Displaying all 11 publications

  1. Tee TT, Cheah YH, Hawariah LP
    Anticancer Res, 2007 Sep-Oct;27(5A):3425-30.
    PMID: 17970090
    F16 is a plant-derived pharmacologically active fraction extracted from Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Previously, we have reported that F16 inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by inducing apoptotic cell death while having some degree of cytoselectivity on a normal human breast cell line, MCF-10A. In this study, we attempted to further elucidate the mode of action of F16. We found that the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was invoked, with the reduction of Bcl-2 protein. Then, executioner caspase-7 was cleaved and activated in response to F16 treatment. Furthermore, apoptosis in the MCF- 7 cells was accompanied by the specific proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Surprisingly, caspase-9 and p53 were unchanged with F16 treatment. We believe that the F16-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells occurs independently of caspase-9 and p53. Taken together, these results suggest that F16 from E. longifolia exerts anti-proliferative action and growth inhibition on MCF-7 cells through apoptosis induction and that it may have anticancer properties.
  2. Nwaefulu ON, Al-Shar'i NA, Owolabi JO, Sagineedu SR, Woei LC, Wai LK, et al.
    J Mol Model, 2022 Oct 04;28(11):340.
    PMID: 36194315 DOI: 10.1007/s00894-022-05326-1
    Cancer is imposing a global health burden because of the steady increase in new cases. Moreover, current anticancer therapeutics are associated with many drawbacks, mainly the emergence of resistance and the severe adverse effects. Therefore, there is a continuous need for developing new anticancer agents with novel mechanisms of action and lower side effects. Natural products have been a rich source of anticancer medication. Cycleanine, a natural product, was reported to exert an antiproliferative effect on ovarian cancer cells by causing apoptosis through activation of caspases 3/7 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase to form poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1). It is well-established that PARP1 is associated with carcinogenesis, and different PARP1 inhibitors are approved as anticancer drugs. In this study, the cytotoxic activity of cycleanine was computationally investigated to determine whether it is a PARP1 inhibitor or a caspase activator. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were utilized for this purpose. The results showed that cycleanine has a good binding affinity to PARP1; moreover, MD simulation showed that it forms a stable complex with the enzyme. Consequently, the results showed that cycleanine is a potential inhibitor of the PARP1 enzyme.
  3. Inayat-Hussain SH, Osman AB, Din LB, Ali AM, Snowden RT, MacFarlane M, et al.
    FEBS Lett., 1999 Aug 13;456(3):379-83.
    PMID: 10462048
    Goniothalamin, a plant styrylpyrone derivative isolated from Goniothalamus andersonii, induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-cells as assessed by the externalisation of phosphatidylserine. Immunoblotting showed processing of caspases-3 and -7 with the appearance of their catalytically active large subunits of 17 and 19 kDa, respectively. Activation of these caspases was further evidenced by detection of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage (PARP). Pre-treatment with the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD.FMK) blocked apoptosis and the resultant cleavage of these caspases and PARP. Our results demonstrate that activation of at least two effector caspases is a key feature of goniothalamin-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-cells.
  4. Yusoh NA, Ahmad H, Gill MR
    ChemMedChem, 2020 11 18;15(22):2121-2135.
    PMID: 32812709 DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.202000391
    Platinum drugs are heavily used first-line chemotherapeutic agents for many solid tumours and have stimulated substantial interest in the biological activity of DNA-binding metal complexes. These complexes generate DNA lesions which trigger the activation of DNA damage response (DDR) pathways that are essential to maintain genomic integrity. Cancer cells exploit this intrinsic DNA repair network to counteract many types of chemotherapies. Now, advances in the molecular biology of cancer has paved the way for the combination of DDR inhibitors such as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi) and agents that induce high levels of DNA replication stress or single-strand break damage for synergistic cancer cell killing. In this review, we summarise early-stage, preclinical and clinical findings exploring platinum and emerging ruthenium anti-cancer complexes alongside PARPi in combination therapy for cancer and also describe emerging work on the ability of ruthenium and gold complexes to directly inhibit PARP activity.
  5. Nagoor NH, Shah Jehan Muttiah N, Lim CS, In LL, Mohamad K, Mohammad K, et al.
    PLoS One, 2011;6(8):e23661.
    PMID: 21858194 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023661
    The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of erythrocarpine E (CEB4), a limonoid extracted from Chisocheton erythrocarpus on human oral squamous cell carcinoma. Based on preliminary dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, CEB4 treated HSC-4 cells demonstrated a cytotoxic effect and inhibited cell proliferation in a time and dose dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 4.0±1.9 µM within 24 h of treatment. CEB4 was also found to have minimal cytotoxic effects on the normal cell line, NHBE with cell viability levels maintained above 80% upon treatment. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage and DNA fragmentation assay results showed that CEB4 induces apoptosis mediated cell death. Western blotting results demonstrated that the induction of apoptosis by CEB4 appeared to be mediated through regulation of the p53 signalling pathway as there was an increase in p53 phosphorylation levels. CEB4 was also found to up-regulate the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax, while down-regulating the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, suggesting the involvement of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Reduced levels of initiator procaspase-9 and executioner caspase-3 zymogen were also observed following CEB4 exposure, hence indicating the involvement of cytochrome c mediated apoptosis. These results demonstrate the cytotoxic and apoptotic ability of erythrocarpine E, and suggest its potential development as a cancer chemopreventive agent.
  6. Mohan S, Abdul AB, Abdelwahab SI, Al-Zubairi AS, Sukari MA, Abdullah R, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2010 Oct 5;131(3):592-600.
    PMID: 20673794 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.07.043
    The plant Typhonium flagelliforme (TF), commonly known as 'rodent tuber' in Malaysia, is often used as traditional remedy for cancer, including leukemia.
  7. Cheah YH, Nordin FJ, Tee TT, Azimahtol HL, Abdullah NR, Ismail Z
    Anticancer Res, 2008 Nov-Dec;28(6A):3677-89.
    PMID: 19189649
    Xanthorrhizol is a natural sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhizza Roxb (Zingerberaceae). Recent studies of xanthorrhizol in cell cultures strongly support the role of xanthorrhizol as an antiproliferative agent. In our study, we tested the antiproliferative effect of xanthorrhizol using different breast cancer cell lines. The invasive breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, was then selected for further investigations. Treatment with xanthorrhizol caused 50% growth inhibition on MDA-MB-231 cells at 8.67 +/- 0.79 microg/ml as determined by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining assay showed the rate of apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells to increase in response to xanthorrhizol treatment. Immunofluorescence staining using antibody MitoCapture and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled cytochrome c revealed the possibility of altered mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the release of cytochrome c respectively. This was further confirmed by Western-blotting, where cytochrome c was showed to migrate from mitochondrial fraction to the cytosol fraction of treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Caspase activity assay showed the involvement of caspase-3 and caspase-9, but not caspase-6 or caspase-8 in MDA-MB-231 apoptotic cell death. Subsequently, cleavage of PARP-1 protein is suggested. These data suggest treatment with xanthorrhizol modulates MDA-MB-231 cell apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated pathway subsequent to the disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and the modulation of PARP-1 protein.
  8. Loganathan R, Selvaduray KR, Nesaretnam K, Radhakrishnan AK
    Cell Prolif, 2013 Apr;46(2):203-13.
    PMID: 23510475 DOI: 10.1111/cpr.12014
    OBJECTIVES: Tocotrienols and tocopherols are members of the vitamin E family, with similar structures; however, only tocotrienols have been reported to achieve potent anti-cancer effects. The study described here has evaluated anti-cancer activity of vitamin E to elucidate mechanisms of cell death, using human breast cancer cells.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-cancer activity of a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) and a tocotrienol-enriched fraction (TEF) isolated from palm oil, as well as pure vitamin E analogues (α-tocopherol, α-, δ- and γ-tocotrienols) were studied using highly aggressive triple negative MDA-MB-231 cells and oestrogen-dependent MCF-7 cells, both of human breast cancer cell lines. Cell population growth was evaluated using a Coulter particle counter. Cell death mechanism, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and levels of NF-κB were determined using commercial ELISA kits.

    RESULTS: Tocotrienols exerted potent anti-proliferative effects on both types of cell by inducing apoptosis, the underlying mechanism of cell death being ascertained using respective IC50 concentrations of all test compounds. There was marked induction of apoptosis in both cell lines by tocotrienols compared to treatment with Paclitaxel, which was used as positive control. This activity was found to be associated with cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (a DNA repair protein), demonstrating involvement of the apoptotic cell death signalling pathway. Tocotrienols also inhibited expression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), which in turn can increase sensitivity of cancer cells to apoptosis.

    CONCLUSION: Tocotrienols induced anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in association with DNA fragmentation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and NF-κB inhibition in the two human breast cancer cell lines.

  9. Hou Z, Imam MU, Ismail M, Azmi NH, Ismail N, Ideris A, et al.
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 2015;79(10):1570-8.
    PMID: 26057702 DOI: 10.1080/09168451.2015.1050989
    There are reports of improved redox outcomes due to consumption of Edible Bird's Nest (EBN). Many of the functional effects of EBN can be linked to its high amounts of antioxidants. Interestingly, dietary components with high antioxidants have shown promise in the prevention of aging and its related diseases like Alzheimer's disease. In this study, the antioxidative potentials of EBN and its constituents, lactoferrin (LF) and ovotransferrin (OVF), were determined and protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)- induced toxicity on SH-SY5Y cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and acridine orange and propidium iodide (AO/PI) staining with microscopy were examined. Results showed that EBN and its constituents attenuated H2O2-induced cytotoxicity, and decreased radical oxygen species (ROS) through increased scavenging activity. Furthermore, LF, OVF, and EBN produced transcriptional changes in antioxidant related genes that tended towards neuroprotection as compared to H2O2-treated group. Overall, the results suggest that LF and OVF may produce synergistic or all-or-none antioxidative effects in EBN.
  10. Chowchaikong N, Nilwarangkoon S, Laphookhieo S, Tanunyutthawongse C, Watanapokasin R
    Int J Oncol, 2018 Jun;52(6):2031-2040.
    PMID: 29620273 DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2018.4353
    Colorectal cancer, which is the third most common type of cancer diagnosed in both men and women, is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Cowanin is a pure compound extracted from Garcinia cowa Roxb., a tree species present in Thailand, Malaysia and Myanmar. The crude extract has been demonstrated to have antitumor activity, inflammation induction, antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory activity and antimalarial activity. In the present study, the effects of cowanin on apoptosis induction and on the apoptosis-related and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were investigated in the LoVo human colorectal cancer cell line. The cytotoxicity of cowanin in LoVo cells was determined by MTT assay. Hoechst 33342 and JC‑1 staining were used to determine nuclear morphological changes and mitochondrial membrane potential, respectively. The expression levels of BCL2 apoptosis regulator (Bcl‑2) family, MAPK and AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (Akt) pathway proteins following cowanin treatment were determined by western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that cowanin inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death via the apoptosis pathway. Cowanin treatment increased BCL2 associated X (Bax) and decreased Bcl‑2 expression. In addition, cowanin activated caspase‑9, -7 and poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase expression. Furthermore, cowanin decreased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p‑ERK), p‑Akt, p‑3‑phosphoinositide‑dependent protein kinase‑1, while it increased p‑p38 expression, thus resulting in the induction of apoptosis. In conclusion, cowanin inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of LoVo cells via the MAPK and Akt signaling pathways. Notably, inhibition of p38 by using a p38 inhibitor (SB203580) prevented the cowanin-induced apoptosis in LoVo cells. These results suggested that cowanin may be a potential candidate for the treatment of colorectal cancer and provided important information on the molecular mechanisms underlying its antitumor activity.
  11. In LL, Azmi MN, Ibrahim H, Awang K, Nagoor NH
    Anticancer Drugs, 2011 Jun;22(5):424-34.
    PMID: 21346553 DOI: 10.1097/CAD.0b013e328343cbe6
    In this study, the apoptotic mechanism and combinatorial chemotherapeutic effects of the cytotoxic phenylpropanoid compound 1'S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate (AEA), extracted from rhizomes of the Malaysian ethnomedicinal plant Alpinia conchigera Griff. (Zingiberaceae), on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were investigated for the first time. Data from cytotoxic and apoptotic assays such as live and dead and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage assays indicated that AEA was able to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, but not in normal human mammary epithelial cells. A microarray global gene expression analysis of MCF-7 cells, treated with AEA, suggested that the induction of tumor cell death through apoptosis was modulated through dysregulation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) pathway, as shown by the reduced expression of various κB-regulated gene targets. Consequent to this, western blot analysis of proteins corresponding to the NF-κB pathway indicated that AEA inhibited phosphorylation levels of the inhibitor of κB-kinase complex, resulting in the elimination of apoptotic resistance originating from NF-κB activation. This AEA-based apoptotic modulation was elucidated for the first time in this study, and gave rise to the proposal of an NF-κB model termed the 'Switching/Alternating Model.' In addition to this, AEA was also found to synergistically enhance the proapoptotic effects of paclitaxel, when used in combination with MCF-7 cells, presumably by a chemosensitizing role. Therefore, it was concluded that AEA isolated from the Malaysian tropical ginger (A. conchigera) served as a very promising candidate for further in-vivo development in animal models and in subsequent clinical trials involving patients with breast-related malignancies.
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