Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 148 in total

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  1. Romaino SM, Fazly-Ann ZA, Loo SS, Hafiz MM, Hafiz MD, Iswadi MI, et al.
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2014;13(1):406-14.
    PMID: 24535867 DOI: 10.4238/2014.January.21.8
    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a useful genetic marker that can be used for species identification. The cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene is a suitable mtDNA candidate gene for use in phylogenetic analyses due to its sequence variability, which makes it appropriate for comparisons at the subspecies, species, and genus levels. This study was conducted to develop a rapid molecular method for species identification of Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki), Kedah-Kelantan (KK) (Bos indicus), and Bali (Bos javanicus) cattle in Malaysia. DNA was extracted from blood samples of 8 Malayan gaurs, 30 KK, and 28 Bali cattle. A set of both specific and universal primers for the Cyt b gene were used in PCR amplification. DNA sequences obtained were then analyzed using BioEdit and Restriction Mapper softwares. The PCR products obtained from Cyt b gene amplification were then subjected to restriction enzyme digestion. The amplification, using both specific and universal primers, produced a 154- and a 603-bp fragment, respectively, in all three species. Two restriction enzymes, NlaIV and SspI, were used to obtain specific restriction profiles that allowed direct identification of Malayan gaur, KK, and Bali cattle. Our findings indicate that all three species can be identified separately using a combination of universal primers and the restriction enzyme SspI.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length*
  2. Loo KW, Griffiths LR, Gan SH
    BMC Med. Genet., 2012;13:34.
    PMID: 22594584 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-13-34
    Hyperhomocysteinemia as a consequence of the MTHFR 677 C > T variant is associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke. Another factor that can potentially contribute to these disorders is a depleted nitric oxide level, which can be due to the presence of eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS -786 T > C variants that make an individual more susceptible to endothelial dysfunction. A number of genotyping methods have been developed to investigate these variants. However, simultaneous detection methods using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis are still lacking. In this study, a novel multiplex PCR-RFLP method for the simultaneous detection of MTHFR 677 C > T and eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS -786 T > C variants was developed. A total of 114 healthy Malay subjects were recruited. The MTHFR 677 C > T and eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS -786 T > C variants were genotyped using the novel multiplex PCR-RFLP and confirmed by DNA sequencing as well as snpBLAST. Allele frequencies of MTHFR 677 C > T and eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS -786 T > C were calculated using the Hardy Weinberg equation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length*
  3. Rahim MH, Ismail P, Alias R, Muhammad N, Mat Jais AM
    Gene, 2012 Feb 15;494(1):1-10.
    PMID: 22197656 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2011.12.015
    Haruan (Channa striatus) is in great demand in the Malaysian domestic fish market. In the present study, mtDNA cyt b was used to investigate genetic variation of C. striatus among populations in Peninsular Malaysia. The overall population of C. striatus demonstrated a high level of haplotype diversity (h) and a low-to-moderate level of nucleotide diversity (π). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) results showed a significantly different genetic differentiation among 6 populations (F(ST)=0.37566, P=0.01). Gene flow (Nm) was high and ranged from 0.32469 to infinity (∞). No significant relationship between genetic distance and geographic distance was detected. A UPGMA tree based on the distance matrix of net interpopulation nucleotide divergence (d(A)) and haplotype network of mtDNA cyt b revealed that C. striatus is divided into 2 major clades. The neutrality and mismatch distribution tests for all populations suggested that C. striatus in the study areas had undergone population expansion. The estimated time of population expansion in the mtDNA cyt b of C. striatus populations occurred 0.72-6.19 million years ago. Genetic diversity of mtDNA cyt b and population structure among Haruan populations in Peninsular Malaysia will be useful in fisheries management for standardization for Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) in fish-farming technology, as well as providing the basis for Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP).
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length*
  4. Chua TH, Chong YV, Lim SH
    Pest Manag. Sci., 2010 Apr;66(4):379-84.
    PMID: 19946858 DOI: 10.1002/ps.1886
    Identification of Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock, B. papayae Drew and Hancock, B. tau Walker, B. latifrons Hendel, B. cucurbitae Coquillett, B. umbrosa Fabricius and B. caudata Fabricius would pose a problem if only a body part or an immature stage were available. Analysis of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene using primers COIR, COIF, UEA7 and UEA10 and restriction enzymes (MseI, RsaI and Alu1) was carried out. The banding profiles in the electrophoresis gel were analysed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length*
  5. Init I, Foead AL, Fong MY, Yamazaki H, Rohela M, Yong HS, et al.
    PMID: 18613539
    Genomic DNA of Blastocystis isolates released into 0.1% Triton X-100 was suitable for amplification and yielded similar results as the genomic DNA extracted with standard kit. The specific B. hominis primers (BH1: GCT TAT CTG GTT GAT CCT GCC AGT and BH2: TGA TCC TTC CGC AGG TTC ACC TAC A) successfully produced the PCR product of about 1,770 bp with all the 7 Blastocystis isolates tested. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns yielded by 13 out of 25 restriction endonucleases showed that the 7 isolates could be grouped into 4 subgroups: subgroup-1 consisted of isolate C; subgroup-2 of isolates H4 and H7; subgroup-3 of isolates KP1, Y51 and M12; and subgroup-4 of isolate 27805. The differences between subgroups manifested as clear-cut RFLP patterns. A common band of 230 bp was revealed by Eco R1 in all the Blastocystis isolates tested. The band of about 180 bp was revealed by Alu I, differentiated symptomatic from asymptomatic isolates of this parasite, and might indicate the pathogenicity of this parasite.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length/genetics
  6. Latifah I, Teoh Ky, Wan KL, Normaznah Y, Rahmah M
    Malays J Pathol, 2007 Jun;29(1):25-31.
    PMID: 19105325 MyJurnal
    Giardia duodenalis causes diarrhoea and malabsorption. The objectives of the study were to detect local isolates of G. doudenalis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to determine their restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). G. doudenalis isolated from stools of patients from Hospital Orang Asli Gombak were cultured axenically using TYI-S-33 medium with 10% foetal calf serum. The commercially designed primer-pair 432/433 was used to amplify a 0.52 kb segment known to encode the homologous cysteine-rich trophozoite surface antigen (tsp11 and tsa417). Results showed that the primer-pair 432/433 could amplify the target region of the local isolates. RFLP study on the identical isolates showed that all the restriction enzymes tested ( HindIII, ClaI, PstI and Kpn) gave a banding pattern similar to that of the WB strain a reference pathogenic strain from human. The reference pathogenic strain were commercially obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC).
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length*
  7. Ting NC, Jansen J, Nagappan J, Ishak Z, Chin CW, Tan SG, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(1):e53076.
    PMID: 23382832 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053076
    Clonal reproduction of oil palm by means of tissue culture is a very inefficient process. Tissue culturability is known to be genotype dependent with some genotypes being more amenable to tissue culture than others. In this study, genetic linkage maps enriched with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for dura (ENL48) and pisifera (ML161), the two fruit forms of oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. The SSR markers were mapped onto earlier reported parental maps based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. The new linkage map of ENL48 contains 148 markers (33 AFLPs, 38 RFLPs and 77 SSRs) in 23 linkage groups (LGs), covering a total map length of 798.0 cM. The ML161 map contains 240 markers (50 AFLPs, 71 RFLPs and 119 SSRs) in 24 LGs covering a total of 1,328.1 cM. Using the improved maps, two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with tissue culturability were identified each for callusing rate and embryogenesis rate. A QTL for callogenesis was identified in LGD4b of ENL48 and explained 17.5% of the phenotypic variation. For embryogenesis rate, a QTL was detected on LGP16b in ML161 and explained 20.1% of the variation. This study is the first attempt to identify QTL associated with tissue culture amenity in oil palm which is an important step towards understanding the molecular processes underlying clonal regeneration of oil palm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length/genetics
  8. Ali ME, Al Amin M, Hamid SB, Hossain MA, Mustafa S
    PMID: 26208950 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2015.1075068
    Wider availability but lack of legal market trades has given feline meat a high potential for use as an adulterant in common meat and meat products. However, mixing of feline meat or its derivatives in food is a sensitive issue, since it is a taboo in most countries and prohibited in certain religions such as Islam and Judaism. Cat meat also has potential for contamination with of severe acute respiratory syndrome, anthrax and hepatitis, and its consumption might lead to an allergic reaction. We developed a very short-amplicon-length (69 bp) PCR assay, authenticated the amplified PCR products by AluI-restriction digestion followed by its separation and detection on a lab-on-a-chip-based automated electrophoretic system, and proved its superiority over the existing long-amplicon-based assays. Although it has been assumed that longer DNA targets are susceptible to breakdown under compromised states, scientific evidence for this hypothesis has been rarely documented. Strong evidence showed that shorter targets are more stable than the longer ones. We confirmed feline-specificity by cross-challenging the primers against 10 different species of terrestrial, aquatic and plant origins in the presence of a 141-bp site of an 18S rRNA gene as a universal eukaryotic control. RFLP analysis separated 43- and 26-bp fragments of AluI-digest in both the gel-image and electropherograms, confirming the original products. The tested detection limit was 0.01% (w/w) feline meat in binary and ternary admixed as well as meatball matrices. Shorter target, better stability and higher sensitivity mean such an assay would be valid for feline identification even in degraded specimens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length*
  9. Ferdig MT, Taft AS, Severson DW, Christensen BM
    Genome Res., 1998 Jan;8(1):41-7.
    PMID: 9445486
    One of the causative agents of lympahtic filariasis is the nematode parasite Brugia malayi that requires a competent mosquito vector for its development and transmission. Armigeres subalbatus mosquitoes rapidly destroy invading B. malayi microfilariae via a defense response known as melanotic encapsulation. We have constructed a genetic linkage map for this mosquito species using RFLP markers from Aedes aegypti. This heterologous approach was possible because of the conserved nature of the coding sequences used as markers and provided an experimental framework to evaluate the hypothesis that linkage and gene order are conserved between these mosquito species. Of the 56 Ae. aegypti markers tested, 77% hybridize to genomic DNA digests of Ar. subalbatus under stringent conditions, with 53% of these demonstrating strain-specific polymorphisms. Twenty-six Ae. aegypti markers have been mapped using an F2- segregating Ar. subalbatus population derived from a cross of strains originating in Japan and Malaysia. Linear order of these marker loci is highly conserved between the two species. Only 1 of these markers, LF92, was not linked in the manner predicted by the Ae. aegypti map. In addition, the autosomal sex-determination locus that occurs in linkage group 1 in Ae. aegypti resides in group 3 in Ar. subalbatus. The Ar. subalbatus map provides a basic genetic context that can be utilized in further genetic studies to clarify the genetic basis of parasite resistance in this mosquito and is a necessary precursor to the identification of genome regions that carry genes that determine the encapsulation phenotype. [The composite map and sequence database information for Ae. aegypti markers can be retrieved directly from the Ae. aegypti Genome Database through the World Wide Web: http://klab.agsci.colostate.edu.]
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length*
  10. Ishak R, Khim LC
    PMID: 9280004
    A study was initiated to amplify by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a short factor VIII gene fragment containing the Bcl I restriction site from hemophilia patients using published primer sequences. Preliminary findings indicated that the resulting fragment is 142 bp long. This fragment, when digested with Bcl I restriction enzyme produced two fragments, 99 bp and 43 bp in length. Polymorphism in the Bcl I region can be used to detect carrier state in the family members of the hemophiliacs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length*
  11. Saha N, Tay JS, Carritt B
    Hum. Hered., 1990;40(4):250-2.
    PMID: 1974242
    Three different ethnic groups from Singapore comprising 79 Chinese, 34 Malays and 23 Indians of Dravidian origin, were investigated for the HindIII RFLP at the DNF15S2 locus. The three populations had very similar allele frequencies and the frequency of rarer(S) allele was significantly (p less than 0.01) lower (0.21) in these ethnic groups compared to that in Caucasians (0.41). The phenotypic distributions were at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length*
  12. Saha N
    Hum. Hered., 1989;39(6):364-6.
    PMID: 2575596
    A total of 215 subjects comprising 95 Chinese, 66 Malays and 54 Indians were investigated for restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the tissue-type plasminogen activator (PLAT) gene at an EcoRI site using the probe ptPA-4352. The phenotypic distribution showed a good agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The gene frequencies of PLAT*1 were found to be 0.47 in the Chinese, 0.52 in the Malays and 0.41 in South Indians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length*
  13. Huynh TT, Jamil I, Pianegonda NA, Blanksby SJ, Barker PJ, Manefield M, et al.
    Microbiologyopen, 2017 04;6(2).
    PMID: 27998037 DOI: 10.1002/mbo3.425
    Microbial colonization of prepainted steel, commonly used in roofing applications, impacts their aesthetics, durability, and functionality. Understanding the relevant organisms and the mechanisms by which colonization occurs would provide valuable information that can be subsequently used to design fouling prevention strategies. Here, next-generation sequencing and microbial community finger printing (T-RFLP) were used to study the community composition of microbes colonizing prepainted steel roofing materials at Burrawang, Australia and Kapar, Malaysia over a 52-week period. Community diversity was low and was dominated by Bacillus spp., cyanobacteria, actinobacteria, Cladosporium sp., Epicoccum nigrum, and Teratosphaeriaceae sp. Cultivation-based methods isolated approximately 20 different fungi and bacteria, some of which, such as E. nigrum and Cladosporium sp., were represented in the community sequence data. Fluorescence in situ hybridization imaging showed that fungi were the most dominant organisms present. Analysis of the sequence and T-RFLP data indicated that the microbial communities differed significantly between locations and changed significantly over time. The study demonstrates the utility of molecular ecology tools to identify and characterize microbial communities associated with the fouling of painted steel surfaces and ultimately can enable the targeted development of control strategies based on the dominant species responsible for fouling.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length/genetics
  14. Sultana S, Hossain MAM, Naquiah NNA, Ali ME
    PMID: 30028648 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2018.1500719
    Gelatin is widely used in pharmaceuticals as a protective coating, such as soft and hard capsule shells. However, the animal source of gelatin is a sensitive issue because certain gelatins such as porcine and bovine gelatins are not welcome in Halal, Kosher and Hindus' consumer goods. Recently, we have documented DNA barcoding and multiplex PCR platforms for discriminating porcine, bovine and fish gelatins in various fish and confectionary products; but those assays were not self-authenticating and also not tested in highly refined pharmaceutical products. To address this knowledge gap, here we report a self-authenticating multiplex PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay to identify animal sources of various gelatin in pharmaceutical capsules. Three different restriction enzymes, BsaAI, Hpy188I and BcoDI were used to yield distinctive RFLP patterns for gelatin-based bovine (26, 94 bp), fish (97, 198 bp) and porcine (17, 70 bp) DNA in control experiments. The specificity was cross-tested against 16 non-target species and the optimised assay was used to screen gelatin sources in 30 halal-branded pharmaceuticals capsule shells. Bovine and porcine DNA was found in 27 and 3 of the 30 different capsules products. The assay was suitable for detecting 0.1 to 0.01 ng total DNA extracted from pure and mixed gelatins. The study might be useful to authenticate and monitor halal, kosher, vegetarian and Hindu compliant pharmaceuticals, foods and cosmetics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length/genetics*
  15. Rozak NI, Ahmad I, Gan SH, Abu Bakar R
    Sci Pharm, 2014 07 18;82(3):631-42.
    PMID: 25853073 DOI: 10.3797/scipharm.1406-01
    An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and a polymorphism (rs6313) in the serotonin 2A receptor gene (5-HT2A) have previously been linked to smoking behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the possible association of the 5-HTTLPR and 5-HT2A gene polymorphisms with smoking behavior within a population of Malaysian male smokers (n=248) and non-smokers (n=248). The 5-HTTLPR genotypes were determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were classified as short (S) alleles or long (L) alleles. The 5HT2A genotypes were determined using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP). No significant differences in the distribution frequencies of the alleles were found between the smokers and the non-smokers for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (x(2) = 0.72, P>0.05) or the 5HT2A polymorphism (x(2) = 0.73, P>0.05). This is the first study conducted on Malaysian Malay males regarding the association of 5-HTTLPR and 5HT2A polymorphisms and smoking behavior. However, the genes were not found to be associated with smoking behavior in our population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
  16. Wong SF, Chong AL, Mak JW, Tan J, Ling SJ, Ho TM
    Exp. Appl. Acarol., 2011 Oct;55(2):123-33.
    PMID: 21468750 DOI: 10.1007/s10493-011-9460-6
    Mites are known causes of allergic diseases. Currently, identification of mites based on morphology is difficult if only one mite is isolated from a (dust) sample, or when only one gender is found, or when the specimen is not intact especially with the loss of the legs. The purpose of this study was to use polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the ITS2 gene, to complement the morphological data for the identification of mites to the species level. For this, six species were cultured: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Aleuroglyphus ovatus and Glycycometus malaysiensis. Genomic DNA of the mites was extracted, quantified, amplified and digested individually with restriction enzymes. Hinf I and Ple I differentiated the restriction patterns of D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. Bfa I and Alu I enzymes differentiated B. tropicalis and G. malaysiensis. Ple I enzyme was useful for the differentiation between T. putrescentiae and A. ovatus. Bfa I was useful for the differentiation of G. malaysiensis from the rest of the species. In conclusion, different species of mites can be differentiated using PCR-RFLP of ITS2 region. With the established PCR-RFLP method in this study, identification of these mites to the species level is possible even if complete and intact adult specimens of both sexes are not available. As no study to date has reported PCR-RFLP method for the identification of domestic mites, the established method should be validated for the identification of other species of mites that were not included in this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
  17. Lee TY, Lai MI, Ismail P, Ramachandran V, Tan JA, Teh LK, et al.
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2016 Apr 07;15(2).
    PMID: 27173219 DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15027400
    Hemoglobin (Hb) Adana [HBA2: c179G>A (or HBA1); p.Gly60Asp] is a non-deletional α-thalassemia variant found in Malaysia. An improvement in the molecular techniques in recent years has made identification of Hb Adana much easier. For this study, a total of 26 Hb Adana α-thalassemia intermedia and 10 Hb Adana trait blood samples were collected from patients. Common deletional and non-deletional α-thalassemia genotypes were determined using multiplex gap polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multiplex ARMS PCR techniques. Identification of the Hb Adana location on the α-globin gene was carried out using genomic sequencing and the location of the mutation was confirmed via restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR. Among the 36 samples, 24 (66.7%) had the -α(3.7)/α(Cd59)α mutation, while the -α(3.7)/α(Cd59)α mutation accounted for 2 samples (5.6%) and the remaining 10 (27.8%) samples were α/α(Cd59)α. All 36 samples were found to have the Hb Adana mutation on the α2-globin gene. The position of the α-globin gene mutation found in our cases was similar to that reported in Indonesia (16%) but not to that in Turkey (0.6%). Our results showed that the Hb Adana mutation was preferentially present in the α2-globin genes in Malays compared to the other ethnicities in Malaysia. Thus, the Malays might have similar ancestry based on the similarities in the Hb Adana position.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
  18. Kreike CM, Van Eck HJ, Lebot V
    Theor. Appl. Genet., 2004 Aug;109(4):761-8.
    PMID: 15156282
    The genetic diversity of 255 taro (Colocasia esculenta) accessions from Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia,Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu was studied using AFLPs. Three AFLP primer combinations generated a total of 465 scorable amplification products. The 255 accessions were grouped according to their country of origin, to their ploidy level (diploid or triploid) and to their habitat--cultivated or wild. Gene diversity within these groups and the genetic distance between these groups were computed. Dendrograms were constructed using UPGMA cluster analysis. In each country, the gene diversity within the groups of wild genotypes was the highest compared to the diploid and triploid cultivars groups. The highest gene diversity was observed for the wild group from Thailand (0.19), the lowest for the diploid cultivars group from Thailand(0.007). In Malaysia there was hardly any difference between the gene diversity of the cultivars and wild groups, 0.07 and 0.08, respectively. The genetic distances between the diploid cultivars groups ranges from 0.02 to 0.10, with the distance between the diploid accessions from Thailand and Malaysia being the highest. The genetic distances between the wild groups range from 0.05 to 0.07. First, a dendrogram was constructed with only the diploids cultivars from all countries. The accessions formed clusters largely according to the country from which they originated. Two major groups of clusters were revealed, one group assembling accessions from Asian countries and the other assembling accessions from the Pacific. Surprisingly, the group of diploid cultivars from Thailand clustered among the Pacific countries. Secondly,a dendrogram was constructed with diploid cultivated,triploid cultivated and wild accessions. Again the division of the accessions into an Asian and a Pacific gene pool is obvious. The presence of two gene pools for cultivated diploid taro has major implications for the breeding and conservation of germplasm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
  19. Schurr TG, Wallace DC
    Hum. Biol., 2002 Jun;74(3):431-52.
    PMID: 12180765
    In a previous study of Southeast Asian genetic variation, we characterized mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from six populations through high-resolution restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Our analysis revealed that these Southeast Asian populations were genetically similar to each other, suggesting they had a common origin. However, other patterns of population associations also emerged. Haplotypes from a major founding haplogroup in Papua New Guinea were present in Malaysia; the Vietnamese and Malaysian aborigines (Orang Asli) had high frequencies of haplogroup F, which was also seen in most other Southeast Asian populations; and haplogroup B, defined by the Region V 9-base-pair deletion, was present throughout the region. In addition, the Malaysian and Sabah (Borneo) aborigine populations exhibited a number of unique mtDNA clusters that were not observed in other populations. Unfortunately, it has been difficult to compare these patterns of genetic diversity with those shown in subsequent studies of mtDNA variation in Southeast Asian populations because the latter have typically sequenced the first hypervariable segment (HVS-I) of the control region (CR) sequencing rather than used RFLP haplotyping to characterize the mtDNAs present in them. For this reason, we sequenced the HVS-I of Southeast Asian mtDNAs that had previously been subjected to RFLP analysis, and compared the resulting data with published information from other Southeast Asian and Oceanic groups. Our findings reveal broad patterns of mtDNA haplogroup distribution in Southeast Asia that may reflect different population expansion events in this region over the past 50,000-5,000 years.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
  20. Adhikari TB, Cruz C, Zhang Q, Nelson RJ, Skinner DZ, Mew TW, et al.
    Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1995 Mar;61(3):966-71.
    PMID: 16534980
    Restriction fragment length polymorphism and virulence analyses were used to evaluate the population structure of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the rice bacterial blight pathogen, from several rice-growing countries in Asia. Two DNA sequences from X. oryzae pv. oryzae, IS1112, an insertion sequence, and avrXa10, a member of a family of avirulence genes, were used as probes to analyze the genomes of 308 strains of X. oryzae pv. oryzae collected from China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, and the Philippines. On the basis of the consensus of three clustering statistics, the collection formed five clusters. Genetic distances within the five clusters ranged from 0.16 to 0.51, and distances between clusters ranged from 0.48 to 0.64. Three of the five clusters consisted of strains from a single country. Strains within two clusters, however, were found in more than one country, suggesting patterns of movement of the pathogen. The pathotype of X. oryzae pv. oryzae was determined for 226 strains by inoculating five rice differential cultivars. More than one pathotype was associated with each cluster; however, some pathotypes were associated with only one cluster. Most strains from South Asia (Nepal and India) were virulent to cultivars containing the bacterial blight resistance gene xa-5, while most strains from other countries were avirulent to xa-5. The regional differentiation of clusters of X. oryzae pv. oryzae in Asia and the association of some pathotypes of X. oryzae pv. oryzae with single clusters suggested that strategies that target regional resistance breeding and gene deployment are feasible.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
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