Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 42 in total

  1. Mohamed Saat A, Johan MR
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:439839.
    PMID: 25506069 DOI: 10.1155/2014/439839
    Partially phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol (PPVA) with aluminum phosphate (ALPO4) composites was synthesized by solution casting technique to produce (PPVA)(100-y) - (ALPO4)(y) (y = 0, 1, and 2). The surface structure and thermal properties of the films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the films have higher thermal stability with strong bonding between PPVA and ALPO4.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry*
  2. Sin LT, Bee ST, Tee TT, Kadhum AA, Ma C, Rahmat AR, et al.
    Carbohydr Polym, 2013 Nov 6;98(2):1281-7.
    PMID: 24053804 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.07.069
    In this study, the interactions of α-tocopherol (α-TOH) in PVOH-starch blends were investigated. α-TOH is an interacting agent possesses a unique molecule of polar chroman "head" and non-polar phytyl "tail" which can improve surface interaction of PVOH and starch. It showed favorable results when blending PVOH-starch with α-TOH, where the highest tensile strengths were achieved at 60 wt.% PVOH-starch blend for 1 phr α-TOH and 50 wt.% for 3 phr α-TOH, respectively. This due to the formation of miscible PVOH-starch as resulted by the compatibilizing effect of α-TOH. Moreover, the enthalpy of melting (ΔHm) of 60 wt.% PVOH-starch and 50 wt.% PVOH-starch added with 1 and 3 phr α-TOH respectively were higher than ΔHm of the neat PVOH-starch blends. The thermogravimetry analysis also showed that α-TOH can be used as thermal stabilizer to reduce weight losses at elevated temperature. The surface morphologies of the compatible blends formed large portion of continuous phase where the starch granules interacted well with α-TOH by acting as compatilizer to reduce surface energy of starch for embedment into PVOH matrix.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry*
  3. Saion E, Gharibshahi E, Naghavi K
    Int J Mol Sci, 2013;14(4):7880-96.
    PMID: 23579953 DOI: 10.3390/ijms14047880
    Size-controlled and monodispersed silver nanoparticles were synthesized from an aqueous solution containing silver nitrate as a metal precursor, polyvinyl alcohol as a capping agent, isopropyl alcohol as hydrogen and hydroxyl radical scavengers, and deionized water as a solvent with a simple radiolytic method. The average particle size decreased with an increase in dose due to the domination of nucleation over ion association in the formation of the nanoparticles by gamma reduction. The silver nanoparticles exhibit a very sharp and strong absorption spectrum with the absorption maximum λmax blue shifting with an increased dose, owing to a decrease in particle size. The absorption spectra of silver nanoparticles of various particle sizes were also calculated using a quantum physics treatment and an agreement was obtained with the experimental absorption data. The results suggest that the absorption spectrum of silver nanoparticles possibly derived from the intra-band excitations of conduction electrons from the lowest energy state (n = 5, l = 0) to higher energy states (n ≥ 6; Δl = 0, ±1; Δs = 0, ±1), allowed by the quantum numbers principle. This demonstrates that the absorption phenomenon of metal nanoparticles based on a quantum physics description could be exploited to be added into the fundamentals of metal nanoparticles and the related fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry
  4. Kadir MF, Aspanut Z, Majid SR, Arof AK
    PMID: 21237698 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2010.12.051
    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and chitosan polymer blend doped with ammonium nitrate (NH(4)NO(3)) salt and plasticized with ethylene carbonate (EC) have been performed with emphasis on the shift of the carboxamide, amine and hydroxyl bands. 1% acetic acid solution was used as the solvent. It is observed from the chitosan film spectrum that evidence of polymer-solvent interaction can be observed from the shifting of the carboxamide band at 1660 cm(-1) and the amine band at 1591 cm(-1) to 1650 and 1557 cm(-1) respectively and the shift of the hydroxyl band from 3377 to 3354 cm(-1). The hydroxyl band in the spectrum of PVA powder is observed at 3354 cm(-1) and is observed at 3343 cm(-1) in the spectrum of the PVA film. On addition of NH(4)NO(3) up to 30 wt.%, the carboxamide, amine and hydroxyl bands shifted from 1650, 1557 and 3354 cm(-1) to 1642, 1541 and 3348 cm(-1) indicating that the chitosan has complexed with the salt. In the PVA-NH(4)NO(3) spectrum, the hydroxyl band has shifted from 3343 to 3272 cm(-1) on addition of salt from 10 to 30 wt.%. EC acts as a plasticizing agent since there is no shift in the bands as observed in the spectrum of PVA-chitosan-EC films. The mechanism of ion migration is proposed for the plasticized and unplasticized PVA-chitosan-NH(4)NO(3) systems. In the spectrum of PVA-chitosan-NH(4)NO(3)-EC complex, the doublet CO stretching in EC is observed in the vicinity 1800 and 1700. This indicates that there is some interaction between the salt and EC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry*
  5. Wan Ngah WS, Kamari A, Koay YJ
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2004 Jun;34(3):155-61.
    PMID: 15225987
    The adsorption of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution by chitosan and chitosan/PVA beads was studied in a batch adsorption system. Chitosan solution was blended with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in order to obtain sorbents that are insoluble in aqueous acidic and basic solution. The adsorption capacities and rates of Cu(II) ions onto chitosan and chitosan/PVA beads were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and BET adsorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and isotherm constants. Adsorption isothermal data could be well interpreted by the Langmuir model. The kinetic experimental data properly correlated with the second-order kinetic model, which indicates that the chemical sorption is the rate-limiting step. The Cu(II) ions can be removed from the chitosan and chitosan/PVA beads rapidly by treatment with an aqueous EDTA solution. Results also showed that chitosan and chitosan/PVA beads are favourable adsorbers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry*
  6. Hapipi NM, Mazlan SA, Ubaidillah U, Abdul Aziz SA, Ahmad Khairi MH, Nordin NA, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Mar 05;21(5).
    PMID: 32151055 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21051793
    Chemically crosslinked hydrogel magnetorheological (MR) plastomer (MRP) embedded with carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) exhibits excellent magnetic performance (MR effect) in the presence of external stimuli especially magnetic field. However, oxidation and desiccation in hydrogel MRP due to a large amount of water content as a dispersing phase would limit its usage for long-term applications, especially in industrial engineering. In this study, different solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are also used to prepare polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel MRP. Thus, to understand the dynamic viscoelastic properties of hydrogel MRP, three different samples with different solvents: water, DMSO, and their binary mixtures (DMSO/water) were prepared and systematically carried out using the oscillatory shear. The outcomes demonstrate that the PVA hydrogel MRP prepared from precursor gel with water shows the highest MR effect of 15,544% among the PVA hydrogel MRPs. However, the samples exhibit less stability and tend to oxidise after a month. Meanwhile, the samples with binary mixtures (DMSO/water) show an acceptable MR effect of 11,024% with good stability and no CIPs oxidation. Otherwise, the sample with DMSO has the lowest MR effect of 7049% and less stable compared to the binary solvent samples. This confirms that the utilisation of DMSO as a new solvent affects the rheological properties and stability of the samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry*
  7. Habiba U, Siddique TA, Talebian S, Lee JJL, Salleh A, Ang BC, et al.
    Carbohydr Polym, 2017 Dec 01;177:32-39.
    PMID: 28962774 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.08.115
    In this study, effect of degree of deacetylation on property and adsorption capacity of chitosan/polyvinyl Alcohol electrospun membrane has been investigated. Resulting nanofibers were characterized by FESEM, FTIR, XRD, TGA, tensile testing, weight loss test and adsorption test. FESEM result shows, finer nanofiber was fabricated from 42h hydrolyzed chitosan and PVA blend solution. FTIR and XRD result showed a strong interaction between chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol. Higher tensile strength was observed for the nanofiber having 42h hydrolyzed chitosan. Blend solution of chitosan/PVA having low DD chitosan had higher viscosity. The nanofibrous membrane was stable in distilled water, acidic and basic medium. The isotherm study shows that the adsorption capacity (qm) of nanofiber containing higher DD chitosan was higher for Cr(VI). In contrary, the membrane containing chitosan with lower DD showed the higher adsorption capacity for Fe(III) and methyl orange. Moreover, the effect of DD on removal percentage of adsorbate was dependent on the initial concentration of the adsorbate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry*
  8. Habiba U, Islam MS, Siddique TA, Afifi AM, Ang BC
    Carbohydr Polym, 2016 09 20;149:317-31.
    PMID: 27261756 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.04.127
    Chitosan/PVA/Na-titanate/TiO2 composite was synthesized by solution casting method. The composite was analyzed via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Thermal gravimetric analysis and water stability test. Incorporation of Na-titanate shown decrease of crystallinity for chitosan but increase water stability. However, the composite structure was deteriorated with considerable weight loss in acidic medium. Two anionic dyes, methyl orange and congo red were used for the adsorption test. The adsorption behavior of the composites were described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Lagergren-first-order model for methyl orange and congo red, respectively. For methyl orange, adsorption was started with a promising decolorization rate. 99.9% of methyl orange dye was removed by the composite having higher weightage of chitosan and crystalline TiO2 phase. On the other hand, for the congo red the composite having higher chitosan and Na-titanate showed an efficient removal capacity of 95.76%. UV-vis results showed that the molecular backbone of methyl orange and congo red was almost destroyed when equilibrium was obtained, and the decolorization rate was reaching 100%. Kinetic study results showed that the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange and congo red could be explained by Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Thus, chitosan/PVA/Na-titanate/TiO2 possesses efficient adsorptivity and photocatalytic property for dye degradation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry*
  9. Ahmadipourroudposht M, Fallahiarezoudar E, Yusof NM, Idris A
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 May;50:234-41.
    PMID: 25746266 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.02.008
    Magnetic nanofibers are composed of good dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles along an organic material. Magnetic nanofibers are potentially useful for composite reinforcement, bio-medical and tissue engineering. Nanofibers with the thinner diameter have to result in higher rigidity and tensile strength due to better alignments of lamellae along the fiber axis. In this study, the performance of electrospinning process was explained using response surface methodology (RSM) during fabrication of magnetic nanofibers using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a shelter for (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles where the parameters investigated were flow rate, applied voltage, distance between needle and collector and collector rotating speed. The response variable was diameter distribution. The two parameters flow rate and applied voltage in primary evaluation were distinguished as significant factors. Central composite design was applied to optimize the variable of diameter distribution. Quadratic estimated model developed for diameter distribution indicated the optimum conditions to be flow rate of 0.25 ml/h at voltage of 45 kV while the distance and rotating speed are at 8 cm and 1500 rps respectively. The obtained model was verified successfully by the confirmation experiments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry*
  10. Azizi S, Ahmad MB, Ibrahim NA, Hussein MZ, Namvar F
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(6):11040-53.
    PMID: 24945313 DOI: 10.3390/ijms150611040
    In this study, cellulose nanocrystals/zinc oxide (CNCs/ZnO) nanocomposites were dispersed as bifunctional nano-sized fillers into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chitosan (Cs) blend by a solvent casting method to prepare PVA/Cs/CNCs/ZnO bio-nanocomposites films. The morphology, thermal, mechanical and UV-vis absorption properties, as well antimicrobial effects of the bio-nanocomposite films were investigated. It demonstrated that CNCs/ZnO were compatible with PVA/Cs and dispersed homogeneously in the polymer blend matrix. CNCs/ZnO improved tensile strength and modulus of PVA/Cs significantly. Tensile strength and modulus of bio-nanocomposite films increased from 55.0 to 153.2 MPa and from 395 to 932 MPa, respectively with increasing nano-sized filler amount from 0 to 5.0 wt %. The thermal stability of PVA/Cs was also enhanced at 1.0 wt % CNCs/ZnO loading. UV light can be efficiently absorbed by incorporating ZnO nanoparticles into a PVA/Cs matrix, signifying that these bio-nanocomposite films show good UV-shielding effects. Moreover, the biocomposites films showed antibacterial activity toward the bacterial species Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The improved physical properties obtained by incorporating CNCs/ZnO can be useful in variety uses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry*
  11. Lee SY, Pereira BP, Yusof N, Selvaratnam L, Yu Z, Abbas AA, et al.
    Acta Biomater, 2009 Jul;5(6):1919-25.
    PMID: 19289306 DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2009.02.014
    A poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel composite scaffold containing N,O-carboxymethylated chitosan (NOCC) was tested to assess its potential as a scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering in a weight-bearing environment. The mechanical properties under unconfined compression for different hydration periods were investigated. The effect of supplementing PVA with NOCC (20wt.% PVA:5vol.% NOCC) produced a porosity of 43.3% and this was compared against a non-porous PVA hydrogel (20g PVA: 100ml of water, control). Under non-hydrated conditions, the porous PVA-NOCC hydrogel behaved in a similar way to the control non-porous PVA hydrogel, with similar non-linear stress-strain response under unconfined compression (0-30% strain). After 7days' hydration, the porous hydrogel demonstrated a reduced stiffness (0.002kPa, at 25% strain), resulting in a more linear stiffness relationship over a range of 0-30% strain. Poisson's ratio for the hydrated non-porous and porous hydrogels ranged between 0.73 and 1.18, and 0.76 and 1.33, respectively, suggesting a greater fluid flow when loaded. The stress relaxation function for the porous hydrogel was affected by the hydration period (from 0 to 600s); however the percentage stress relaxation regained by about 95%, after 1200s for all hydration periods assessed. No significant differences were found between the different hydration periods between the porous hydrogels and control. The calculated aggregate modulus, H(A), for the porous hydrogel reduced drastically from 10.99kPa in its non-hydrated state to about 0.001kPa after 7days' hydration, with the calculated shear modulus reducing from 30.92 to 0.14kPa, respectively. The porous PVA-NOCC hydrogel conformed to a biphasic, viscoelastic model, which has the desired properties required for any scaffold in cartilage tissue engineering.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry*
  12. Ngadiman NH, Mohd Yusof N, Idris A, Kurniawan D
    Proc Inst Mech Eng H, 2016 Aug;230(8):739-49.
    PMID: 27194535 DOI: 10.1177/0954411916649632
    Electrospinning is a simple and efficient process in producing nanofibers. To fabricate nanofibers made of a blend of two constituent materials, co-axial electrospinning method is an option. In this method, the constituent materials contained in separate barrels are simultaneously injected using two syringe nozzles arranged co-axially and the materials mix during the spraying process forming core and shell of the nanofibers. In this study, co-axial electrospinning method is used to fabricate nanofibers made of polyvinyl alcohol and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3). The concentration of polyvinyl alcohol and amount of maghemite nanoparticle loading were varied, at 5 and 10 w/v% and at 1-10 v/v%, respectively. The mechanical properties (strength and Young's modulus), porosity, and biocompatibility properties (contact angle and cell viability) of the electrospun mats were evaluated, with the same mats fabricated by regular single-nozzle electrospinning method as the control. The co-axial electrospinning method is able to fabricate the expected polyvinyl alcohol/maghemite nanofiber mats. It was noticed that the polyvinyl alcohol/maghemite electrospun mats have lower mechanical properties (i.e. strength and stiffness) and porosity, more hydrophilicity (i.e. lower contact angle), and similar cell viability compared to the mats fabricated by single-nozzle electrospinning method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry*
  13. Brza MA, Aziz SB, Anuar H, Al Hazza MHF
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Aug 11;20(16).
    PMID: 31405255 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20163910
    The present work proposed a novel approach for transferring high-risk heavy metals tometal complexes via green chemistry remediation. The method of remediation of heavy metals developed in the present work is a great challenge for global environmental sciences and engineering because it is a totally environmentally friendly procedure in which black tea extract solution is used. The FTIR study indicates that black tea contains enough functional groups (OH and NH), polyphenols and conjugated double bonds. The synthesis of copper complex was confirmed by the UV-vis, XRD and FTIR spectroscopic studies. The XRD and FTIR analysis reveals the formation of complexation between Cu metal complexes and Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) (PVA) host matrix. The study of optical parameters indicates that PVA-based hybrids exhibit a small optical band gap, which is close to inorganic-based materials. It was noted that the absorption edge shifted to lower photon energy. When Cu metal complexes were added to PVA polymer, the refractive index was significantly tuned. The band gap shifts from 6.2 eV to 1.4 eV for PVA incorporated with 45 mL of Cu metal complexes. The nature of the electronic transition in hybrid materials was examined based on the Taucs model, while a close inspection of the optical dielectric loss was also performed in order to estimate the optical band gap. The obtained band gaps of the present work reveal that polymer hybrids with sufficient film-forming capability could be useful to overcome the drawbacks associated with conjugated polymers. Based on the XRD results and band gap values, the structure-property relationships were discussed in detail.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry*
  14. Aziz SB, Brza MA, Hamsan EMADMH, Hadi JM, Kadir MFZ, Abdulwahid RT
    Molecules, 2020 Oct 01;25(19).
    PMID: 33019618 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25194503
    Plasticized magnesium ion conducting polymer blend electrolytes based on chitosan (CS): polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was synthesized with a casting technique. The source of ions is magnesium triflate Mg(CF3SO3)2, and glycerol was used as a plasticizer. The electrical and electrochemical characteristics were examined. The outcome from X-ray diffraction (XRD) examination illustrates that the electrolyte with highest conductivity exhibits the minimum degree of crystallinity. The study of the dielectric relaxation has shown that the peak appearance obeys the non-Debye type of relaxation process. An enhancement in conductivity of ions of the electrolyte system was achieved by insertion of glycerol. The total conductivity is essentially ascribed to ions instead of electrons. The maximum DC ionic conductivity was measured to be 1.016 × 10-5 S cm-1 when 42 wt.% of plasticizer was added. Potential stability of the highest conducting electrolyte was found to be 2.4 V. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) response shows the behavior of the capacitor is non-Faradaic where no redox peaks appear. The shape of the CV response and EDLC specific capacitance are influenced by the scan rate. The specific capacitance values were 7.41 F/g and 32.69 F/g at 100 mV/s and 10 mV/s, respectively. Finally, the electrolyte with maximum conductivity value is obtained and used as electrodes separator in the electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) applications. The role of lattice energy of magnesium salts in energy storage performance is discussed in detail.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry*
  15. Nadeem M, Ahmad M, Akhtar MS, Shaari A, Riaz S, Naseem S, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(6):e0158084.
    PMID: 27348436 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0158084
    The current study emphasizes the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and impact of hydrophilic polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coating concentration as well as anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) loading on saturation magnetization for target drug delivery applications. Iron oxide nanoparticles particles were synthesized by a reformed version of the co-precipitation method. The coating of polyvinyl alcohol along with doxorubicin loading was carried out by the physical immobilization method. X-ray diffraction confirmed the magnetite (Fe3O4) structure of particles that remained unchanged before and after polyvinyl alcohol coating and drug loading. Microstructure and morphological analysis was carried out by transmission electron microscopy revealing the formation of nanoparticles with an average size of 10 nm with slight variation after coating and drug loading. Transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive, and Fourier transform infrared spectra further confirmed the conjugation of polymer and doxorubicin with iron oxide nanoparticles. The room temperature superparamagnetic behavior of polymer-coated and drug-loaded magnetite nanoparticles were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization after coating evaluated that a sufficient amount of polyvinyl alcohol would be 3 wt. % regarding the externally controlled movement of IONPs in blood under the influence of applied magnetic field for in-vivo target drug delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry
  16. Wahid MNA, Abd Razak SI, Abdul Kadir MR, Hassan R, Nayan NHM, Mat Amin KA
    J Biomater Appl, 2018 07;33(1):94-102.
    PMID: 29716417 DOI: 10.1177/0885328218771195
    This work reports the modification of freeze/thaw poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel using citric acid as the bioactive molecule for hydroxyapatite formation in simulated body fluid. Inclusion of 1.3 mM citric acid into the poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel showed that the mechanical strength, crystalline phase, functional groups and swelling ability were still intact. Adding citric acid at higher concentrations (1.8 and 2.3 mM), however, resulted in physically poor hydrogels. Presence of 1.3 mM of citric acid showed the growth of porous hydroxyapatite crystals on the poly(vinyl alcohol) surface just after one day of immersion in simulated body fluid. Meanwhile, a fully covered apatite layer on the poly(vinyl alcohol) surface plus the evidence of apatite forming within the hydrogel were observed after soaking for seven days. Gel strength of the soaked poly(vinyl alcohol)/citric acid-1.3 mM hydrogel revealed that the load resistance was enhanced compared to that of the neat poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel. This facile method of inducing rapid growth of hydroxyapatite on the hydrogel surface as well as within the hydrogel network can be useful for guided bone regenerative materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry*
  17. Habiba U, Lee JJL, Joo TC, Ang BC, Afifi AM
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2019 Jun 15;131:821-827.
    PMID: 30904531 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.03.132
    In this study, chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol/TiO2 nanofiber was fabricated via electrospinning at a pump rate of 1.5 mL/h and voltage 6 kV. Field-emission scanning electron microscopic images showed bead free finer nanofiber. Fourier transform infrared spectra proved the formation of strong bond among chitosan, polyvinyl alcohol and TiO2. X-ray powder diffraction showed that TiO2 became amorphous in the composite nanofiber. Toughness and thermal stability of the chitosan/PVA nanofibrous membrane was increased with addition TiO2. The chitosan/PVA/TiO2 nanofibrous membrane was stable at basic medium. But degraded in acidic and water medium after 93 and 162 h, respectively. The adsorption mechanism of congo red obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model. On the other hand, adsorption characteristic of methyl orange fitted well with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity of the resulting membrane for congo red and methyl orange is 131 and 314 mg/g, respectively. However, a high dose of adsorbent was required for congo red.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry*
  18. Nair RS, Nair S
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2015;12(5):517-23.
    PMID: 25675336
    Mortality rate due to heart diseases increases dramatically with age. Captopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE) used effectively for the management of hypertension. Due to short elimination half-life of captopril the oral dose is very high. Captopril is prone to oxidation and it has been reported that the oxidation rate of captopril in skin tissues is considerably low when compared to intestinal tissues. All these factors make captopril an ideal drug candidate for transdermal delivery. In this research work an effort was made to formulate transdermal films of captopril by utilizing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as film formers and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) as a plasticizer. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethylformamide (DMF) were used as permeation enhancers. Physicochemical parameters of the films such as appearance, thickness, weight variation and drug content were evaluated. The invitro permeation studies were carried out through excised human cadaver skin using Franz diffusion cells. The in-vitro permeation studies demonstrated that the film (P4) having the polymer ratio (PVP:PVA = 80:20) with DMSO (10%) resulted a promising drug release of 79.58% at 24 hours with a flux of 70.0 µg/cm(2)/hr. No signs of erythema or oedema were observed on the rabbit skin as a result of skin irritation study by Draize test. Based on the stability report it was confirmed that the films were physically and chemically stable, hence the prepared films are very well suited for transdermal application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry
  19. Kupaei RH, Alengaram UJ, Jumaat MZ
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:898536.
    PMID: 25531006 DOI: 10.1155/2014/898536
    This paper presents the experimental results of an on-going research project on geopolymer lightweight concrete using two locally available waste materials--low calcium fly ash (FA) and oil palm shell (OPS)--as the binder and lightweight coarse aggregate, respectively. OPS was pretreated with three different alkaline solutions of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide, and sodium silicate as well as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for 30 days; afterwards, oil palm shell geopolymer lightweight concrete (OPSGPC) was cast by using both pretreated and untreated OPSs. The effect of these solutions on the water absorption of OPS, and the development of compressive strength in different curing conditions of OPSGPC produced by pretreated OPS were investigated; subsequently the influence of NaOH concentration, alkaline solution to FA ratio (A/FA), and different curing regimes on the compressive strength and density of OPSGPC produced by untreated OPS was inspected. The 24-hour water absorption value for OPS pretreated with 20% and 50% PVA solution was about 4% compared to 23% for untreated OPS. OPSGPC produced from OPS treated with 50% PVA solution produced the highest compressive strength of about 30 MPa in ambient cured condition. The pretreatment with alkaline solution did not have a significant positive effect on the water absorption of OPS aggregate and the compressive strength of OPSGPC. The result revealed that a maximum compressive strength of 32 MPa could be obtained at a temperature of 65°C and curing period of 4 days. This investigation also found that an A/FA ratio of 0.45 has the optimum amount of alkaline liquid and it resulted in the highest level of compressive strength.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry
  20. Idris A, Misran E, Hassan N, Abd Jalil A, Seng CE
    J Hazard Mater, 2012 Aug 15;227-228:309-16.
    PMID: 22682796 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.05.065
    In this study magnetic separable photocatalyst beads containing maghemite nanoparticles (γ-Fe(2)O(3)) in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer were prepared and used in the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in an aqueous solution under sunlight. The unique superparamagnetic property of the photocatalyst contributed by the γ-Fe(2)O(3) and robust property of PVA polymer allow the magnetic beads to be recovered easily and reused for at least 7 times without washing. The concentration of γ-Fe(2)O(3) was varied from 8% (v/v) to 27% (v/v) and the results revealed that the beads with 8% (v/v) γ-Fe(2)O(3) exhibited the best performance where Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) in only 30 min under sunlight. The use of the PVA has improved the bead properties and life cycle of beads which is in line with sustainable practices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry*
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