Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 55 in total

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  1. Abdullah KA, Reed W
    J Med Radiat Sci, 2018 Sep;65(3):237-239.
    PMID: 29971971 DOI: 10.1002/jmrs.292
    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has demonstrated a huge potential for the future of medicine. Since its introduction, it has been used in various areas, for example building anatomical models, personalising medical devices and implants, aiding in precision medical interventions and the latest development, 3D bioprinting. This commentary is provided to outline the current use of 3D printing in medical imaging and its future directions for advancing the healthcare services.
    Matched MeSH terms: Printing, Three-Dimensional/economics; Printing, Three-Dimensional/instrumentation*; Printing, Three-Dimensional/trends; Printing, Three-Dimensional/utilization
  2. Zeeshan F, Madheswaran T, Pandey M, Gorain B
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(42):5019-5028.
    PMID: 30621558 DOI: 10.2174/1381612825666190101111525
    BACKGROUND: The conventional dosage forms cannot be administered to all patients because of interindividual variability found among people of different race coupled with different metabolism and cultural necessities. Therefore, to address this global issue there is a growing focus on the fabrication of new drug delivery systems customised to individual needs. Medicinal products printed using 3-D technology are transforming the current medicine business to a plausible alternative of conventional medicines.

    METHODS: The PubMed database and Google scholar were browsed by keywords of 3-D printing, drug delivery, and personalised medicine. The data about techniques employed in the manufacturing of 3-D printed medicines and the application of 3-D printing technology in the fabrication of individualised medicine were collected, analysed and discussed.

    RESULTS: Numerous techniques can fabricate 3-D printed medicines however, printing-based inkjet, nozzle-based deposition and laser-based writing systems are the most popular 3-D printing methods which have been employed successfully in the development of tablets, polypills, implants, solutions, nanoparticles, targeted and topical dug delivery. In addition, the approval of Spritam® containing levetiracetam by FDA as the primary 3-D printed drug product has boosted its importance. However, some drawbacks such as suitability of manufacturing techniques and the available excipients for 3-D printing need to be addressed to ensure simple, feasible, reliable and reproducible 3-D printed fabrication.

    CONCLUSION: 3-D printing is a revolutionary in pharmaceutical technology to cater the present and future needs of individualised medicines. Nonetheless, more investigations are required on its manufacturing aspects in terms cost effectiveness, reproducibility and bio-equivalence.

    Matched MeSH terms: Printing, Three-Dimensional*
  3. Beh YH, Farook TH, Jamayet NB, Dudley J, Rashid F, Barman A, et al.
    Cleft Palate Craniofac J, 2021 03;58(3):386-390.
    PMID: 32808548 DOI: 10.1177/1055665620950074
    OBJECTIVE: The virtual cone beam computed tomography-derived 3-dimensional model was compared with the scanned conventional model used in the fabrication of a palatal obturator for a patient with a large palatal defect.

    DESIGN: A digitally derived 3-dimensional maxillary model incorporating the palatal defect was generated from the patient's existing cone beam computerized tomography data and compared with the scanned cast from the conventional impression for linear dimensions, area, and volume. The digitally derived cast was 3-dimensionally printed and the obturator fabricated using traditional techniques. Similarly, an obturator was fabricated from the conventional cast and the fit of both final obturator bulbs were compared in vivo.

    RESULTS: The digitally derived model produced more accurate volumes and surface areas within the defect. The defect margins and peripheries were overestimated which was reflected clinically.

    CONCLUSION: The digitally derived model provided advantages in the fabrication of the palatal obturator; however, further clinical research is required to refine consistency.

    Matched MeSH terms: Printing, Three-Dimensional*
  4. Wan Hassan WN, Yusoff Y, Mardi NA
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2017 Jan;151(1):209-218.
    PMID: 28024776 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.08.019
    INTRODUCTION: Rapid prototyping models can be reconstructed from stereolithographic digital study model data to produce hard-copy casts. In this study, we aimed to compare agreement and accuracy of measurements made with rapid prototyping and stone models for different degrees of crowding.

    METHODS: The Z Printer 450 (3D Systems, Rock Hill, SC) reprinted 10 sets of models for each category of crowding (mild, moderate, and severe) scanned using a structured-light scanner (Maestro 3D, AGE Solutions, Pisa, Italy). Stone and RP models were measured using digital calipers for tooth sizes in the mesiodistal, buccolingual, and crown height planes and for arch dimension measurements. Bland-Altman and paired t test analyses were used to assess agreement and accuracy. Clinical significance was set at ±0.50 mm.

    RESULTS: Bland-Altman analysis showed the mean bias of measurements between the models to be within ±0.15 mm (SD, ±0.40 mm), but the 95% limits of agreement exceeded the cutoff point of ±0.50 mm (lower range, -0.81 to -0.41 mm; upper range, 0.34 to 0.76 mm). Paired t tests showed statistically significant differences for all planes in all categories of crowding except for crown height in the moderate crowding group and arch dimensions in the mild and moderate crowding groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: The rapid prototyping models were not clinically comparable with conventional stone models regardless of the degree of crowding.

    Matched MeSH terms: Printing, Three-Dimensional*
  5. Hosseini S, Azari P, Cardenas-Benitez B, Martínez-Guerra E, Aguirre-Tostado FS, Vázquez-Villegas P, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2020 Apr;109:110629.
    PMID: 32228934 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.110629
    Based on the concept of LEGO toys, a fiber probe analytical platform (FPAP) was developed as a powerful diagnostic tool offering higher sensitivity in detection of infectious agents compared to established methods. Using the form and the function of LEGO toys, this protocol describes a fiber-based, 96-well plate, which suspends a new class of chemically-designed, electrospun fibers within the assay. This clamping strategy allows both sides of the developed fiber mats to interact with biomolecules within the assay thus benefiting from the tailored chemical and physical properties of these fiber-based bioreceptors in attracting the biomolecules to the surface. The fabrication method of FPAP involves one-step electrospinning of the chemically designed fibers, 3D printing of the LEGO-like probing segments, and assembly of the device followed by ELISA procedure. FPAP follows the same principles of operation as that of a conventional enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), therefore, it can be run by lab technicians, expert in ELISA. FPAP was used for early diagnosis of Dengue fever and provided an 8-fold higher sensitivity while the limit of detection (LOD) was recorded to be in femto-gram per milliliter range which is significantly low when compared to other existing techniques or conventional assay. This platform allows different types of paper/fiber bio-receptive platforms to be incorporated within the design that promises simultaneous recognition of multiple infectious agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Printing, Three-Dimensional*
  6. Pandey M, Choudhury H, Fern JLC, Kee ATK, Kou J, Jing JLJ, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2020 08;10(4):986-1001.
    PMID: 32207070 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-020-00737-0
    The involvement of recent technologies, such as nanotechnology and three-dimensional printing (3DP), in drug delivery has become the utmost importance for effective and safe delivery of potent therapeutics, and thus, recent advancement for oral drug delivery through 3DP technology has been expanded. The use of computer-aided design (CAD) in 3DP technology allows the manufacturing of drug formulation with the desired release rate and pattern. Currently, the most applicable 3DP technologies in the oral drug delivery system are inkjet printing method, fused deposition method, nozzle-based extrusion system, and stereolithographic 3DP. In 2015, the first 3D-printed tablet was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and since then, it has opened up more opportunities in the discovery of formulation for the development of an oral drug delivery system. 3DP allows the production of an oral drug delivery device that enables tailor-made formulation with customizable size, shape, and release rate. Despite the advantages offered by 3DP technology in the drug delivery system, there are challenges in terms of drug stability, safety as well as applicability in the clinical sector. Nonetheless, 3DP has immense potential in the development of drug delivery devices for future personalized medicine. This article will give the recent advancement along with the challenges of 3DP techniques for the development of oral drug delivery. Graphical abstract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Printing, Three-Dimensional*
  7. Deja M, Zieliński D, Kadir AZA, Humaira SN
    Materials (Basel), 2021 Mar 09;14(5).
    PMID: 33803424 DOI: 10.3390/ma14051318
    High requirements imposed by the competitive industrial environment determine the development directions of applied manufacturing methods. 3D printing technology, also known as additive manufacturing (AM), currently being one of the most dynamically developing production methods, is increasingly used in many different areas of industry. Nowadays, apart from the possibility of making prototypes of future products, AM is also used to produce fully functional machine parts, which is known as Rapid Manufacturing and also Rapid Tooling. Rapid Manufacturing refers to the ability of the software automation to rapidly accelerate the manufacturing process, while Rapid Tooling means that a tool is involved in order to accelerate the process. Abrasive processes are widely used in many industries, especially for machining hard and brittle materials such as advanced ceramics. This paper presents a review on advances and trends in contemporary abrasive machining related to the application of innovative 3D printed abrasive tools. Examples of abrasive tools made with the use of currently leading AM methods and their impact on the obtained machining results were indicated. The analyzed research works indicate the great potential and usefulness of the new constructions of the abrasive tools made by incremental technologies. Furthermore, the potential and limitations of currently used 3D printed abrasive tools, as well as the directions of their further development are indicated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Printing, Three-Dimensional
  8. Paracha KN, Butt AD, Alghamdi AS, Babale SA, Soh PJ
    Sensors (Basel), 2019 Dec 28;20(1).
    PMID: 31905646 DOI: 10.3390/s20010177
    This work reviews design aspects of liquid metal antennas and their corresponding applications. In the age of modern wireless communication technologies, adaptability and versatility have become highly attractive features of any communication device. Compared to traditional conductors like copper, the flow property and lack of elasticity limit of conductive fluids, makes them an ideal alternative for applications demanding mechanically flexible antennas. These fluidic properties also allow innovative antenna fabrication techniques like 3D printing, injecting, or spraying the conductive fluid on rigid/flexible substrates. Such fluids can also be easily manipulated to implement reconfigurability in liquid antennas using methods like micro pumping or electrochemically controlled capillary action as compared to traditional approaches like high-frequency switching. In this work, we discuss attributes of widely used conductive fluids, their novel patterning/fabrication techniques, and their corresponding state-of-the-art applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Printing, Three-Dimensional
  9. Agarwal T, Chiesa I, Presutti D, Irawan V, Vajanthri KY, Costantini M, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2021 Apr;123:112005.
    PMID: 33812625 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2021.112005
    Inadequate self-repair and regenerative efficiency of the cartilage tissues has motivated the researchers to devise advanced and effective strategies to resolve this issue. Introduction of bioprinting to tissue engineering has paved the way for fabricating complex biomimetic engineered constructs. In this context, the current review gears off with the discussion of standard and advanced 3D/4D printing technologies and their implications for the repair of different cartilage tissues, namely, articular, meniscal, nasoseptal, auricular, costal, and tracheal cartilage. The review is then directed towards highlighting the current stem cell opportunities. On a concluding note, associated critical issues and prospects for future developments, particularly in this sphere of personalized medicines have been discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Printing, Three-Dimensional
  10. Thomas P, Duolikun T, Rumjit NP, Moosavi S, Lai CW, Bin Johan MR, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2020 10;110:103884.
    PMID: 32957191 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2020.103884
    Cellulose constitutes most of a plant's cell wall, and it is the most abundant renewable polymer source on our planet. Given the hierarchical structure of cellulose, nanocellulose has gained considerable attention as a nano-reinforcement for polymer matrices in various industries (medical and healthcare, oil and gas, packaging, paper and board, composites, printed and flexible electronics, textiles, filtration, rheology modifiers, 3D printing, aerogels and coating films). Herein, nanocellulose is considered as a sustainable nanomaterial due to its substantial strength, low density, excellent mechanical performance and biocompatibility. Indeed, nanocellulose exists in several forms, including bacterial cellulose, nanocrystalline cellulose and nanofibrillated cellulose, which results in biodegradable and environmentally friendly bionanocomposites with remarkably improved material properties. This paper reviews the recent advances in production, physicochemical properties, and structural characterization of nanocelluloses. It also summarises recent developments in several multifunctional applications of nanocellulose with an emphasis on bionanocomposite properties. Besides, various challenges associated with commercialisation and economic aspects of nanocellulose for current and future markets are also discussed inclusively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Printing, Three-Dimensional
  11. B Jamayet N, J Abdullah Y, A Rajion Z, Husein A, K Alam M
    Bull. Tokyo Dent. Coll., 2017;58(2):117-124.
    PMID: 28724860 DOI: 10.2209/tdcpublication.2016-0021
    The wax sculpting of a maxillofacial prosthesis is challenging, time-consuming, and requires great skill. Rapid prototyping (RP) systems allow these hurdles to be overcome by enabling the creation of a customized 3D model of the desired prosthesis. Geomagic and Mimics are the most suitable software programs with which to design such prostheses. However, due to the high cost of these applications and the special training required to operate them, they are not widely used. Additionally, ill-fitting margins and other discrepancies in the final finished products of RP systems are also inevitable. Therefore, this process makes further treatment planning difficult for the maxillofacial prosthodontist. Here, we report the case of a 62-year-old woman who attended our clinic. Initially, she had presented with a right facial defect. This was later diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma and resected. The aim of this report is to describe a new technique for the 3D printing of facial prostheses which involves the combined use of open-source software, an RP system, and conventional methods of fabrication. The 3D design obtained was used to fabricate a maxillofacial prosthesis to restore the defect. The patient was happy with the esthetic outcome. This approach is relatively easy and cheap, does not require a high degree of non-medical training, and is beneficial in terms of clinical outcome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Printing, Three-Dimensional*
  12. Sun Z, Ng CKC, Wong YH, Yeong CH
    Biomolecules, 2021 09 03;11(9).
    PMID: 34572520 DOI: 10.3390/biom11091307
    The diagnostic value of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is significantly affected by high calcification in the coronary arteries owing to blooming artifacts limiting its accuracy in assessing the calcified plaques. This study aimed to simulate highly calcified plaques in 3D-printed coronary models. A combination of silicone + 32.8% calcium carbonate was found to produce 800 HU, representing extensive calcification. Six patient-specific coronary artery models were printed using the photosensitive polyurethane resin and a total of 22 calcified plaques with diameters ranging from 1 to 4 mm were inserted into different segments of these 3D-printed coronary models. The coronary models were scanned on a 192-slice CT scanner with 70 kV, pitch of 1.4, and slice thickness of 1 mm. Plaque attenuation was measured between 1100 and 1400 HU. Both maximum-intensity projection (MIP) and volume rendering (VR) images (wide and narrow window widths) were generated for measuring the diameters of these calcified plaques. An overestimation of plaque diameters was noticed on both MIP and VR images, with measurements on the MIP images close to those of the actual plaque sizes (<10% deviation), and a large measurement discrepancy observed on the VR images (up to 50% overestimation). This study proves the feasibility of simulating extensive calcification in coronary arteries using a 3D printing technique to develop calcified plaques and generate 3D-printed coronary models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Printing, Three-Dimensional*
  13. Ibrahim F, Mohan D, Sajab MS, Bakarudin SB, Kaco H
    Polymers (Basel), 2019 Sep 23;11(10).
    PMID: 31547544 DOI: 10.3390/polym11101544
    In this study, lignin has been extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers via an organosolv process. The organosolv lignin obtained was defined by the presence of hydroxyl-containing molecules, such as guaiacyl and syringyl, and by the presence of phenolic molecules in lignin. Subsequently, the extracted organosolv lignin and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) were utilized as filler and reinforcement in photo-curable polyurethane (PU), which is used in stereolithography 3D printing. The compatibility as well as the characteristic and structural changes of the composite were identified through the mechanical properties of the 3D-printed composites. Furthermore, the tensile strength of the composited lignin and graphene shows significant improvement as high as 27%. The hardness of the photo-curable PU composites measured by nanoindentation exhibited an enormous improvement for 0.6% of lignin-graphene at 92.49 MPa with 238% increment when compared with unmodified PU.
    Matched MeSH terms: Printing, Three-Dimensional
  14. Abdul Wahit MA, Ahmad SA, Marhaban MH, Wada C, Izhar LI
    Sensors (Basel), 2020 Jul 27;20(15).
    PMID: 32727150 DOI: 10.3390/s20154174
    Trans-radial prosthesis is a wearable device that intends to help amputees under the elbow to replace the function of the missing anatomical segment that resembles an actual human hand. However, there are some challenging aspects faced mainly on the robot hand structural design itself. Improvements are needed as this is closely related to structure efficiency. This paper proposes a robot hand structure with improved features (four-bar linkage mechanism) to overcome the deficiency of using the cable-driven actuated mechanism that leads to less structure durability and inaccurate motion range. Our proposed robot hand structure also took into account the existing design problems such as bulky structure, unindividual actuated finger, incomplete fingers and a lack of finger joints compared to the actual finger in its design. This paper presents the improvements achieved by applying the proposed design such as the use of a four-bar linkage mechanism instead of using the cable-driven mechanism, the size of an average human hand, five-fingers with completed joints where each finger is moved by motor individually, joint protection using a mechanical stopper, detachable finger structure from the palm frame, a structure that has sufficient durability for everyday use and an easy to fabricate structure using 3D printing technology. The four-bar linkage mechanism is the use of the solid linkage that connects the actuator with the structure to allow the structure to move. The durability was investigated using static analysis simulation. The structural details and simulation results were validated through motion capture analysis and load test. The motion analyses towards the 3D printed robot structure show 70-98% similar motion range capability to the designed structure in the CAD software, and it can withstand up to 1.6 kg load in the simulation and the real test. The improved robot hand structure with optimum durability for prosthetic uses was successfully developed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Printing, Three-Dimensional
  15. Abdullah JY, Saidin M, Rajion ZA, Hadi H, Mohamad N, Moraes C, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2021 Feb;28(1):1-8.
    PMID: 33679214 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2021.28.1.1
    Perak Man, named after the state where the skeleton was found, was the most complete skeleton found in Southeast Asia. The funerary artefacts indicate that Perak Man was highly respected, as he was buried at the centre of the highest cave in Lenggong, and he was the only person buried there. A copy of the original skull was made using computed tomography (CT) and 3D printing. Based on the internal structure of the reconstructed skull, the estimated intracranial volume (ICV) is 1,204.91 mL. The hypothetical face of Perak Man was reconstructed according to established forensic methods. Based on his presumed status, Perak Man was likely a respected person in the group and, perhaps, a shaman and the most knowledgeable person in the group regarding survival, hunting, gathering and other aspects of Palaeolithic daily life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Printing, Three-Dimensional
  16. Mehbodniya A, Moghavvemi M, Narayanan V, Muthusamy KA, Hamdi M, Waran V
    World Neurosurg, 2020 Feb;134:e379-e386.
    PMID: 31639505 DOI: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.10.080
    OBJECTIVES: The evaluation of sources of error when preparing, printing, and using 3-dimensional (3D) printed head models for training purposes.

    METHODS: Two 3D printed models were designed and fabricated using actual patient imaging data with reference marker points embedded artificially within these models that were then registered to a surgical navigation system using 3 different methods. The first method uses a conventional manual registration, using the actual patient's imaging data. The second method is done by directly scanning the created model using intraoperative computed tomography followed by registering the model to a new imaging dataset manually. The third is similar to the second method of scanning the model but eventually uses an automatic registration technique. The errors for each experiment were then calculated based on the distance of the surgical navigation probe from the respective positions of the embedded marker points.

    RESULTS: Errors were found in the preparation and printing techniques, largely depending on the orientation of the printed segment and postprocessing, but these were relatively small. Larger errors were noted based on a couple of variables: if the models were registered using the original patient imaging data as opposed to using the imaging data from directly scanning the model (1.28 mm vs. 1.082 mm), and the accuracy was best using the automated registration techniques (0.74 mm).

    CONCLUSION: Spatial accuracy errors occur consistently in every 3D fabricated model. These errors are derived from the fabrication process, the image registration process, and the surgical process of registration.

    Matched MeSH terms: Printing, Three-Dimensional
  17. Mohan D, Khairullah NF, How YP, Sajab MS, Kaco H
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Apr 23;12(4).
    PMID: 32340327 DOI: 10.3390/polym12040986
    Drug delivery constitutes the formulations, technologies, and systems for the transport of pharmaceutical compounds to specific areas in the body to exert safe therapeutic effects. The main criteria for selecting the correct medium for drug delivery are the quantity of the drug being carried and the amount of time required to release the drug. Hence, this research aimed to improve the aforementioned criteria by synthesizing a medium based on calcium carbonate-nanocellulose composite and evaluating its efficiency as a medium for drug delivery. Specifically, the efficiency was assessed in terms of the rates of uptake and release of 5-fluorouracil. Through the evaluation of the morphological and chemical properties of the synthesized composite, the established 3D printing profiles of nanocellulose and CaCO3 took place following the layer-by-layer films. The 3D printed double laminated CaCO3-nanocellulose managed to release the 5-fluorouracil as an effective single composition and in a time-controlled manner.
    Matched MeSH terms: Printing, Three-Dimensional
  18. Mohan D, Teong ZK, Bakir AN, Sajab MS, Kaco H
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Aug 20;12(9).
    PMID: 32825377 DOI: 10.3390/polym12091876
    The materials for additive manufacturing (AM) technology have grown substantially over the last few years to fulfill industrial needs. Despite that, the use of bio-based composites for improved mechanical properties and biodegradation is still not fully explored. This limits the universal expansion of AM-fabricated products due to the incompatibility of the products made from petroleum-derived resources. The development of naturally-derived polymers for AM materials is promising with the increasing number of studies in recent years owing to their biodegradation and biocompatibility. Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer that possesses many favorable properties to be incorporated into AM materials, which have been continuously focused on in recent years. This critical review discusses the development of AM technologies and materials, cellulose-based polymers, cellulose-based three-dimensional (3D) printing filaments, liquid deposition modeling of cellulose, and four-dimensional (4D) printing of cellulose-based materials. Cellulose-based AM material applications and the limitations with future developments are also reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Printing, Three-Dimensional
  19. Lee CH, Padzil FNBM, Lee SH, Ainun ZMA, Abdullah LC
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Apr 27;13(9).
    PMID: 33925266 DOI: 10.3390/polym13091407
    In this review, the potential of natural fiber and kenaf fiber (KF) reinforced PLA composite filament for fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D-printing technology is highlighted. Additive manufacturing is a material-processing method in which the addition of materials layer by layer creates a three-dimensional object. Unfortunately, it still cannot compete with conventional manufacturing processes, and instead serves as an economically effective tool for small-batch or high-variety product production. Being preformed of composite filaments makes it easiest to print using an FDM 3D printer without or with minimum alteration to the hardware parts. On the other hand, natural fiber-reinforced polymer composite filaments have gained great attention in the market. However, uneven printing, clogging, and the inhomogeneous distribution of the fiber-matrix remain the main challenges. At the same time, kenaf fibers are one of the most popular reinforcements in polymer composites. Although they have a good record on strength reinforcement, with low cost and light weight, kenaf fiber reinforcement PLA filament is still seldom seen in previous studies. Therefore, this review serves to promote kenaf fiber in PLA composite filaments for FDM 3D printing. To promote the use of natural fiber-reinforced polymer composite in AM, eight challenges must be solved and carried out. Moreover, some concerns arise to achieve long-term sustainability and market acceptability of KF/PLA composite filaments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Printing, Three-Dimensional
  20. Shahrol Mohamaddan, Chai Siew Fu, Ahmad Hata Rasit, Siti Zawiah Md Dawal, Keith Case
    MyJurnal
    Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) or clubfoot is a complex deformity of the foot that is characterised by four main deformities; forefoot cavus and adductus, hindfoot varus and ankle equinus. Currently, the Ponseti method is the most general and recognized treatment with a high success rate of over 90%. The treatment involves gentle manipulation and serial casting. However, the casting method could create complications for the patients such as soft-tissue damage and inconvenience in following the treatment schedule especially for those living far away from hospital. The aim of this research is to develop an adjustable corrective device for clubfoot treatment based on the techniques in the Ponseti method and at the same time attempt to eliminate the side-effects. The prototype consists of six adjustable movements from six different mechanisms to correct the four deformities. The prototype was developed using 3D printing method and the main material used is polylactic acid (PLA), rubber, aluminium and cotton fabric with sponge. The total weight of the prototype is around 300 g.
    Matched MeSH terms: Printing, Three-Dimensional
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