Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 230 in total

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  1. Salleh MH, Glidle A, Sorel M, Reboud J, Cooper JM
    Chem Commun (Camb), 2013 Apr 18;49(30):3095-7.
    PMID: 23396529 DOI: 10.1039/c3cc38228a
    We demonstrate a polymer resonator microfluidic biosensor that overcomes the complex manufacturing procedures required to fabricate traditional devices. In this new format, we show that a gapless light coupling photonic configuration, fabricated in SU8 polymer, can achieve high sensitivity, label-free chemical sensing in solution and high sensitivity biological sensing, at visible wavelengths.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry*
  2. Zakaria ND, Yusof NA, Haron J, Abdullah AH
    Int J Mol Sci, 2009 Jan;10(1):354-65.
    PMID: 19333450 DOI: 10.3390/ijms10010354
    Molecular imprinted polymers (MIP) are considered one of the most promising selective and novel separation methods for removal phenolic compound in wastewater treatment. MIP are crosslinked polymeric materials that exhibit high binding capacity and selectivity towards a target molecule (template), purposely present during the synthesis process. In this work MIP were prepared in a bulk polymerization method in acetonitrile using 2,4-dinitrophenol, acrylamide, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and benzoyl peroxide as template, functional monomer, cross-linker and initiator, respectively. An adsorption process for removal of nitrophenol using the fabricated MIP was evaluated under various pH and time conditions. The parameters studied for 2,4-dinitrophenol includes adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherm, and selectivity. The maximum adsorption of nitrophenol by the fabricated MIP was 3.50 mg/g. The adsorption of 2,4-dinitrophenol by the fabricated MIP was found effective at pH 6.0. A kinetics study showed that nitrophenol adsorption follows a second order adsorption rate and the adsorption isotherm data is explained well by the Langmuir model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry
  3. Jamaludin FA, Ab-Kadir MZA, Izadi M, Azis N, Jasni J, Abd-Rahman MS
    PLoS One, 2017;12(11):e0187892.
    PMID: 29136025 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187892
    Located near the equator, Malaysia is a country with one of the highest lightning densities in the world. Lightning contributes to 70% of the power outages in Malaysia and affects power equipment, automated network systems, causes data losses and monetary losses in the nation. Therefore, consideration of insulator evaluation under lightning impulses can be crucial to evaluate and attempt to overcome this issue. This paper presents a new approach to increase the electrical performance of polymer insulators using a Room Temperature Vulcanisation (RTV) coating. The evaluation involves three different settings of polymer insulator, namely uncoated, RTV type 1, and RTV type 2 upper surface coatings. All the insulators were tested under three different conditions as dry, clean wet and salty under different impulse polarities using the even-rising test method. The voltage breakdown for each test was recorded. From the experiment, it was found that the effectiveness of the RTV coating application became apparent when tested under salty or polluted conditions. It increased the voltage withstand capabilities of the polymer insulator up to 50% from the basic uncoated insulator. Under dry and clean conditions, the RTV coating provided just a slight increase of the breakdown voltage. The increase in voltage breakdown capability decreased the probability of surface discharge and dry band arcing that could cause degradation of the polymeric material housing. The RTV type 1 coating was found to be more effective when performing under a lightning impulse. The findings might help the utility companies improve the performance of their insulators in order to increase power system reliability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry*
  4. Tripathy A, Pramanik S, Cho J, Santhosh J, Osman NA
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(9):16343-422.
    PMID: 25256110 DOI: 10.3390/s140916343
    The humidity sensing characteristics of different sensing materials are important properties in order to monitor different products or events in a wide range of industrial sectors, research and development laboratories as well as daily life. The primary aim of this study is to compare the sensing characteristics, including impedance or resistance, capacitance, hysteresis, recovery and response times, and stability with respect to relative humidity, frequency, and temperature, of different materials. Various materials, including ceramics, semiconductors, and polymers, used for sensing relative humidity have been reviewed. Correlations of the different electrical characteristics of different doped sensor materials as the most unique feature of a material have been noted. The electrical properties of different sensor materials are found to change significantly with the morphological changes, doping concentration of different materials and film thickness of the substrate. Various applications and scopes are pointed out in the review article. We extensively reviewed almost all main kinds of relative humidity sensors and how their electrical characteristics vary with different doping concentrations, film thickness and basic sensing materials. Based on statistical tests, the zinc oxide-based sensing material is best for humidity sensor design since it shows extremely low hysteresis loss, minimum response and recovery times and excellent stability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry*
  5. Ramachandran H, Iqbal NM, Sipaut CS, Abdullah AA
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2011 Jul;164(6):867-77.
    PMID: 21302147 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-011-9180-8
    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HB)] terpolymer was produced using Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4 via one-step cultivation process through combination of various carbon sources such as 1,4-butanediol or γ-butyrolactone with either 1-pentanol, valeric acid, or 1-propanol. Oleic acid was added to increase the biomass production. The composition of 3HV and 4HB monomers were greatly affected by the concentration of 1,4-butanediol and 1-pentanol. Terpolymers with 3HV and 4HB molar fractions ranging from 2 to 41 mol.% and 5 to 31 mol.%, respectively, were produced by varying the concentration of carbon precursors. The thermal and mechanical properties of the terpolymers containing different proportions of the constituent monomers were characterized using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), DSC, and tensile machine. GPC analysis showed that the molecular weights (M (w)) of the terpolymer produced were within the range of 346 to 1,710 kDa. The monomer compositions of 3HV and 4HB were also found to have great influences on the thermal and mechanical properties of the terpolymer P(3HB-co-3HV-co-4HB) produced.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry*
  6. Hoque ME, Zainal NH, Syarif J
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:91-2.
    PMID: 19024999
    This study aims at investigating the mechanical properties of the contemporary metallic bone plates determining the effect of their length, width and thickness on the properties and compares with the composite bone plates. Three-points bending test was performed over the stainless steel plates of different length, width and thickness. The test results showed that different plates had different mechanical properties. However, the properties are still much higher than that of particular bones intended to be treated. Therefore, the reported findings strongly encourage developing composite bone plates with biocompatible polymers/fibers that would have modulated properties according to the requirements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry
  7. Salmiaton A, Garforth A
    Waste Manag, 2007;27(12):1891-6.
    PMID: 17084608
    Catalytic cracking of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) over fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts (1:6 ratio) was carried out using a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operating at 450 degrees C. Two fresh and two steam deactivated commercial FCC catalysts with different levels of rare earth oxide (REO) were compared as well as two used FCC catalysts (E-Cats) with different levels of metal poisoning. Also, inert microspheres (MS3) were used as a fluidizing agent to compare with thermal cracking process at BP pilot plant at Grangemouth, Scotland, which used sand as its fluidizing agent. The results of HDPE degradation in terms of yield of volatile hydrocarbon product are fresh FCC catalysts>steamed FCC catalysts approximately used FCC catalysts. The thermal cracking process using MS3 showed that at 450 degrees C, the product distribution gave 46 wt% wax, 14% hydrocarbon gases, 8% gasoline, 0.1% coke and 32% nonvolatile product. In general, the product yields from HDPE cracking showed that the level of metal contamination (nickel and vanadium) did not affect the product stream generated from polymer cracking. This study gives promising results as an alternative technique for the cracking and recycling of polymer waste.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry
  8. Bahrami A, Talib ZA, Yunus WM, Behzad K, M Abdi M, Din FU
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(11):14917-28.
    PMID: 23203102 DOI: 10.3390/ijms131114917
    Polypyrrole (PPy) and polypyrrole-carboxylic functionalized multi wall carbon nanotube composites (PPy/f-MWCNT) were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The structure of the resulting complex nanotubes was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of f-MWCNT concentration on the electrical properties of the resulting composites were studied at temperatures between 100 K and 300 K. The Hall mobility and Hall coefficient of PPy and PPy/f-MWCNT composite samples with different concentrations of f-MWCNT were measured using the van der Pauw technique. The mobility decreased slightly with increasing temperature, while the conductivity was dominated by the gradually increasing carrier density.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry*
  9. Hena S, Rozi R, Tabassum S, Huda A
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2016 Aug;23(15):14868-80.
    PMID: 27072032 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-6540-5
    Cyanotoxins, microcystins and cylindrospermopsin, are potent toxins produced by cyanobacteria in potable water supplies. This study investigated the removal of cyanotoxins from aqueous media by magnetophoretic nanoparticle of polypyrrole adsorbent. The adsorption process was pH dependent with maximum adsorption occurring at pH 7 for microcystin-LA, LR, and YR and at pH 9 for microcystin-RR and cylindrospermopsin (CYN). Kinetic studies and adsorption isotherms reflected better fit for pseudo-second-order rate and Langmuir isotherm model, respectively. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the cyanotoxin adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous in nature. The regenerated adsorbent can be successfully reused without appreciable loss of its original capacity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry*
  10. Khairi NA, Yusof NA, Abdullah AH, Mohammad F
    Int J Mol Sci, 2015;16(5):10562-77.
    PMID: 26006226 DOI: 10.3390/ijms160510562
    In recent years, molecularly-imprinted polymers (MIPs) have attracted the attention of several researchers due to their capability for molecular recognition, easiness of preparation, stability and cost-effective production. By taking advantage of these facts, Hg(II) imprinted and non-imprinted copolymers were prepared by polymerizing mercury nitrate stock solution (or without it) with methacrylic acid (MAA), 2-hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate (HEMA), methanol and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the monomer, co-monomer solvent (porogen) and cross-linker, respectively. Thus, the formed Hg(II) imprinted polymer was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The separation and preconcentration characteristics of Hg(II) imprinted polymer were investigated by solid phase extraction (SPE) procedures, and an optimal pH of 7 was investigated as ideal. The specific surface area of the Hg(II) imprinted polymer was found to be 19.45 m2/g with a size range from 100 to 140 µm in diameter. The maximum adsorption capacity was observed to be 1.11 mg/g of Hg(II) imprinted beads with 87.54% removal of Hg(II) ions within the first 5 min. The results of the study therefore confirm that the Hg(II) imprinted polymer can be used multiple times without significantly losing its adsorption capacity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry*
  11. Ahmad A, Siddique JA, Laskar MA, Kumar R, Mohd-Setapar SH, Khatoon A, et al.
    J Environ Sci (China), 2015 May 1;31:104-23.
    PMID: 25968265 DOI: 10.1016/j.jes.2014.12.008
    The direct determination of toxic metal ions, in environmental samples, is difficult because of the latter's presence in trace concentration in association with complex matrices, thereby leading to insufficient sensitivity and selectivity of the methods used. The simultaneous removal of the matrix and preconcentration of the metal ions, through solid phase extraction, serves as the promising solution. The mechanism involved in solid phase extraction (SPE) depends on the nature of the sorbent and analyte. Thus, SPE is carried out by means of adsorption, ion exchange, chelation, ion pair formation, and so forth. As polymeric supports, the commercially available Amberlite resins have been found very promising for designing chelating matrices due to its good physical and chemical properties such as porosity, high surface area, durability and purity. This review presents an overview of the various works done on the modification of Amberlite XAD resins with the objective of making it an efficient sorbent. The methods of modifications which are generally based on simple impregnation, sorption as chelates and chemical bonding have been discussed. The reported results, including the preconcentration limit, the detection limit, sorption capacity, preconcentration factors etc., have been reproduced.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry
  12. Chan SY, Choo WS, Young DJ, Loh XJ
    Carbohydr Polym, 2017 Apr 01;161:118-139.
    PMID: 28189220 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.12.033
    Pectins are a diverse family of biopolymers with an anionic polysaccharide backbone of α-1,4-linked d-galacturonic acids in common. They have been widely used as emulsifiers, gelling agents, glazing agents, stabilizers, and/or thickeners in food, pharmaceutical, personal care and polymer products. Commercial pectin is classified as high methoxy pectin (HMP) with a degree of methylation (DM) >50% and low methoxy pectin (LMP) with a DM <50%. Amidated low methoxy pectins (ALMP) can be obtained through aminolysis of HMP. Gelation of HMP occurs by cross-linking through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic forces between the methyl groups, assisted by a high co-solute concentration and low pH. In contrast, gelation of LMP occurs by the formation of ionic linkages via calcium bridges between two carboxyl groups from two different chains in close proximity, known as the 'egg-box' model. Pectin gels exhibit Newtonian behaviour at low shear rates and shear-thinning behaviour when the shear rate is increased. An overview of pectin from its origin to its physicochemical properties is presented in this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry
  13. Tsai PT, Lin KC, Wu CY, Liao CH, Lin MC, Wong YQ, et al.
    ChemSusChem, 2017 07 10;10(13):2778-2787.
    PMID: 28516516 DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700601
    Here, we report that long-term stable and efficient organic solar cells (OSCs) can be obtained through the following strategies: i) combination of rapid-drying blade-coating deposition with an appropriate thermal annealing treatment to obtain an optimized morphology of the active layer; ii) insertion of interfacial layers to optimize the interfacial properties. The resulting devices based on poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b;4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate-2,6-diyl)] (PBDTTT-EFT):[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71 BM) blend as the active layer exhibits a power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 9.57 %, which represents the highest efficiency ever reported for blade-coated OSCs. Importantly, the conventional structure devices based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend can retain approximately 65 % of their initial PCE for almost 2 years under operating conditions, which is the best result ever reported for long-term stable OSCs under operational conditions. More encouragingly, long-term stable large-area OSCs (active area=216 cm2 ) based on P3HT:PCBM blend are also demonstrated. Our findings represent an important step toward the development of large-area OSCs with high performance and long-term stability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry
  14. Aziz SB, Hamsan MH, Kadir MFZ, Karim WO, Abdullah RM
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Jul 09;20(13).
    PMID: 31323971 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20133369
    Solid polymer blend electrolyte membranes (SPBEM) composed of chitosan and dextran with the incorporation of various amounts of lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) were synthesized. The complexation of the polymer blend electrolytes with the salt was examined using FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology of the SPBEs was also investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The ion transport behavior of the membrane films was measured using impedance spectroscopy. The membrane with highest LiClO4 content was found to exhibit the highest conductivity of 5.16 × 10-3 S/cm. Ionic (ti) and electronic (te) transference numbers for the highest conducting electrolyte were found to be 0.98 and 0.02, respectively. Electrochemical stability was estimated from linear sweep voltammetry and found to be up to ~2.3V for the Li+ ion conducting electrolyte. The only existence of electrical double charging at the surface of electrodes was evidenced from the absence of peaks in cyclic voltammetry (CV) plot. The discharge slope was observed to be almost linear, confirming the capacitive behavior of the EDLC. The performance of synthesized EDLC was studied using CV and charge-discharge techniques. The highest specific capacitance was achieved to be 8.7 F·g-1 at 20th cycle. The efficiency (η) was observed to be at 92.8% and remained constant at 92.0% up to 100 cycles. The EDLC was considered to have a reasonable electrode-electrolyte contact, in which η exceeds 90.0%. It was determined that equivalent series resistance (Resr) is quite low and varies from 150 to 180 Ω over the 100 cycles. Energy density (Ed) was found to be 1.21 Wh·kg-1 at the 1st cycle and then remained stable at 0.86 Wh·kg-1 up to 100 cycles. The interesting observation is that the value of Pd increases back to 685 W·kg-1 up to 80 cycles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry*
  15. Esmaeili C, Ghasemi M, Heng LY, Hassan SHA, Abdi MM, Daud WRW, et al.
    Carbohydr Polym, 2014 Dec 19;114:253-259.
    PMID: 25263889 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.07.072
    A novel nano-bio composite polypyrrole (PPy)/kappa-carrageenan(KC) was fabricated and characterized for application as a cathode catalyst in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). High resolution SEM and TEM verified the bud-like shape and uniform distribution of the PPy in the KC matrix. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has approved the amorphous structure of the PPy/KC as well. The PPy/KC nano-bio composites were then studied as an electrode material, due to their oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) ability as the cathode catalyst in the MFC and the results were compared with platinum (Pt) as the most common cathode catalyst. The produced power density of the PPy/KC was 72.1 mW/m(2) while it was 46.8 mW/m(2) and 28.8 mW/m(2) for KC and PPy individually. The efficiency of the PPy/KC electrode system is slightly lower than a Pt electrode (79.9 mW/m(2)) but due to the high cost of Pt electrodes, the PPy/KC electrode system has potential to be an alternative electrode system for MFCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry*
  16. Raychaudhuri R, Pandey A, Hegde A, Abdul Fayaz SM, Chellappan DK, Dua K, et al.
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv, 2020 12;17(12):1737-1765.
    PMID: 32878492 DOI: 10.1080/17425247.2020.1819237
    Introduction: In this review, we aim to highlight the impact of various processes and formulation variables influencing the characteristics of certain surfactant-based nanoconstructs for drug delivery. Areas covered: The review includes the discussion on processing parameters for the preparation of nanoconstructs, especially those made up of surfactants. Articles published in last 15 years (437) were reviewed, 381 articles were selected for data review and most appropriate articles (215) were included in article. Effect of variables such as surfactant concentration and type, membrane additives, temperature, and pH-dependent transitions on morphology has been highlighted along with effect of shape on nanoparticle uptake by cells. Various characterization techniques explored for these nanostructures with respect to size, morphology, lamellarity, distribution, etc., and a separate section on polymeric vesicles and the influence of block copolymers, type of block copolymer, control of block length, interaction of multiple block copolymers on the structure of polymersomes and chimeric nanostructures have been discussed. Finally, applications, modification, degradation, and toxicological aspects of these drug delivery systems have been highlighted. Expert opinion: Parameters influencing the morphology of micelles and vesicles can directly or indirectly affect the efficacy of small molecule cellular internalization as well as uptake in the case of biologicals.[Figure: see text].
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry*
  17. Jamil M, Mustafa IS, Ahmed NM, Sahul Hamid SB
    Biomater Adv, 2022 Dec;143:213178.
    PMID: 36368056 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioadv.2022.213178
    Biocompatible polymers have received significant interest from researchers for their potential in diagnostic applications. This type of polymer can perform with an appropriate host response or carrier for a specific purpose. The current study aims to fabricate and characterise poly(ethylene) oxide (PEO) nanofibres with different concentrations for cytotoxicity evaluation in human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) and to get an optimal PEO nanofibre concentration (permissible limit) as a suitable polymer matrix or carrier with potential use in diagnostic applications. The fabrication of PEO nanofibres was done using electrospinning and was characterised by structure and morphology, surface roughness, chemical bonding and release profiles. The functional effects of PEO nanofibres were evaluated with MTS assay and colony formation assay in MCF-7 cells. The results showed that viscosity plays a vital role in synthesising a polymer solution in electrospinning for producing beadless nanofibrous mats ranging from 4.7 Pa·s to 77.7 Pa·s. As the PEO concentration increases, the nanofibre diameter and thickness will increase, but the surface roughness will be decreased. The average fibre diameter for 5 wt% PEO, 6 wt% PEO and 7 wt% PEO nanofibres were 129 ± 70 nm, 185 ± 55 nm and 192 ± 53 nm, respectively. In addition, the fibre thickness for 4 wt% PEO, 5 wt% PEO, 6 wt% PEO and 7 wt% PEO nanofibres were 269 ± 3 μm, 664 ± 4 μm, 758 ± 7 μm and 1329 ± 44 μm, respectively. Contrarily, the surface roughness for 4 wt% PEO, 5 wt% PEO, 6 wt% PEO and 7 wt% PEO nanofibres were 55.6 ± 9 nm, 42.8 ± 6 nm, 42.7 ± 7 nm and 36.6 ± 1 nm, respectively. PEO nanofibres showed the same burst release pattern and rate due to the same molecular weight of PEO with a stable release rate profile after 15 min. It also demonstrates that the percentage of PEO nanofibre release increased with the increasing PEO concentration due to the fibre diameter and thickness. The findings showed that all PEO nanofibres formulations were non-toxic to MCF-7 cells. It is suggested that 5 wt% PEO nanofibre exhibited non-cytotoxic characteristics by maintaining the cell viability from dose 0-1000 μg/ml and did not induce the number of colonies. Therefore, 5 wt% PEO nanofibre is the optimal nanofibre concentration and was suggested as a suitable base polymer matrix or carrier with potential use for diagnostic purposes. The findings in this study have demonstrated the influence of cell growth and viability, including the effects of PEO nanofibre formulations on cancer progress characteristics to achieve a permissible PEO nanofibre concentration limit that can be a benchmark in medical applications, particularly diagnostic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry
  18. Asyraf MRM, Ishak MR, Norrrahim MNF, Nurazzi NM, Shazleen SS, Ilyas RA, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2021 Dec 15;193(Pt B):1587-1599.
    PMID: 34740691 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.10.221
    Biocomposites are materials that are easy to manufacture and environmentally friendly. Sugar palm fibre (SPF) is considered to be an emerging reinforcement candidate that could provide improved mechanical stiffness and strength to the biocomposites. Numerous studies have been recently conducted on sugar palm biocomposites to evaluate their physical, mechanical and thermal properties in various conditions. Sugar palm biocomposites are currently limited to the applications of traditional household products despite their good thermal stability as a prospective substitute candidate for synthetic fibres. Thus, thermal analysis methods such as TGA and DTG are functioned to determine the thermal properties of single fibre sugar palm composites (SPCs) in thermoset and thermoplastic matrix as well as hybrid SPCs. The biocomposites showed a remarkable change considering thermal stability by varying the individual fibre compositions and surface treatments and adding fillers and coupling agents. However, literature that summarises the thermal properties of sugar palm biocomposites is unavailable. Particularly, this comprehensive review paper aims to guide all composite engineers, designers, manufacturers and users on the selection of suitable biopolymers for sugar palm biocomposites for thermal applications, such as heat shields and engine components.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry*
  19. Rosli NA, Karamanlioglu M, Kargarzadeh H, Ahmad I
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2021 Sep 30;187:732-741.
    PMID: 34358596 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.196
    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a bio-based polyester, has been extensively investigated in the recent past owing to its excellent mechanical properties. Several studies have been conducted on PLA blends, with a focus on improving the brittleness of PLA to ensure its suitability for various applications. However, the increasing use of PLA has increased the contamination of PLA-based products in the environment because PLA remains intact even after three years at sea or in soil. This review focuses on analyzing studies that have worked on improving the degradation properties of PLA blends and studies how other additives affect degradation by considering different degradation media. Factors affecting the degradation properties, such as surface morphology, water uptake, and crystallinity of PLA blends, are highlighted. In natural, biotic, and abiotic media, water uptake plays a crucial role in determining biodegradation rates. Immiscible blends of PLA with other polymer matrices cause phase separation, increasing the water absorption. The susceptibility of PLA to hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation is high in the amorphous region because it can be easily penetrated by water. It is essential to study the morphology, water absorption, and structural properties of PLA blends to predict the biodegradation properties of PLA in the blends.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry*
  20. Amin MC, Ahmad N, Pandey M, Abeer MM, Mohamad N
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv, 2015 Jul;12(7):1149-61.
    PMID: 25547588 DOI: 10.1517/17425247.2015.997707
    Supramolecular hydrogels, formed by noncovalent crosslinking of polymeric chains in water, constitute an interesting class of materials that can be developed specifically for drug delivery and biomedical applications. The biocompatibility, stimuli responsiveness to various external factors, and powerful functionalization capacity of these polymeric networks make them attractive candidates for novel advanced dosage form design.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymers/chemistry*
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