The plasmid profiles of 66 strains of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG), isolated in Peninsular Malaysia, were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. All the isolates harboured two common plasmid species, a 4.4 x 10 6 Far-East type R plasmid associated with beta-lactamase production and a 2.6 x 106 plasmid of unknown function. In addition to these two plasmids, 51 (77%) PPNG isolates also carried a 24.5 x 106 conjugative plasmid.
Sistem minigenom telah digunakan untuk mengkaji replikasi dan transkripsi virus RNA tidak bersegmen. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk membina sistem minigenom bagi virus NDV strain tempatan, AF2240 serta bagi mengkaji mekanisme transkripsi dan replikasi virus ini. Bagi tujuan ini lima plasmid digunakan iaitu pMGNDV, pCITENP, pCITEP, pTriEX-T7, dan pGEML. Kesemua plasmid diekstrak secara berskala besar dan dimendakkan menggunakan polietilina glikol. Hasil ekstrak ini digunakan untuk transfeksi ke dalam sel. Translasi in vitro dilakukan dengan menggunakan pCITENP, pCITEP, dan pTriEX-T7 untuk memastikan kesemua konstruk ini berfungsi. Hasil pemblotan western menunjukkan protein bersaiz ~100 kDa (T7), ~53 kDa (NP), ~53 dan 55 kDa (P) berjaya diekspreskan. Protein CAT diperoleh apabila plasmid yang mengekodkan minigenom NDV ditransfeksi bersama plasmid yang mengekodkan protein nukleokapsid (NP), fosfoprotein (P) dan subunit besar polimerase (L) ke dalam sel BHK-21. Dianggarkan 55 pg protein CAT berjaya diperoleh menggunakan kit CAT ELISA. Hasil pemblotan western turut menunjukkan protein CAT bersaiz 25 kDa dihasilkan. Kesimpulannnya, system minigenom ini berupaya untuk berfungsi dan mampu mengekspreskan gen asing di dalam sel mamalia BHK-21.
Penggunaan penanda DNA boleh mengurangkan masalah dalam kultur tisu khususnya apabila diaplikasikan semasa
pemilihan pokok untuk kultur tisu. Oleh itu, penyelidikan ini dijalankan bertujuan untuk membina penanda molekul
bagi kultur tisu kelapa sawit prolifik dengan menggunakan teknik polimorfisme panjang cebisan teramplifikasi (AFLP).
Analisis AFLP dijalankan ke atas 20 klon kelapa sawit yang terbahagi kepada tiga kelas iaitu klon tidak prolifik (10
jenis klon), klon normal (6 jenis klon) dan klon prolifik (4 jenis klon). Kesemua klon yang digunakan adalah daripada
titisan sel yang berbeza. Sebanyak 25 kombinasi pencetus telah digunakan dalam analisis AFLP dan 13 daripada mereka
memberikan corak amplifikasi polimorfisme. Daripada hasil ini, sebanyak 44 cebisan polimorfik telah dipencilkan dengan
33 cebisan adalah bagi klon tidak prolifik, 1 cebisan bagi normal dan 10 cebisan bagi klon prolifik. Cebisan ini telah
diklon ke dalam plasmid, berjujukan dan seterusnya, analisis jujukan dijalankan. Sebanyak 36 cebisan polimorfik telah
digunakan bagi kajian seterusnya. Berdasarkan kepada jujukan yang diperoleh, sepasang pencetus yang khusus kepada
setiap cebisan telah dijana. Jangkaan julat saiz jalur DNA yang diamplifikasi bagi setiap pencetus adalah antara 70
hingga 500 bp. Pasangan pencetus yang optimum diuji ke atas 20 jenis klon kelapa sawit untuk mengesahkan penanda
yang telah dibina. Daripada 36 pasangan pencetus yang dibina, 2 pasang pencetus telah menunjukkan potensi untuk
digunakan sebagai penanda kepada kultur tisu kelapa sawit prolifik.
A simple procedure for recovering biodegradable polymer from bacterial cells has been developed using economical and environmentally friendly solvent or chemicals. Recombinant bacterium, Cupriavidus necator harboring pBBR1MCS-C2 plasmid polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase gene was used for the production of copolymer P(3HB-co-3HHx) from crude palm kernel oil (CPKO). NaOH was chosen in this study as it could give high purity and recovery yield. Increase of NaOH concentration had resulted in an increase of the PHA purity, but the recovery yield had decreased. The greater improvement of PHA purity and recovery were achieved by incubating the freeze-dried cells (10-30 g/L) in NaOH (0.1 M) for 1-3 h at 30°C and polishing using 20% (v/v) of ethanol. The treatment caused negligible degradation of the molecular weight of PHA recovered from the bacterial cells. The present review also highlights other extraction methods to provide greater insights into economical and sustainable recovery of PHA from bacterial cells.
Jeotgalibacillus spp. are halophilic bacteria within the family Planococcaceae. No genomes of Jeotgalibacillus spp. have been reported to date, and their metabolic pathways are unknown. How the bacteria survive in hypertonic conditions such as seawater is yet to be discovered. As only few studies have been conducted on Jeotgalibacillus spp., potential applications of these bacteria are unknown. Here, we present the complete genome of J. malaysiensis D5(T) (=DSM 28777(T) =KCTC 33350(T)), which is invaluable in identifying interesting applications for this genus.
Seven (6.1%) of 115 strains of Salmonella typhi isolated from Malaysian patients harbored a single large plasmid of 71 to 166 mD. Two of the seven plasmid-bearing strains were resistant to chloramphenicol (Cm) and tetracycline (Tc) and they transferred Cm and Tc resistance traits to Escherichia coli K12 at frequencies from 1.6 x 10(-7) to 1.9 x 10(-6). Agarose gel electrophoresis provided evidence that the resistance traits were cotransferred on a conjugative plasmid. The significance and importance of these results are discussed.
Co-expression of multiple proteins is increasingly essential for synthetic biology, studying protein-protein complexes, and characterizing and harnessing biosynthetic pathways. In this manuscript, the use of a highly effective system for the construction of multigene synthetic operons under the control of an inducible T7 RNA polymerase is described. This system allows many genes to be expressed simultaneously from one plasmid. Here, a set of four related vectors, pMGX-A, pMGX-hisA, pMGX-K, and pMGX-hisK, with either the ampicillin or kanamycin resistance selectable marker (A and K) and either possessing or lacking an N-terminal hexahistidine tag (his) are disclosed. Detailed protocols for the construction of synthetic operons using this vector system are provided along with the corresponding data, showing that a pMGX-based system containing five genes can be readily constructed and used to produce all five encoded proteins in Escherichia coli. This system and protocol enables researchers to routinely express complex multi-component modules and pathways in E. coli.
Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) microcapsules were formulated to deliver plasmid DNA (pDNA) to the intestines. The microcapsules were characterized and were found to have an average diameter of 44.33 ± 30.22 μm, and were observed to be spherical with smooth surface. The method to extract pDNA from CAP was modified to study the release profile of the pDNA. The encapsulated pDNA was found to be stable. Exposure to the acidic and basic pH conditions, which simulates the pH environment in the stomach and the intestines, showed that the release occurred in a stable manner in the former, whereas it was robust in the latter. The loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency of the microcapsules were low but the CAP recovery yield was high which indicates that the microcapsules were efficiently formed but the loading of pDNA can be improved. In vitro transfection study in 293FT cells showed that there was a significant percentage of green-fluorescent-protein-positive cells as a result of efficient transfection from CAP-encapsulated pDNA. Biodistribution studies in BALB/c mice indicate that DNA was released at the stomach and intestinal regions. CAP microcapsules loaded with pDNA, as described in this study, may be useful for potential gene delivery to the intestines for prophylactic or therapeutic measures for gastrointestinal diseases.
Plasmid DNA is one of the indispensable components in molecular biology research and a potential biomaterial for gene therapy and DNA vaccination. Both quality and quantity of extracted plasmid DNA are of the great interests in cloning and subsequent expression of genes in vitro and in vivo for basic research and therapeutic interventions. Bacteria with extremely short generation times are the valuable source of plasmid DNA that can be isolated through a number of existing techniques. However, the current methods have some limitations in isolating high quality plasmid DNA since the multimeric plasmid which is believed to be more efficiently transcribed by RNA polymerase than the monomeric form, is almost lost during the extraction process. Recently, we developed a rapid isolation technique for multimeric plasmid based on generation of a 'protein aggregate' using a zwitterionic detergent and alkali. Here we have investigated the roles of different parameters in the whole extraction process to optimise the production of high quality multimeric plasmid DNA. Moreover, we have showed the advantageous effects of nanoparticles to effectively sediment the 'protein aggregate' for smooth elution of multimeric plasmid DNA from it. Finally, quality assessment study has revealed that the isolated multimeric DNA is at least 10 times more transcriptionally active than the monomeric form isolated by the commercially available Qiaget kit.
Thirty-six strains of Escherichia coli isolated from animals in Bario, a remote area in Sarawak, Malaysia, were examined for presence of plasmid DNA and their susceptibility to nine antimicrobial agents. Of the total 36 isolates, five bovine and six canine isolates were found to contain plasmid DNA ranging in sizes from 2.6 to 70 kilobases. All were susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and neomycin but resistance to ampicillin (47%), erythromycin (19%), streptomycin (25%) and tetracycline (11%) was observed. Resistance was associated with carriage of a 47 kb (SC98), 70 kb, (SC133) and 56 and 4.6 kb (SC119) plasmids which were transmissible to the Escherichia coli K12 recipient. It is concluded that animals form a potential reservoir of R plasmids carrying E. coli in the study area.
Lactobacillus plantarum PA18, a strain originally isolated from the leaves of Pandanus amaryllifolius, contains a pR18 plasmid. The pR18 plasmid is a 3211bp circular molecule with a G+C content of 35.8%. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed two putative open reading frames, ORF1 and ORF2, in which ORF2 was predicted (317 amino acids) to be a replication protein and shared 99% similarity with the Rep proteins of pLR1, pLD1, pC30il, and pLP2000, which belong to the RCR pC194/pUB110 family. Sequence analysis also indicated that ORF1 was predicted to encode linA, an enzyme that enzymatically inactivates lincomycin. The result of Southern hybridization and mung bean nuclease treatment confirmed that pR18 replicated via the RCR mechanism. Phylogenetic tree analysis of pR18 plasmid proteins suggested that horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance determinants without genes encoding mobilization has not only occurred between Bacillus and Lactobacillus but also between unrelated bacteria. Understanding this type of transfer could possibly play a key role in facilitating the study of the origin and evolution of lactobacillus plasmids. Quantitative PCR showed that the relative copy number of pR18 was approximately 39 copies per chromosome equivalent.
Direct protein delivery into the cytosol of mammalian cells by invasive Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial vector will bypass the need to achieve nuclear entry and transcription of DNA, a major hurdle that is known to seriously limit gene transfer. The bacterial vector is induced to express the protein during its growth phase, before presentation for entry into mammalian cells and release of its content into the cellular environment. For this class of vector, crossing the plasma membrane becomes the primary step that determines the success of protein delivery. Yet, how the mechanics of protein expression within the vector affect its entry into the host is poorly understood. We found the vector's effectiveness to enter HeLa cells diminished together with its viability when phage N15 protelomerase (TelN) expression was induced continuously in the invasive E. coli despite producing an abundant amount of functional protein. By comparison, shorter induction, even as little as 3 hr, produced sufficient amounts of functional TelN and showed more effective invasion of HeLa cells, comparable to that of uninduced invasive E. coli. These results demonstrate that brief induction of protein expression during vector growth is essential for optimal entry into mammalian cells, an important step for achieving bacteria-mediated protein delivery.
BACKGROUND: The 7.5 kb cryptic plasmid of Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to be a virulence factor in animal models, but its significance in humans still remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and potential involvement of the C. trachomatis cryptic plasmid in causing various clinical manifestations; including infertility, reproductive tract disintegrity, menstrual disorder, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) among genital C. trachomatis-infected patients.
RESULTS:A tot l of 180 female patients of child bearing age (mean 30.9 years old, IQR:27-35) with gynecological complications and subfertility issues, who visited Obstetrics and Gynecology clinics in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were recruited for the study. Prevalence of genital chlamydial infection among these patients was alarmingly high at 51.1% (92/180). Of the 92 chlamydia-infected patients, 93.5% (86/92) were infected with plasmid-bearing (+) C. trachomatis while the remaining 6.5% (6/92) were caused by the plasmid-free (-) variant. Our data showed that genital C. trachomatis infection was associated with infertility issues, inflammation in the reproductive tract (mucopurulent cervicitis or endometriosis), irregular menstrual cycles and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). However, no statistical significance was detected among patients with plasmid (+) versus plasmid (-) C. trachomatis infection. Interestingly, plasmid (+) C. trachomatis was detected in all patients with PCOS, and the plasmid copy numbers were significantly higher among PCOS patients, relative to non-PCOS patients.
CONCLUSION: Our findings show a high incidence of C. trachomatis infection among women with infertility or gynecological problems in Malaysia. However, due to the low number of plasmid (-) C. trachomatis cases, a significant role of the plasmid in causing virulence in human requires further investigation of a larger cohort.
KEYWORDS: Chlamydia trachomatis; Infertility; Plasmid; Reproductive system disorders
Study site: Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Many plasmid-harbouring strains of Lactococcus lactis have been isolated from milk and other sources. Plasmids of Lactococcus have been shown to harbour antibiotic resistance genes and those that express some important proteins. The generally regarded as safe (GRAS) status of L. lactis also makes it an attractive host for the production of proteins that are beneficial in numerous applications such as the production of biopharmaceutical and nutraceutical. In the present work, strains of L. lactis were isolated from cow's milk, plasmids were isolated and characterised and one of the strains was identified as a potential new lactococcal host for the expression of heterologous proteins.
Genetically modified organisms (GMO) are increased remarkably from year to year and the estimated global area cultivated with genetically modified (GM) crops reached 125 million hectares in year 2008. However, insect resistance maize based on Bacillus thuringienses (Bt) is of the most cultivated GM crop in worldwide. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is an aerobic, gram-positive bacterium that synthesize one or more Cry protein that are toxic to various types crop and forestry insects pests. To date, several cry genes have been introduced into GM plant to combat with various type of insect. Worldwide commercialization of GM crops has raised the customers’ concern about the Biosafety issues, and thus, many countries have implemented the labeling legislations for GM food and their derivatives. In this study, we introduced the quantitative analysis method based on the recombinant plasmid DNA as calibrators that can be used to determine the percentage of GMO content in various types of food and feed samples. Therefore, we have reported 7.5% (6/80) of the samples were contained StarLink maize and 1.25% (1/80) samples were contained Bt176 maize. Additionally, the percentage of GM content in each positive sample were further determined with the developed quantitative method. The percentage of the StarLink corns that present in the positive samples were varies from 0.09% to 2.53% and Bt176 corn that present in the positive sample was 16.90%. The present study demonstrated that the recombinant plasmid DNA that used in quantitative real-time method as good alternative quantitative analysis of GM content.
A total of sixty V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from local cockles (Anadara granosa) were investigated by their antibiotic resistance patterns and plasmid profiles. The isolates showed multiple resistances towards most of the antibiotics tested. All strains of V. parahaemolyticus isolated harbored 1-3 plasmids, with sizes ranging from 2.7 to 54 kb. All V. parahaemolyticus strains showed high multiple antibiotics in frequencies of 0.58 – 0.94 indicating that the strains were derived from high-risk sources. In addition, no particular plasmid profile was predictive of a particular pattern of antibiotic susceptibility. These findings are essential because of the suggested involvement of seafood especially shellfish and environment in transmission of this pathogen to human. Thus, indicating that seafood may be a source of food- acquired antibiotic resistant bacteria to consumer.
A total of 78 samples comprising different types of street foods, sold in different locations in Malaysia, were examined for the presence of Enterobacter cloacae. E. cloacae contamination was recorded in 9% of the samples examined. Tests for susceptibility to 12 different antibiotics showed that all were resistant to six or more antibiotics, but susceptible to chloramphenicol and gentamicin. Plasmids of four different sizes were detected from the three plasmid positive isolates. RAPD analysis using four primers yielded completely different banding patterns for all E. cloacae studied. In Malaysia, no published information on street foods in the epidemiological investigation of E.cloacae related disease is available. However, their occurrences have provided compelling evidence that the risk of disease transmission caused by E. cloacae through street foods is moderate.
In recent years, there has been considerable interest in simple sequence repeats (SSRs) particularly as molecular markers with applications in many different fields. We have carried out an effort to identify and analyse SSRs in the genome of the Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer by random sequencing. Genomic DNA was isolated from the muscle tissue of L. calcarifer, sheared by nebulisation and ligated into plasmid vector. Recombinant clones were selected randomly from the genomic libraries constructed. Subsequently, plasmid DNA was extracted and subjected to one-pass sequencing. A total of 4175 random sequences, also known as genome survey sequences (GSSs), with a total length of 1.7 Mb was generated. Screening of the whole L. calcarifer GSS data set allowed for the identification of a total of 151 perfect (100% similarity) SSRs. These SSR consensus patterns spread over a wide range of size (1 to 226 bp). The most frequent consensus pattern is dinucleotide, which represents 60% of all SSRs identified. The dinucleotides (AC)n, (AT)n and (AG)n were also found to occur frequently in the L. calcarifer genome. Sequence comparison between L. calcarifer and other fish species showed variation in repeat content, indicating the different ways in which repeats may evolve in the genome of these species. Data generated from this random sequencing of the L. calcarifer genome should serve as a valuable resource for further studies of this organism.
Dengue 2 New Guinea C (NGC) virus NS3 protein, a potentially important virulence factor was cloned to the N-terminus of the Aeqirorea victoria enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) using the pEGFP-N1 mammalian expression vector. During amplification of the recombinant plasmid in E. coli, transformants expressing the EGFP were detected in vivo when viewed using fluorescence microscopy. This inadvertent expression of the recombinant fusion protein was confirmed further by detection of the T7.Tag peptide cloned to the aluino terminal of the fusion protein using T 7.Tag specific monoclonal antibody. These findings represent perhaps the first reported expression of the T7.Tag-NS3-EGFP fusion protein using the pEGFP-N1 mammalian expression vector in E. coli. KEYWORDS: Dengue, NS3, pEGFP-N1, fusion protein.