METHODS: We searched the Tufts Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry and PubMed for cost-per-QALY or cost-per-life-year-saved studies of CMR to detect significant CAD. We also developed a linear regression meta-model (CMR Cost-Effectiveness Calculator) based on a larger CMR cost-effectiveness simulation model that can approximate CMR lifetime discount cost, QALY, and cost effectiveness compared to relevant comparators [such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)] or invasive coronary angiography.
RESULTS: CMR was cost-effective for evaluation of significant CAD (either health-improving and cost saving or having a cost-per-QALY or cost-per-life-year result lower than the cost-effectiveness threshold) versus its relevant comparator in 10 out of 15 studies, with 3 studies reporting uncertain cost effectiveness, and 2 studies showing CCTA was optimal. Our cost-effectiveness calculator showed that CCTA was not cost-effective in the US compared to CMR when the most recent publications on imaging performance were included in the model.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on current world-wide evidence in the literature, CMR usually represents a cost-effective option compared to relevant comparators to assess for significant CAD.
METHODS: Electronic searches were conducted in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (complete), PubMed and Scopus. Eligible studies to be included in this review were cohort studies with participants confirmed by laboratory test for dengue infection and comparison among the different severity of dengue infection by using statistical models. The methodological quality of the paper was assessed by independent reviewers using QUADAS-2.
RESULTS: Twenty-six studies published from 1994 to 2017 were included. Most diagnostic models produced an accuracy of 75% to 80% except one with 86%. Two models predicting severe dengue according to the WHO 2009 classification have 86% accuracy. Both of these logistic regression models were applied during the first three days of illness, and their sensitivity and specificity were 91-100% and 79.3-86%, respectively. Another model which evaluated the 30-day mortality of dengue infection had an accuracy of 98.5%.
CONCLUSION: Although there are several potential predictive or diagnostic models for dengue infection, their limitations could affect their validity. It is recommended that these models be revalidated in other clinical settings and their methods be improved and standardised in future.
METHODS: Prospectively collected data of ACLF patients from APASL-ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) was analyzed for 30-day outcomes. The models evaluated at days 0, 4, and 7 of presentation for 30-day mortality were: AARC (model and score), CLIF-C (ACLF score, and OF score), NACSELD-ACLF (model and binary), SOFA, APACHE-II, MELD, MELD-Lactate, and CTP. Evaluation parameters were discrimination (c-indices), calibration [accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV)], Akaike/Bayesian Information Criteria (AIC/BIC), Nagelkerke-R2, relative prediction errors, and odds ratios.
RESULTS: Thirty-day survival of the cohort (n = 2864) was 64.9% and was lowest for final-AARC-grade-III (32.8%) ACLF. Performance parameters of all models were best at day 7 than at day 4 or day 0 (p 12 had the lowest 30-day survival (5.7%).
CONCLUSIONS: APASL-ACLF is often a progressive disease, and models assessed up to day 7 of presentation reliably predict 30-day mortality. Day-7 AARC model is a statistically robust tool for classifying risk of death and accurately predicting 30-day outcomes with relatively lower prediction errors. Day-7 AARC score > 12 may be used as a futility criterion in APASL-ACLF patients.
METHODS: Consecutive patients with established CKD and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)
METHODS: Study subjects included men with initial PSA between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/ml that have undergone 12-core TRUS-guided prostate biopsy between 2009 and 2016. The prostate cancer detection rate was calculated, while potential factors associated with detection were investigated via univariable and multivariable analysis.
RESULTS: A total of 617 men from a multi-ethnic background encompassing Chinese (63.5%), Malay (23.1%) and Indian (13.3%) were studied. The overall cancer detection rate was 14.3% (88/617), which included cancers detected at biopsy 1 (first biopsy), biopsy 2 (second biopsy with previous negative biopsy) and biopsy ≥ 3 (third or more biopsies with prior negative biopsies). Indian men displayed higher detection rate (23.2%) and increased risk of prostate cancer development (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.03-3.32, p
METHOD: Eight pseudoternary phase triangles, containing ethyl oleate as the oil component and a mixture of two nonionic surfactants and n-alcohol or 1,2-alkanediol as a cosurfactant, were constructed and used for training, testing, and validation purposes. A total of 21 molecular descriptors were calculated for each cosurfactant. A genetic algorithm was used to select important molecular descriptors, and a supervised artificial neural network with two hidden layers was used to correlate selected descriptors and the weight ratio of components in the system with the observed phase behavior.
RESULTS: The results proved the dominant role of the chemical composition, hydrophile-lipophile balance, length of hydrocarbon chain, molecular volume, and hydrocarbon volume of cosurfactant. The best GNN model, with 14 inputs and two hidden layers with 14 and 9 neurons, predicted the phase behavior for a new set of cosurfactants with 82.2% accuracy for ME, 87.5% for LC, 83.3% for the O/W EM, and 91.5% for the W/O EM region.
CONCLUSIONS: This type of methodology can be applied in the evaluation of the cosurfactants for pharmaceutical formulations to minimize experimental effort.