METHODS: Electronic searches were conducted in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (complete), PubMed and Scopus. Eligible studies to be included in this review were cohort studies with participants confirmed by laboratory test for dengue infection and comparison among the different severity of dengue infection by using statistical models. The methodological quality of the paper was assessed by independent reviewers using QUADAS-2.
RESULTS: Twenty-six studies published from 1994 to 2017 were included. Most diagnostic models produced an accuracy of 75% to 80% except one with 86%. Two models predicting severe dengue according to the WHO 2009 classification have 86% accuracy. Both of these logistic regression models were applied during the first three days of illness, and their sensitivity and specificity were 91-100% and 79.3-86%, respectively. Another model which evaluated the 30-day mortality of dengue infection had an accuracy of 98.5%.
CONCLUSION: Although there are several potential predictive or diagnostic models for dengue infection, their limitations could affect their validity. It is recommended that these models be revalidated in other clinical settings and their methods be improved and standardised in future.
METHOD: Eight pseudoternary phase triangles, containing ethyl oleate as the oil component and a mixture of two nonionic surfactants and n-alcohol or 1,2-alkanediol as a cosurfactant, were constructed and used for training, testing, and validation purposes. A total of 21 molecular descriptors were calculated for each cosurfactant. A genetic algorithm was used to select important molecular descriptors, and a supervised artificial neural network with two hidden layers was used to correlate selected descriptors and the weight ratio of components in the system with the observed phase behavior.
RESULTS: The results proved the dominant role of the chemical composition, hydrophile-lipophile balance, length of hydrocarbon chain, molecular volume, and hydrocarbon volume of cosurfactant. The best GNN model, with 14 inputs and two hidden layers with 14 and 9 neurons, predicted the phase behavior for a new set of cosurfactants with 82.2% accuracy for ME, 87.5% for LC, 83.3% for the O/W EM, and 91.5% for the W/O EM region.
CONCLUSIONS: This type of methodology can be applied in the evaluation of the cosurfactants for pharmaceutical formulations to minimize experimental effort.
METHOD: This retrospective study included patients with major trauma injuries reported to a trauma centre of Hospital Sultanah Aminah over a 6-year period from 2011 and 2017. Model validation was examined using the measures of discrimination and calibration. Discrimination was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The Hosmer-Lemeshow (H-L) goodness-of-fit test was used to examine calibration capabilities. The predictive validity of both MTOS-TRISS and NTrD-TRISS models were further evaluated by incorporating parameters such as the New Injury Severity Scale and the Injury Severity Score.
RESULTS: Total patients of 3788 (3434 blunt and 354 penetrating injuries) with average age of 37 years (standard deviation of 16 years) were included in this study. All MTOS-TRISS and NTrD-TRISS models examined in this study showed adequate discriminative ability with AUCs ranged from 0.86 to 0.89 for patients with blunt trauma mechanism and 0.89 to 0.99 for patients with penetrating trauma mechanism. The H-L goodness-of-fit test indicated the NTrD-TRISS model calibrated as good as the MTOS-TRISS model for patients with blunt trauma mechanism.
CONCLUSION: For patients with blunt trauma mechanism, both the MTOS-TRISS and NTrD-TRISS models showed good discrimination and calibration performances. Discrimination performance for the NTrD-TRISS model was revealed to be as good as the MTOS-TRISS model specifically for patients with penetrating trauma mechanism. Overall, this validation study has ascertained the discrimination and calibration performances of the NTrD-TRISS model to be as good as the MTOS-TRISS model particularly for patients with blunt trauma mechanism.
METHODS: A total of 2,461 secondary school students aged 12-17 years from 19 schools in Sarawak participated in the study. Questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic data, parental history of hypertension, and self-reported physical activity. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 23.0.
RESULTS: The prevalence of adolescents with elevated blood pressure, overweight, central obesity, and overfat were 30.1%, 24.3%, 13.5%, and 6.7%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated the predictors significantly associated with elevated blood pressure among respondents: overweight (adjusted odds ratio=3.144), being male (adjusted odds ratio=3.073), being Chinese (adjusted odds ratio=2.321) or Iban (adjusted odds ratio=1.578), central obesity (adjusted odds ratio=2.145), being overfat (adjusted odds ratio=1.885), and being an older adolescent (adjusted odds ratio=1.109). Parental history of hypertension, locality, and physical activity showed no significant associations.
CONCLUSION: The obesity epidemic must be tackled at community and school levels by health education and regulation of school canteen foods.