Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

  1. Jacob A, Parolia A, Pau A, Davamani Amalraj F
    PMID: 26303848 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0814-1
    To evaluate and compare the effects of ethanolic extracts of Malaysian propolis and Brazilian red propolis at different concentrations on the migration and proliferation of fibroblast cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Propolis/pharmacology*
  2. Boukraâ L, Sulaiman SA
    Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov, 2009 Nov;4(3):206-13.
    PMID: 19673699
    Honey and other bee products were subjected to laboratory and clinical investigations during the past few decades and the most remarkable discovery was their antibacterial activity. Honey has been used since ancient times for the treatment of some diseases and for the healing of wounds but its use as an anti-infective agent was superseded by modern dressings and antibiotic therapy. However, the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria has confounded the current use of antibiotic therapy leading to the re-examination of former remedies. Honey, propolis, royal jelly and bee venom have a strong antibacterial activity. Even antibiotic-resistant strains such as epidemic strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycine resistant Enterococcus (VRE) have been found to be as sensitive to honey as the antibiotic-sensitive strains of the same species. Sensitivity of bacteria to bee products varies considerably within the product and the varieties of the same product. Botanical origin plays a major role in its antibacterial activity. Propolis has been found to have the strongest action against bacteria. This is probably due to its richness in flavonoids. The most challenging problems of using hive products for medical purposes are dosage and safety. Honey and royal jelly produced as a food often are not well filtered, and may contain various particles. Processed for use in wound care, they are passed through fine filters which remove most of the pollen and other impurities to prevent allergies. Also, although honey does not allow vegetative bacteria to survive, it does contain viable spores, including clostridia. With the increased availability of licensed medical stuffs containing bee products, clinical use is expected to increase and further evidence will become available. Their use in professional care centres should be limited to those which are safe and with certified antibacterial activities. The present article is a short review of recent patents on antibiotics of hives.
    Matched MeSH terms: Propolis/pharmacology; Propolis/chemistry
  3. de Mendonça IC, Porto IC, do Nascimento TG, de Souza NS, Oliveira JM, Arruda RE, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2015 Oct 14;15:357.
    PMID: 26467757 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0888-9
    BACKGROUND: The implementation of new public healthcare models that stimulate the use of natural products from traditional medicine, as a so-called integrated medicine, refers to an approach that use best of both conventional medicine and traditional medicine. Propolis is a widely used natural product by different ancient cultures and known to exhibit biological activities beneficial for health. The large number of studies conducted with propolis had shown that its chemical composition differs as a function of the climate, plant diversity and bee species and plays an important role on its therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was to analyse the phytochemical profile of the ethanolic extract of red propolis (EEP) and its fractionation, antioxidant action of EEP and its fractions hexane, cloroform and ethyl acetate and cytotoxic activity of EEP on human tumour cell lines SF-295 (glioblastoma), OVCAR-8 (ovary) and HCT-116 (colon).

    METHODS: EEP was obtained by maceration with absolute ethanol, then it was concentrated in rotaevaporator up to complete evaporation of the solvent. The crude extract was fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol and they were subjected to phytochemical screening and total phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity of EEP and fractions was done by means of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Biomarkers of red propolis were identified by LC-Orbitrap-FTMS. To assess cytotoxic activity of the extract, cells were exposed to EEP over 72 h. Cell viability was assessed by means of MTT assay. The percentage of cell growth inhibition (IC50) was analysed by means of non-linear regression, and the absorbance values of the various investigated concentrations were subjected to one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's or Tamhane's tests (α = 0.05).

    RESULTS: The results obtained using phytochemical screening and LC-Orbitrap-FTMS indicated the presence of phlobaphene tannins, catechins, chalcones, aurones, flavonones, flavonols, xanthones, pentacyclic triterpenoids and guttiferones in Brazilian red propolis. EEP and its hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions obtained by liquid-liquid partitioning exhibited satisfactory antioxidant percentages. EEP (IC50 

    Matched MeSH terms: Propolis/pharmacology*; Propolis/chemistry*
  4. Mohammad SM, Mahmud-Ab-Rashid NK, Zawawi N
    Molecules, 2021 Feb 11;26(4).
    PMID: 33670262 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26040957
    Stingless bee-collected pollen (bee bread) is a mixture of bee pollen, bee salivary enzymes, and regurgitated honey, fermented by indigenous microbes during storage in the cerumen pot. Current literature data for bee bread is overshadowed by bee pollen, particularly of honeybee Apis. In regions such as South America, Australia, and Southeast Asia, information on stingless bee bee bread is mainly sought to promote the meliponiculture industry for socioeconomic development. This review aims to highlight the physicochemical properties and health benefits of bee bread from the stingless bee. In addition, it describes the current progress on identification of beneficial microbes associated with bee bread and its relation to the bee gut. This review provides the basis for promoting research on stingless bee bee bread, its nutrients, and microbes for application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Propolis/therapeutic use; Propolis/chemistry*
  5. Parolia A, Kumar H, Ramamurthy S, Madheswaran T, Davamani F, Pichika MR, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Jan 30;26(3).
    PMID: 33573147 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26030715
    To determine the antibacterial effect of propolis nanoparticles (PNs) as an endodontic irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm inside the endodontic root canal system. Two-hundred-ten extracted human teeth were sectioned to obtain 6 mm of the middle third of the root. The root canal was enlarged to an internal diameter of 0.9 mm. The specimens were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Following this, specimens were randomly divided into seven groups, with 30 dentinal blocks in each group including: group I-saline; group II-propolis 100 µg/mL; group III-propolis 300 µg/mL; group IV-propolis nanoparticle 100 µg/mL; group V-propolis nanoparticle 300µg/mL; group VI-6% sodium hypochlorite; group VII-2% chlorhexidine. Dentin shavings were collected at 200 and 400 μm depths, and total numbers of CFUs were determined at the end of one, five, and ten minutes. The non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the differences in reduction in CFUs between all groups, and probability values of p < 0.05 were set as the reference for statistically significant results. The antibacterial effect of PNs as an endodontic irrigant was also assessed against E. faecalis isolates from patients with failed root canal treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were also performed after exposure to PNs. A Raman spectroscope, equipped with a Leica microscope and lenses with curve-fitting Raman software, was used for analysis. The molecular interactions between bioactive compounds of propolis (Pinocembrin, Kaempferol, and Quercetin) and the proteins Sortase A and β-galactosidase were also understood by computational molecular docking studies. PN300 was significantly more effective in reducing CFUs compared to all other groups (p < 0.05) except 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX (p > 0.05) at all time intervals and both depths. At five minutes, 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX were the most effective in reducing CFUs (p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found between PN300, 6% NaOCl, and 2% CHX at 10 min (p > 0.05). SEM images also showed the maximum reduction in E. faecalis with PN300, 6% NaOCl, and 2% CHX at five and ten minutes. CLSM images showed the number of dead cells in dentin were highest with PN300 compared to PN100 and saline. There was a reduction in the 484 cm-1 band and an increase in the 870 cm-1 band in the PN300 group. The detailed observations of the docking poses of bioactive compounds and their interactions with key residues of the binding site in all the three docking protocols revealed that the interactions were consistent with reasonable docking and IFD docking scores. PN300 was equally as effective as 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX in reducing the E. faecalis biofilms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Propolis/administration & dosage*; Propolis/chemistry
  6. Pasupuleti VR, Sammugam L, Ramesh N, Gan SH
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2017;2017:1259510.
    PMID: 28814983 DOI: 10.1155/2017/1259510
    BACKGROUND: There are several health benefits that honeybee products such as honey, propolis, and royal jelly claim toward various types of diseases in addition to being food.

    SCOPE AND APPROACH: In this paper, the effects of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on different metabolic diseases, cancers, and other diseases have been reviewed. The modes of actions of these products have also been illustrated for purposes of better understanding.

    KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: An overview of honey, propolis, and royal jelly and their biological potentials was highlighted. The potential health benefits of honey, such as microbial inhibition, wound healing, and its effects on other diseases, are described. Propolis has been reported to have various health benefits related to gastrointestinal disorders, allergies, and gynecological, oral, and dermatological problems. Royal jelly is well known for its protective effects on reproductive health, neurodegenerative disorders, wound healing, and aging. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms of action of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on the abovementioned diseases and activities have not been not fully elucidated, and further research is warranted to explain their exact contributions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Propolis/pharmacology*; Propolis/therapeutic use; Propolis/chemistry
  7. Noor Albannia Natasya Jabi, Hazmi Awang Damit
    Borneo Akademika, 2019;3(1):1-9.
    Heterotrigona itama is a Malaysian stingless bee species that actively reared for meliponiculture. This stingless bee is cultivated in a commercial scale for its honey production, propolis and among the greatest commercial potential as crop pollinators. However, this species has been potentially exposed to agronomic practices, among which the use of synthetic insecticides against pests.The indirect toxicity effect of the post-insecticide had affected the mortalities of H. itama especially, to the foragers. Due to that, a study has been conducted to determine the lethal concentration of 50% (LC50) and 95% (LC95) of the selected insecticides against stingless bee forager workers through residual exposure. The bioassay test was conducted to the local stingless bee H. itama at Agricultural Research Station, Tenom. Four commonly used insecticides in crop protection; Deltamethrin, Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin and Malathion were tested at five concentrations that diluted with 500 ml of distilled water in three replications for each insecticide. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95) were obtained from probit analysis after 1-hour dry residues exposure and 24-hour mortality observation. The result shows that; all four tested insecticides were harmful to H. itama through dry residue. Deltamethrin shows the higher value of LC50 (1.256 ml) and LC95 (3.582ml) that make it less toxic to the H. itama than cypermethrin, malathion, and chlorpyrifos, however, as the concentration gets higher it becomes more toxic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Propolis
  8. Ong TH, Chitra E, Ramamurthy S, Siddalingam RP, Yuen KH, Ambu SP, et al.
    PLoS One, 2017;12(3):e0174888.
    PMID: 28362873 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174888
    Propolis obtained from bee hives is a natural substance with antimicrobial properties. It is limited by its insolubility in aqueous solutions; hence ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Malaysian propolis were prepared. Both the extracts displayed antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against Enterococcus faecalis, a common bacterium associated with hospital-acquired infections. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of propolis revealed the presence of flavonoids like kaempferol and pinocembrin. This study investigated the role of propolis developed into nanoparticles with chitosan for its antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against E. faecalis. Bacteria that grow in a slimy layer of biofilm are resistant to penetration by antibacterial agents. The use of nanoparticles in medicine has received attention recently due to better bioavailability, enhanced penetrative capacity and improved efficacy. A chitosan-propolis nanoformulation was chosen based on ideal physicochemical properties such as particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, encapsulation efficiency and the rate of release of the active ingredients. This formulation inhibited E. faecalis biofilm formation and reduced the number of bacteria in the biofilm by ~90% at 200 μg/ml concentration. When tested on pre-formed biofilms, the formulation reduced bacterial number in the biofilm by ~40% and ~75% at 200 and 300 μg/ml, respectively. The formulation not only reduced bacterial numbers, but also physically disrupted the biofilm structure as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Treatment of biofilms with chitosan-propolis nanoparticles altered the expression of biofilm-associated genes in E. faecalis. The results of this study revealed that chitosan-propolis nanoformulation can be deemed as a potential anti-biofilm agent in resisting infections involving biofilm formation like chronic wounds and surgical site infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Propolis/chemistry*
  9. Zhao L, Yu M, Sun M, Xue X, Wang T, Cao W, et al.
    Molecules, 2017 Nov 10;22(11).
    PMID: 29125569 DOI: 10.3390/molecules22111935
    A reliable, rapid analytical method was established for the characterization of constituents of the ethanol extract of geopropolis (EEGP) produced by Malaysian stingless bees-Heterotrigona itama-by combining ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Based on known standards, the online METLIN database, and published literature, 28 compounds were confirmed. Phenolic acids, flavones, triterpenes and phytosterol were identified or tentatively identified using characteristic diagnostic fragment ions. The results indicated that terpenoids were the main components of EEGP, accompanied by low levels of phenolic acids, flavonoids, and phytosterol. Two major components were further purified by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC) and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as 24(E)-cycloart-24-ene-26-ol-3-one and 20-hydroxy-24-dammaren-3-one. These two triterpenes, confirmed in this geopropolis for the first time, are potential chemical markers for the identification of geopropolis from Malaysian stingless bees, H. itama.
    Matched MeSH terms: Propolis/analysis*
  10. Usman UZ, Bakar ABA, Mohamed M
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 Dec 05;18(1):324.
    PMID: 30518366 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2391-6
    BACKGROUND: This study assessed the effects of propolis alone or combined with insulin on maternal status, pregnancy outcomes and placental oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    METHODS: Forty female rats were randomly assigned into five groups (n = 8/group) i.e. non-DM (non-diabetes), DM (diabetes), DM + Propolis (diabetes on propolis orally); DM + Insulin (diabetes on insulin subcutaneously) and DM + Combined (diabetes on propolis and insulin) groups. Propolis and insulin were given at 300 mg/kg/day orally and 5.0 IU/kg/day subcutaneously, respectively, for 4 weeks.

    RESULTS: Fasting blood glucose, conception period, implantation losses, foetal blood glucose and placental oxidative stress markers such as malonaldehyde and protein carbonyl were significantly higher while maternal weight gain, foetal body weight and total antioxidant capacity were significantly lower in DM group compared with non-DM group. These changes were significantly improved in rats treated with propolis or insulin alone with greater significant effects in rats treated with both propolis and insulin.

    CONCLUSION: This study may suggest the protective effects of propolis against DM-induced impaired pregnancy outcomes and placental oxidative stress with greater effects when combined with insulin.

    Matched MeSH terms: Propolis/pharmacology*
  11. Ahmed R, Tanvir EM, Hossen MS, Afroz R, Ahmmed I, Rumpa NE, et al.
    PMID: 28261310 DOI: 10.1155/2017/5370545
    Propolis contains high concentrations of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, ascorbic acid, and reducing sugars and proteins. Malaysian Propolis (MP) has been reported to exhibit high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values. Herein, we report the antioxidant properties and cardioprotective properties of MP in isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction in rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 32) were pretreated orally with an ethanol extract of MP (100 mg/kg/day) for 30 consecutive days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline) for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes and cardiac troponin I levels and altered serum lipid profiles. In addition significantly increased lipid peroxides and decreased activities of cellular antioxidant defense enzymes were observed in the myocardium. However, pretreatment of ischemic rats with MP ameliorated the biochemical parameters, indicating the protective effect of MP against ISO-induced ischemia in rats. Histopathological findings obtained for the myocardium further confirmed the biochemical findings. It is concluded that MP exhibits cardioprotective activity against ISO-induced oxidative stress through its direct cytotoxic radical-scavenging activities. It is also plausible that MP contributed to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Propolis
  12. Jibril FI, Mohd Hilmi AB, Aliyu S
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2020 Nov;12(Suppl 2):S831-S835.
    PMID: 33828385 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_280_19
    Introduction: Stingless bee is an insect that belongs to the family Apidae. Its name is based on its disability of stinging. It has a high product of Meliponini honey and propolis by which are commonly referred to as stingless bee honey and stingless bee propolis. Meliponini honey is one of the crucial natural sources and has the potential to kill infectious microorganisms. Previous studies have proved that the antibacterial activity of natural honey was an effect of hydrogen peroxide, a substance contained in the honey. However, these claims were contradicting with too many studies.

    Objective: Therefore, this study aimed to identify the antibacterial activity of Malaysian Meliponini honey which contained non-hydrogen peroxide against Staphylococcus aureus, an opportunistic microbial.

    Materials and Methods: Meliponini honey was used as an antibacterial agent for the treatment of S. aureus in agar well diffusion assay. An amplex red hydrogen peroxide kit was used to identify the hydrogen peroxide in the honey sample. Meanwhile, non-hydrogen peroxide activity was performed by using honey-catalase treated.

    Results: For the first time, we found that hydrogen peroxide was absent in all Meliponini honey samples. Meliponini honey has higher antibacterial activity (13.30 ± 0.56mm) compared to Apis honey (9.03 ± 0.22mm) in agar well diffusion assay.

    Discussion: Non-hydrogen peroxide in Meliponini honey is a bioactive compound and beneficial to kill the microbial infection.

    Conclusion: Antibacterial activity of Malaysian Meliponini honey is directly contributed by non-hydrogen peroxide.

    Matched MeSH terms: Propolis
  13. Swamy M, Norlina W, Azman W, Suhaili D, Sirajudeen KN, Mustapha Z, et al.
    PMID: 25435633
    BACKGROUND: Propolis has been proposed to be protective on neurodegenerative disorders. To understand the neuroprotective effects of honeybee propolis, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were studied in different brain regions-cerebral cortex (CC), cerebellum (CB) and brain stem (BS) of rats supplemented with propolis and subjected to kainic acid (KA) mediated excitotoxicity.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups; Control group and KA group received vehicle and saline. Propolis group and propolis + KA group were orally administered with propolis (150mg/kg body weight), five times every 12 hours. KA group and propolis + KA group were injected subcutaneously with kainic acid (15mg/kg body weight) and were sacrificed after 2 hrs and CC, CB and BS were separated homogenized and used for estimation of GS activity, NO, TBARS, and TAS concentrations by colorimetric methods. Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, reported as mean + SD from 6 animals, and p<0.05 considered statistically significant.

    RESULTS: NO was increased (p< 0.001) and GS activity was decreased (p< 0.001) in KA treated group compared to control group as well as propolis + KA treated group. TBARS was decreased and TAS was increased (p< 0.001) in propolis + KA treated group compared KA treated group.

    CONCLUSION: This study clearly demonstrated the restoration of GS activity, NO levels and decreased oxidative stress by propolis in kainic acid mediated excitotoxicity. Hence the propolis can be a possible potential candidate (protective agent) against excitotoxicity and neurodegenerative disorders.

    Matched MeSH terms: Propolis/pharmacology*
  14. Gemiarto AT, Ninyio NN, Lee SW, Logis J, Fatima A, Chan EW, et al.
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 2015 Aug;108(2):491-504.
    PMID: 26059863 DOI: 10.1007/s10482-015-0503-6
    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens, especially Gram-negative bacteria, has driven investigations into suppressing bacterial virulence via quorum sensing (QS) inhibition strategies instead of bactericidal and bacteriostatic approaches. Here, we investigated several bee products for potential compound(s) that exhibit significant QS inhibitory (QSI) properties at the phenotypic and molecular levels in Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 as a model organism. Manuka propolis produced the strongest violacein inhibition on C. violaceum lawn agar, while bee pollen had no detectable QSI activity and honey had bactericidal activity. Fractionated manuka propolis (pooled fraction 5 or PF5) exhibited the largest violacein inhibition zone (24.5 ± 2.5 mm) at 1 mg dry weight per disc. In C. violaceum liquid cultures, at least 450 µg/ml of manuka propolis PF5 completely inhibited violacein production. Gene expression studies of the vioABCDE operon, involved in violacein biosynthesis, showed significant (≥two-fold) down-regulation of vioA, vioD and vioE in response to manuka propolis PF5. A potential QSI compound identified in manuka propolis PF5 is a hydroxycinnamic acid-derivative, isoprenyl caffeate, with a [M-H] of 247. Complete violacein inhibition in C. violaceum liquid cultures was achieved with at least 50 µg/ml of commercial isoprenyl caffeate. In silico docking experiments suggest that isoprenyl caffeate may act as an inhibitor of the violacein biosynthetic pathway by acting as a competitor for the FAD-binding pockets of VioD and VioA. Further studies on these compounds are warranted toward the development of anti-pathogenic drugs as adjuvants to conventional antibiotic treatments, especially in antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Propolis/chemistry*
  15. Chao CY, Mani MP, Jaganathan SK
    PLoS One, 2018;13(10):e0205699.
    PMID: 30372449 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205699
    Essential oils play an important role in reducing the pain and inflammation caused by bone fracture.In this study, a scaffold was electrospun based on polyurethane (PU), grape seed oil, honey and propolis for bone tissue-engineering applications. The fiber diameter of the electrospun PU/grape seed oil scaffold and PU/grape seed oil/honey/propolis scaffold were observed to be reduced compared to the pristine PU control. FTIR analysis revealed the existence of grape seed oil, honey and propolis in PU identified by CH band peak shift and also hydrogen bond formation. The contact angle of PU/grape seed oil scaffold was found to increase owing to hydrophobic nature and the contact angle for the PU/grape seed/honey oil/propolis scaffold were decreased because of hydrophilic nature. Further, the prepared PU/grape seed oil and PU/grape seed oil/honey/propolis scaffold showed enhanced thermal stability and reduction in surface roughness than the control as revealed in thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Further, the developed nanocomposite scaffold displayed delayed blood clotting time than the pristine PU in the activated prothrombin time (APTT) and partial thromboplastin time (PT) assay. The hemolytic assay and cytocompatibility studies revealed that the electrospun PU/grape seed oil and PU/grape seed oil/honey/propolis scaffold possess non-toxic behaviour to red blood cells (RBC) and human fibroblast cells (HDF) cells indicating better blood compatibility and cell viability rates. Hence, the newly developed electrospun nanofibrous composite scaffold with desirable characteristics might be used as an alternative candidate for bone tissue engineering applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Propolis/toxicity; Propolis/chemistry
  16. Chen CL, Parolia A, Pau A, Celerino de Moraes Porto IC
    Aust Dent J, 2015 Mar;60(1):65-72.
    PMID: 25721280 DOI: 10.1111/adj.12275
    Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) occurs on exposed dentine and is dependent on the patency of dentinal tubules. This study compared the effectiveness of red propolis extract (RPE), calcium sodium phosphosilicate (Novamin) and arginine-calcium carbonate (ACC) in occluding dentine tubules.
    Matched MeSH terms: Propolis/pharmacology
  17. Swamy M, Suhaili D, Sirajudeen KN, Mustapha Z, Govindasamy C
    PMID: 25395704
    BACKGROUND: Increased nitric oxide (NO), neuronal inflammation and apoptosis have been proposed to be involved in excitotoxicity plays a part in many neurodegenerative diseases. To understand the neuro-protective effects of propolis, activities of Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and caspase-3 along with NO and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were studied in cerebral cortex (CC), cerebellum (CB) and brain stem (BS) in rats supplemented with propolis prior to excitotoxic injury with kainic acid (KA).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n=6 rats per group) as Control, KA, Propolis and KA+Propolis. The control group and KA group have received vehicle and saline. Propolis group and propolis + KA group were orally administered with propolis (150 mg/kg body weight), five times every 12 hours. KA group and propolis +KA group were injected subcutaneously with kainic acid (15 mg/kg body weight) and were sacrificed after 2 hrs. CC, CB and BS were separated, homogenized and used for estimation of NOS, caspase-3, NO and TNF-α by commercial kits. Results were analyzed by one way ANOVA, reported as mean + SD (n=6 rats), and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

    RESULTS: The concentration of NO, TNF-α, NOS and caspase-3 activity were increased significantly (p<0.001) in all the three brain regions tested in KA group compared to the control. Propolis supplementation significantly (p<0.001) prevented the increase in NOS, NO, TNF-α and caspase-3 due to KA.

    CONCLUSION: Results of this study clearly demonstrated that the propolis supplementation attenuated the NOS, caspase-3 activities, NO, and TNF-α concentration and in KA mediated excitotoxicity. Hence propolis can be a possible potential protective agent against excitotoxicity and neurodegenerative disorders.

    Matched MeSH terms: Propolis/pharmacology*
  18. Nna VU, Bakar ABA, Mohamed M
    Life Sci, 2018 Oct 15;211:40-50.
    PMID: 30205096 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2018.09.018
    AIMS: Hepatic oxidative stress and weak antioxidant defence system resulting in hepatic lesion, has been reported in diabetic rats. The present study investigated the possible hepatoprotective effects of Malaysian propolis (MP) in diabetic rats, on the background that MP has been reported to have anti-hyperglycemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, namely: normal control (NC), diabetic control (DC), diabetic on 300 mg/kg b.w. MP, diabetic on 300 mg/kg b.w. metformin, and diabetic on MP and metformin combined therapy. Treatment was done orally for 4 weeks, and NC and DC groups received distilled water as vehicle.

    KEY FINDINGS: Results showed increased fasting blood glucose and serum markers of hepatic lesion (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase), increased hepatic lactate dehydrogenase activity, decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities, increased immunoexpressions of nuclear factor kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin(IL)-1β and caspase-3, and decreased immunoexpressions of IL-10 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the liver of DC group. Histopathology of the liver revealed numerous hepatocytes with pyknotic nuclei and inflammatory infiltration, while periodic acid-schiff staining decreased in the liver of DC group. Treatment with MP attenuated these negative effects and was comparable to metformin. Furthermore, these effects were better attenuated in the combined therapy-treated diabetic rats.

    SIGNIFICANCE: Malaysian propolis attenuates hepatic lesion in DM and exerts a synergistic protective effect with the anti-hyperglycemic medication, metformin.

    Matched MeSH terms: Propolis/therapeutic use*
  19. Ong TH, Chitra E, Ramamurthy S, Ling CCS, Ambu SP, Davamani F
    PLoS One, 2019;14(2):e0213079.
    PMID: 30818374 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0213079
    Staphylococcus epidermidis, is a common microflora of human body that can cause opportunistic infections associated with indwelling devices. It is resistant to multiple antibiotics necessitating the need for naturally occurring antibacterial agents. Malaysian propolis, a natural product obtained from beehives exhibits antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties. Chitosan-propolis nanoparticles (CPNP) were prepared using Malaysian propolis and tested for their effect against S. epidermidis. The cationic nanoparticles depicted a zeta potential of +40 and increased the net electric charge (zeta potential) of S. epidermidis from -17 to -11 mV in a concentration-dependent manner whereas, ethanol (Eth) and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts of propolis further decreased the zeta potential from -17 to -20 mV. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) depicted that CPNP effectively disrupted biofilm formation by S. epidermidis and decreased viability to ~25% compared to Eth and EA with viability of ~60-70%. CPNP was more effective in reducing the viability of both planktonic as well as biofilm bacteria compared to Eth and EA. At 100 μg/mL concentration, CPNP decreased the survival of biofilm bacteria by ~70% compared to Eth or EA extracts which decreased viability by only 40%-50%. The morphology of bacterial biofilm examined by scanning electron microscopy depicted partial disruption of biofilm by Eth and EA extracts and significant disruption by CPNP reducing bacterial number in the biofilm by ~90%. Real time quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression in treated bacteria showed that genes involved in intercellular adhesion such as IcaABCD, embp and other related genes were significantly downregulated by CPNP. In addition to having a direct inhibitory effect on the survival of S. epidermidis, CPNP showed synergism with the antibiotics rifampicin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and doxycycline suggestive of effective treatment regimens. This would help decrease antibiotic treatment dose by at least 4-fold in combination therapies thereby opening up ways of tackling antibiotic resistance in bacteria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Propolis/administration & dosage*
  20. Abubakar MB, Abdullah WZ, Sulaiman SA, Ang BS
    PMID: 24772179 DOI: 10.1155/2014/371730
    Propolis (a bee product) which has a long history of medicinal use by humans has attracted a great deal of research interest in the recent time; this is due to its widely reported biological activities such as antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Crude form of propolis and its phenolic contents have both been reported to exhibit antileukaemic effects in various leukaemia cell lines. The ability of the polyphenols found in propolis to arrest cell cycle and induce apoptosis and differentiation in addition to inhibition of cell growth and proliferation makes them promising antileukaemic agents, and hence, they are believed to be a key to the antileukaemic effects of propolis in different types of leukaemia. This paper reviews the molecular bases of antileukaemic activity of both crude propolis and individual polyphenols on various leukaemia cell lines, and it indicates that propolis has the potential to be used in both treatment and prevention of leukaemia. This however needs further evaluation by in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies as well as clinical trials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Propolis
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