabolism
  3. O'Brien MJ, Burslem DF, Caduff A, Tay J, Hector A
    New Phytol, 2015 Feb;205(3):1083-94.
    PMID: 25358235 DOI: 10.1111/nph.13134
    Drought regimes can be characterized by the variability in the quantity of rainfall and the duration of rainless periods. However, most research on plant response to drought has ignored the impacts of rainfall variation, especially with regard to the influence of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) in promoting drought resistance. To test the hypothesis that these components of drought differentially affect NSC dynamics and seedling resistance, we tracked NSC in plant tissues of tropical tree seedlings in response to manipulations of the volume and frequency of water applied. NSC concentrations decreased in woody tissues under infrequent-high watering but increased under no watering. A faster decline of growth relative to stomatal conductance in the no watering treatment was consistent with NSC accumulation as a result of an uncoupling of growth and photosynthesis, while usage of stored NSCs in woody tissues to maintain function may account for the NSC decline under infrequent-high watering. NSCs, and specifically stem NSCs, contributed to drought resistance under severe water deficits, while NSCs had a less clear role in drought resistance to variability in water availability. The contrasting response of NSCs to water variability and deficit indicates that unique processes support seedling resistance to these components of drought.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Stems/metabolism*
  4. Shah SSM, Luthfi AAI, Low KO, Harun S, Manaf SFA, Illias RM, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 03 11;9(1):4080.
    PMID: 30858467 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-40807-z
    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), a potential fibre crop with a desirably high growth rate, could serve as a sustainable feedstock in the production of xylitol. In this work, the extraction of soluble products of kenaf through dilute nitric-acid hydrolysis was elucidated with respect to three parameters, namely temperature, residence time, and acid concentration. The study will assist in evaluating the performance in terms of xylose recovery. The result point out that the maximum xylose yield of 30.7 g per 100 g of dry kenaf was attained from 2% (v/v) HNO3 at 130 °C for 60 min. The detoxified hydrolysate was incorporated as the primary carbon source for subsequent fermentation by recombinant Escherichia coli and the performance of strain on five different semi-synthetic media on xylitol production were evaluated herein. Among these media, batch cultivation in a basal salt medium (BSM) afforded the highest xylitol yield of 0.35 g/g based on xylose consumption, which corresponded to 92.8% substrate utilization after 38 h. Subsequently, fermentation by E. coli in the xylose-based kenaf hydrolysate supplemented with BSM resulting in 6.8 g/L xylitol which corresponding to xylitol yield of 0.38 g/g. These findings suggested that the use of kenaf as the fermentation feedstock could be advantageous for the development of sustainable xylitol production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Stems/metabolism*
  5. Chua LS
    Plant Physiol Biochem, 2016 Sep;106:16-22.
    PMID: 27135814 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.04.040
    The identification of plant metabolites is very important for the understanding of plant physiology including plant growth, development and defense mechanism, particularly for herbal medicinal plants. The metabolite profile could possibly be used for future drug discovery since the pharmacological activities of the indigenous herbs have been proven for centuries. An untargeted mass spectrometric approach was used to identify metabolites from the leaves and stems of Impatiens balsamina using LC-DAD-MS/MS. The putative compounds are mostly from the groups of phenolic, organic and amino acids which are essential for plant growth and as intermediates for other compounds. Alanine appeared to be the main amino acid in the plant because many alanine derived metabolites were detected. There are also several secondary metabolites from the groups of benzopyrones, benzofuranones, naphthoquinones, alkaloids and flavonoids. The widely reported bioactive components such as kaempferol, quercetin and their glycosylated, lawsone and its derivatives were detected in this study. The results also revealed that aqueous methanol could extract flavonoids better than water, and mostly, flavonoids were detected from the leaf samples. The score plots of component analysis show that there is a minor variance in the metabolite profiles of water and aqueous methanolic extracts with 21.5 and 30.5% of the total variance for the first principal component at the positive and negative ion modes, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Stems/metabolism*
  6. Teh SS, Cheng Lian Ee G, Mah SH, Lim YM, Rahmani M
    Molecules, 2012 Sep 10;17(9):10791-800.
    PMID: 22964497 DOI: 10.3390/molecules170910791
    An investigation on biologically active secondary metabolites from the stem bark of Mesua beccariana was carried out. A new cyclodione, mesuadione, along with several known constituents which are beccamarin, 2,5-dihydroxy-1,3,4-trimethoxy anthraquinone, 4-methoxy-1,3,5-trihydroxyanthraquinone, betulinic acid and stigmasterol were obtained from this ongoing research. Structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D-NMR, GC-MS, IR and UV techniques. Preliminary tests of the in vitro cytotoxic activities of all the isolated metabolites against a panel of human cancer cell lines Raji (lymphoma), SNU-1 (gastric carcinoma), K562 (erythroleukemia cells), LS-174T (colorectal adenocarcinoma), HeLa (cervical cells), SK-MEL-28 (malignant melanoma cells), NCI-H23 (lung adenocarcinoma), IMR-32 (neuroblastoma) and Hep-G2 (hepatocellular liver carcinoma) were carried out using an MTT assay. Mesuadione, beccamarin, betulinic acid and stigmasterol displayed strong inhibition of Raji cell proliferation, while the proliferation rate of SK-MEL-28 and HeLa were strongly inhibited by stigmasterol and beccamarin, indicating these secondary metabolites could be anti-cancer lead compounds in drug discovery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Stems/metabolism
  7. Abioye OP, Agamuthu P, Abdul Aziz AR
    Biodegradation, 2012 Apr;23(2):277-86.
    PMID: 21870160 DOI: 10.1007/s10532-011-9506-9
    Soil contamination by hydrocarbons, especially by used lubricating oil, is a growing problem in developing countries, which poses a serious threat to the environment. Phytoremediation of these contaminated soils offers environmental friendly and a cost effective method for their remediation. Hibiscus cannabinus was studied for the remediation of soil contaminated with 2.5 and 1% used lubricating oil and treated with organic wastes [banana skin (BS), brewery spent grain (BSG) and spent mushroom compost (SMC)] for a period of 90 days under natural conditions. Loss of 86.4 and 91.8% used lubricating oil was recorded in soil contaminated with 2.5 and 1% oil and treated with organic wastes respectively at the end of 90 days. However, 52.5 and 58.9% oil loss was recorded in unamended soil contaminated with 2.5 and 1% oil, respectively. The plant did not accumulate hydrocarbon from the soil but shows appreciable accumulation of Fe and Zn in the root and stem of H. cannabinus at the end of the experiment. The first order kinetic rate of uptake of Fe and Zn in H. cannabinus was higher in organic wastes amendment treatments compared to the unamended treatments, which are extremely low. The results of this study suggest that H. cannabinus has a high potential for remediation of hydrocarbon and heavy metal contaminated soil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Stems/metabolism
  8. Ho WM, Ang LH, Lee DK
    J Environ Sci (China), 2008;20(11):1341-7.
    PMID: 19202874
    The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) for phytoremediation of lead (Pb) on sand tailings was investigated. A pot experiment employing factorial design with two main effects of fertilizer and lead was conducted in a nursery using sand tailings from an ex-tin mine as the growing medium. Results showed that Pb was found in the root, stem, and seed capsule of kenaf but not in the leaf. Application of organic fertilizer promoted greater biomass yield as well as higher accumulation capacity of Pb. In Pb-spiked treatments, roots accumulated more than 85% of total plant Pb which implies that kenaf root can be an important sink for bioavailable Pb. Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) X-ray microanalysis confirmed that electron-dense deposits located along cell walls of kenaf roots were Pb precipitates. The ability of kenaf to tolerate Pb and avoid phytotoxicity could be attributed to the immobilization of Pb in the roots and hence the restriction of upward movement (translocation factor < 1). With the application of fertilizer, kenaf was also found to have higher biomass and subsequently higher bioaccumulation capacity, indicating its suitability for phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated site.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Stems/metabolism
  9. Nayan N, van Erven G, Kabel MA, Sonnenberg AS, Hendriks WH, Cone JW
    J Sci Food Agric, 2019 Jun;99(8):4054-4062.
    PMID: 30737799 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9634
    BACKGROUND: White rot fungi have been used to improve the nutritive value of lignocellulose for ruminants. In feed analysis, the Van Soest method is widely used to determine the cell wall contents. To assess the reliability of this method (Method A) for determination of cell wall contents in fungal-treated wheat straw, we compared a combined monosaccharide analysis and pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) (Method B). Ruminal digestibility, measured as in vitro gas production (IVGP), was subsequently used to examine which method explains best the effect of fungal pretreatment on the digestibility of wheat straw.

    RESULTS: Both methods differed considerably in the mass recoveries of the individual cell wall components, which changed on how we assess their degradation characteristics. For example, Method B gave a higher degradation of lignin (61.9%), as compared to Method A (33.2%). Method A, however, showed a better correlation of IVGP with the ratio of lignin to total structural carbohydrates, as compared to Method B (Pearson's r of -0.84 versus -0.69). Nevertheless, Method B provides a more accurate quantification of lignin, reflecting its actual modification and degradation. With the information on the lignin structural features, Method B presents a substantial advantage in understanding the underlying mechanisms of lignin breakdown. Both methods, however, could not accurately quantify the cellulose contents - among others, due to interference of fungal biomass.

    CONCLUSION: Method A only accounts for the recalcitrant residue and therefore is more suitable for evaluating ruminal digestibility. Method B allows a more accurate quantification of cell wall, required to understand and better explains the actual modification of the cell wall. The suitability of both methods, therefore, depends on their intended purposes. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Stems/metabolism
  10. Ibrahim MH, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A, Rahman ZA
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(1):393-408.
    PMID: 22312260 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13010393
    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effects observed. As the nitrogen levels decreased from 270 to 0 kg N/ha, the production of GSH and GSSG, anthocyanin, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid increased steadily. At the highest nitrogen treatment level, L. pumila exhibited significantly lower antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP) than those exposed to limited nitrogen growing conditions. Significant positive correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP), total flavonoid, GSH, GSSG, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid suggesting that an increase in the antioxidative activities in L. pumila under low nitrogen fertilization could be attributed to higher contents of these compounds. From this observation, it could be concluded that in order to avoid negative effects on the quality of L. pumila, it is advisable to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when cultivating the herb for its medicinal use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Stems/metabolism
  11. Rahnama N, Foo HL, Abdul Rahman NA, Ariff A, Md Shah UK
    BMC Biotechnol, 2014;14:103.
    PMID: 25496491 DOI: 10.1186/s12896-014-0103-y
    Rice straw has shown to be a promising agricultural by-product in the bioconversion of biomass to value-added products. Hydrolysis of cellulose, a main constituent of lignocellulosic biomass, is a requirement for fermentable sugar production and its subsequent bioconversion to biofuels such as biobutanol. The high cost of commercial enzymes is a major impediment to the industrial application of cellulases. Therefore, the use of local microbial enzymes has been suggested. Trichoderma harzianum strains are potential CMCase and β-glucosidase producers. However, few researches have been reported on cellulase production by T. harzianum and the subsequent use of the crude cellulase for cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis. For cellulose hydrolysis to be efficiently performed, the presence of the whole set of cellulase components including exoglucanase, endoglucanase, and β-glucosidase at a considerable concentration is required. Biomass recalcitrance is also a bottleneck in the bioconversion of agricultural residues to value-added products. An effective pretreatment could be of central significance in the bioconversion of biomass to biofuels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Stems/metabolism
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