METHODS: EEP was obtained by maceration with absolute ethanol, then it was concentrated in rotaevaporator up to complete evaporation of the solvent. The crude extract was fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol and they were subjected to phytochemical screening and total phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity of EEP and fractions was done by means of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Biomarkers of red propolis were identified by LC-Orbitrap-FTMS. To assess cytotoxic activity of the extract, cells were exposed to EEP over 72 h. Cell viability was assessed by means of MTT assay. The percentage of cell growth inhibition (IC50) was analysed by means of non-linear regression, and the absorbance values of the various investigated concentrations were subjected to one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's or Tamhane's tests (α = 0.05).
RESULTS: The results obtained using phytochemical screening and LC-Orbitrap-FTMS indicated the presence of phlobaphene tannins, catechins, chalcones, aurones, flavonones, flavonols, xanthones, pentacyclic triterpenoids and guttiferones in Brazilian red propolis. EEP and its hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions obtained by liquid-liquid partitioning exhibited satisfactory antioxidant percentages. EEP (IC50
SCOPE AND APPROACH: In this paper, the effects of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on different metabolic diseases, cancers, and other diseases have been reviewed. The modes of actions of these products have also been illustrated for purposes of better understanding.
KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: An overview of honey, propolis, and royal jelly and their biological potentials was highlighted. The potential health benefits of honey, such as microbial inhibition, wound healing, and its effects on other diseases, are described. Propolis has been reported to have various health benefits related to gastrointestinal disorders, allergies, and gynecological, oral, and dermatological problems. Royal jelly is well known for its protective effects on reproductive health, neurodegenerative disorders, wound healing, and aging. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms of action of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on the abovementioned diseases and activities have not been not fully elucidated, and further research is warranted to explain their exact contributions.
METHODS: Forty female rats were randomly assigned into five groups (n = 8/group) i.e. non-DM (non-diabetes), DM (diabetes), DM + Propolis (diabetes on propolis orally); DM + Insulin (diabetes on insulin subcutaneously) and DM + Combined (diabetes on propolis and insulin) groups. Propolis and insulin were given at 300 mg/kg/day orally and 5.0 IU/kg/day subcutaneously, respectively, for 4 weeks.
RESULTS: Fasting blood glucose, conception period, implantation losses, foetal blood glucose and placental oxidative stress markers such as malonaldehyde and protein carbonyl were significantly higher while maternal weight gain, foetal body weight and total antioxidant capacity were significantly lower in DM group compared with non-DM group. These changes were significantly improved in rats treated with propolis or insulin alone with greater significant effects in rats treated with both propolis and insulin.
CONCLUSION: This study may suggest the protective effects of propolis against DM-induced impaired pregnancy outcomes and placental oxidative stress with greater effects when combined with insulin.
Objective: Therefore, this study aimed to identify the antibacterial activity of Malaysian Meliponini honey which contained non-hydrogen peroxide against Staphylococcus aureus, an opportunistic microbial.
Materials and Methods: Meliponini honey was used as an antibacterial agent for the treatment of S. aureus in agar well diffusion assay. An amplex red hydrogen peroxide kit was used to identify the hydrogen peroxide in the honey sample. Meanwhile, non-hydrogen peroxide activity was performed by using honey-catalase treated.
Results: For the first time, we found that hydrogen peroxide was absent in all Meliponini honey samples. Meliponini honey has higher antibacterial activity (13.30 ± 0.56mm) compared to Apis honey (9.03 ± 0.22mm) in agar well diffusion assay.
Discussion: Non-hydrogen peroxide in Meliponini honey is a bioactive compound and beneficial to kill the microbial infection.
Conclusion: Antibacterial activity of Malaysian Meliponini honey is directly contributed by non-hydrogen peroxide.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups; Control group and KA group received vehicle and saline. Propolis group and propolis + KA group were orally administered with propolis (150mg/kg body weight), five times every 12 hours. KA group and propolis + KA group were injected subcutaneously with kainic acid (15mg/kg body weight) and were sacrificed after 2 hrs and CC, CB and BS were separated homogenized and used for estimation of GS activity, NO, TBARS, and TAS concentrations by colorimetric methods. Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, reported as mean + SD from 6 animals, and p<0.05 considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: NO was increased (p< 0.001) and GS activity was decreased (p< 0.001) in KA treated group compared to control group as well as propolis + KA treated group. TBARS was decreased and TAS was increased (p< 0.001) in propolis + KA treated group compared KA treated group.
CONCLUSION: This study clearly demonstrated the restoration of GS activity, NO levels and decreased oxidative stress by propolis in kainic acid mediated excitotoxicity. Hence the propolis can be a possible potential candidate (protective agent) against excitotoxicity and neurodegenerative disorders.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n=6 rats per group) as Control, KA, Propolis and KA+Propolis. The control group and KA group have received vehicle and saline. Propolis group and propolis + KA group were orally administered with propolis (150 mg/kg body weight), five times every 12 hours. KA group and propolis +KA group were injected subcutaneously with kainic acid (15 mg/kg body weight) and were sacrificed after 2 hrs. CC, CB and BS were separated, homogenized and used for estimation of NOS, caspase-3, NO and TNF-α by commercial kits. Results were analyzed by one way ANOVA, reported as mean + SD (n=6 rats), and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: The concentration of NO, TNF-α, NOS and caspase-3 activity were increased significantly (p<0.001) in all the three brain regions tested in KA group compared to the control. Propolis supplementation significantly (p<0.001) prevented the increase in NOS, NO, TNF-α and caspase-3 due to KA.
CONCLUSION: Results of this study clearly demonstrated that the propolis supplementation attenuated the NOS, caspase-3 activities, NO, and TNF-α concentration and in KA mediated excitotoxicity. Hence propolis can be a possible potential protective agent against excitotoxicity and neurodegenerative disorders.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, namely: normal control (NC), diabetic control (DC), diabetic on 300 mg/kg b.w. MP, diabetic on 300 mg/kg b.w. metformin, and diabetic on MP and metformin combined therapy. Treatment was done orally for 4 weeks, and NC and DC groups received distilled water as vehicle.
KEY FINDINGS: Results showed increased fasting blood glucose and serum markers of hepatic lesion (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase), increased hepatic lactate dehydrogenase activity, decreased hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities, increased immunoexpressions of nuclear factor kappa B, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin(IL)-1β and caspase-3, and decreased immunoexpressions of IL-10 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the liver of DC group. Histopathology of the liver revealed numerous hepatocytes with pyknotic nuclei and inflammatory infiltration, while periodic acid-schiff staining decreased in the liver of DC group. Treatment with MP attenuated these negative effects and was comparable to metformin. Furthermore, these effects were better attenuated in the combined therapy-treated diabetic rats.
SIGNIFICANCE: Malaysian propolis attenuates hepatic lesion in DM and exerts a synergistic protective effect with the anti-hyperglycemic medication, metformin.