PURPOSE: We aimed to show that type 3 Sugaya is not a retear by comparing the long-term supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle degeneration and the functional outcomes of type 3 with those of type 4 and 5 Sugaya. We hypothesized that the clinical course of type 3 Sugaya would be different from type 4 or 5 Sugaya.
METHOD: The study was a retrospective multicenter review of all the rotator cuff repair done in 2003-2004. We included all the patients who had undergone supraspinatus repair with 10-year follow-up (magnetic resonance imaging done with full functional assessment). Data collection included pre- and postoperative supraspinatus and infraspinatus fatty infiltration, supraspinatus muscle atrophy, and Constant score with a separate analysis of its Strength subsection. Supraspinatus tendon integrity at 10-year follow-up was determined according to Sugaya classification. The patients were divided into 2 groups: type 3 Sugaya and type 4 and 5 Sugaya. Statistical comparison was done between the groups.
RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the preoperative fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus, supraspinatus muscle atrophy, and Constant score between the 2 groups. However, type 3 Sugaya patients had significantly better scores in the preoperative Strength subsection. Postoperatively, type 3 Sugaya patients showed significantly lesser fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus, lesser supraspinatus muscle atrophy, and higher Constant score compared with type 4 and 5 Sugaya (P < .001).
CONCLUSION: Patients with type 3 Sugaya supraspinatus tendon exhibited lesser muscle degeneration in the supraspinatus and infraspinatus and performed better in functional assessment compared with type 4 and 5 Sugaya patients. We inferred that type 3 Sugaya should not be considered as a retear.
DISCUSSION: As surgery and radiotherapy alter the appearance of the breasts, distinguishing between recurrence and benign post-surgical changes can be challenging radiologically due to overlapping features. Despite this, differentiation between these two entities is usually possible by recognizing characteristic features of post-treatment sequelae and the evolution of the appearance of the conservatively treated breast by comparing interval findings on serial studies.
CONCLUSION: This pictorial review aims to describe the typical and unusual features of post-treated breasts in the multimodality imaging workup of an established breast care centre in a teaching hospital in Malaysia.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence and the patterns of medial and lateral shoulder discordance among Lenke 1 and 2 patients.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Postoperative shoulder imbalance (PSI) is still common in Lenke 1 and 2 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). This could be due to presence of medial dan lateral shoulder discordance.
METHODS: One hundred fifty-one Lenke 1 and 2 AIS patients were recruited. Lenke 1 curves were subclassified into Lenke 1-ve (flexible) (proximal thoracic side bending [PTSB] Cobb angle <15°) and 1+ve curves (stiff) (PTSB Cobb angle between 15° and 24.9°). T1 tilt represented "medial shoulder balance" and radiological shoulder height (RSH) represented "lateral shoulder balance." We categorized patients into three concordant shoulder pattern types (medial balanced/lateral balanced [MBLB], medial imbalanced+ve/lateral imbalanced+ve (MI+ve/LI+ve), medial imbalanced-ve/lateral Imbalanced-ve (MI-ve/LI-ve), and six discordant shoulder pattern types.
RESULTS: The mean age was 16.2 ± 5.7 years. Eighty-one patients (53.6%) had concordant pattern and 70 patients (46.4%) had discordant pattern. Lateral shoulder imbalance was noted in 35.1% of patients and medial shoulder imbalance in 43.7% of patients. In Lenke 1-ve curves, 35 patients (68.6%) had concordant shoulder imbalance with medial imbalanced-ve/lateral imbalanced-ve (MI-ve/LI-ve) being the commonest pattern (68.6%). In Lenke 1+ve curves, 33 patients (55.0%) had concordant shoulder pattern with medial balanced/lateral balanced (MB/LB) being the commonest type (57.6%). In Lenke 2 AIS, 27 patients (67.5%) had discordant pattern with medial imbalanced+ve/lateral balanced (MI+ve/LB) being the commonest pattern (44.4%) (P value = 0.002).
CONCLUSION: 46.4% Lenke 1 and 2 AIS patients had shoulder discordant pattern. This was more prevalent in Lenke 2 curves (67.5%). In Lenke 1-ve (flexible) curves, MI-ve/LI-ve pattern was the commonest pattern. In Lenke 1+ve curves (stiff), there were almost equal number of concordant and discordant shoulder pattern. In Lenke 2 patients, the most common pattern was MI+ve/LB.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.
DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL were systematically searched from its inception until May 2019.
REVIEW METHODS: All observational studies were included.
RESULTS: Twenty-two studies (n = 3,033,814; 184,968 OSA vs 2,848,846 non-OSA) were included for quantitative meta-analysis. In non-cardiac surgery, OSA was significantly associated with a higher incidence of the composite endpoints of postoperative cardiac or cerebrovascular complications (odd ratio: 1.44, 95%CI: 1.17 to 1.78, ρ = 0.007, trial sequential analysis = conclusive; certainty of evidence = very low). In comparison to non-OSA, OSA patients were reported to have nearly 2.5-fold risk of developing pulmonary complications (odd ratio: 2.52, 95%CI: 1.92 to 3.31, ρ